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研究生:袁又宸
研究生(外文):Yu-Chen Yuan
論文名稱:桃竹地區水域污染之調查及重金屬鎘對多齒新米蝦(Neocaridinadenticulata)之毒性研究
論文名稱(外文):nvestigation of Water Pollution in Taoyuan and Hsinchu Aera and Toxic Effects of Cadmium on the Freshwater Shrimp Neocaridina denticulata
指導教授:陳弘成陳弘成引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hon-Cheng Chen
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:動物學研究研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:120
中文關鍵詞:水污染多齒新米蝦毒性
外文關鍵詞:Neocaridina denticulataWater PollutionCadmium
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台灣由於地理與氣候上的特殊性,使得各地的環境都有釵h變化,而這也增加了環境調查與監測上的困難度。在桃園海域,有機氯農藥的調查分析結果顯示,只有p,p’-DDD和p,p’-DDE被偵測到,可見在經過了數十年的管制禁用後,沉積在底泥中的污染物仍有進入食物鏈的機會。而重金屬在西部海域的流布情況,仍以鹿港、王本P口湖地區的銅、鋅污染最為顯著,特別是藉由牡蠣的累積來作為長期環境監測指標,由釵h研究已獲證實確有可行性,特別是牡蠣的外套膜和鰓部的累積情況最具代表性。而從當地的河口底泥重金屬含量分析結果來看,應是長期污染所累積造成的,只要受到擾動或是水流的沖刷,就可能重新釋出而進入食物鏈,其對人體健康的潛在威脅實不可忽視。
至於陸地水域的生物指標則以多齒新米蝦(Neocaridina denticulata)為代表,對其進行鎘之急、慢性毒性影響試驗。鎘對多齒新米蝦之毒性影響因水中金屬濃度、溫度及暴露時間的不同而有所差異,在16℃及26℃下之96小時半致死濃度分別為0.09355 ( 0.04839-0.17024 ) 及0.02749 ( 0.01818-0.04055 )mg/L,而其毒性則是濃度愈高,暴露時間愈間長,溫度愈高,則產生的毒性也愈大。
蝦體的成長、抱卵數及卵之孵化率明影受到鎘之影響而遭受抑制。當多齒新米蝦的卵直接暴露於1.0μg/L的鎘溶液中五天,則其孵化率僅有55.8%±5.8%,相較於對照組的90.6%±3.3%明顯低了釵h。至於試驗組中的蝦體長成後,其母蝦的抱卵數平均為14.4±1.5顆,也較實驗組的24.4±1.1顆少了釵h。而試驗組之耗氧量在試驗初期隨鎘之濃度升高而升高。而溫度升高時,耗氧量也較高。
經由組織切片的觀察,鎘會對鰓及肝胰臟之組織產生影響,在鰓為表皮細胞肥大、增生,在肝胰臟則會產生釵h空泡。至於組織因鎘毒害而受到的損傷,在將試驗組移至清水蓄養後所觀察查到的切片顯示,其並無明顯的復原現象,顯示鎘一旦進入蝦體後,要再將其排除是相當困難的,這個結果與在「累積與排除」試驗中所得到的結果相當吻合。
台灣目前依「地面水體分類及水質標準」(行政院環境保護署, 1993)的規定,水體中的鎘含量不得超過10μg/L,但由本研究中所獲得的數據顯示,當水中鎘的濃度為1.0μg/L時,已會對多齒新米蝦的成長、抱卵數及卵之孵化率造成負面的影響,因此考量慢性毒性影響的結果下,建議水質標準的安全劑量應不超過1.0μg/L為宜。


摘 要……………………………………………………………… 1
引 言……………………………………………………………… 3
第一章 北部桃竹水域污染調查
一、前言……………………………………………………… 8
二、材料與方法………………………………………………13
三、結果與討論………………………………………………17
四、結論與建議………………………………………………26
第二章 鎘對多齒新米蝦的急慢性毒性研究
一、前言………………………………………………………29
二、材料與方法………………………………………………38
三、結果………………………………………………………46
四、討論………………………………………………………51
五、結論………………………………………………………54
參考文獻……………………………………………………………55
表……………………………………………………………………69
圖……………………………………………………………………99
附件…………………………………………………………………109


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