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研究生:邵靖惠
研究生(外文):Jing-Huey Shao
論文名稱:產品新增屬性之特質與產品典型性對消費者評價之影響
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of New Attributes Characteristics and Typicality on Consumer Evaluation
指導教授:張重昭張重昭引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chung-Chau Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:商學研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:一般商業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:61
中文關鍵詞:典型性產品屬性
外文關鍵詞:product attributetypicality
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在如此一個追求品質的時代,品質的定義除了在其弁鄐完�顯及效率之穩定上,今應延伸到產品的整體價值的提升,以及設計的美感。研究指出,消費者是否接受某項產品,與其設計優良與否具有相當高之關係。故本研究試圖探討消費者在面臨不同屬性的產品下,對於新增弁鄔囥峸T樂性屬性與典型性之評價的關係為何。本研究採取二乘三兩組二因子受試者內之實驗設計,經分析後之可得之研究結論如下:
(一)在維持弁鄔囥峸T樂性主產品之典型性之情形下,消費者對於新增弁鄔岉搣吨妓ㄚ~皆較新增娛樂性屬性者持有利之評價。此可供因技術上或成本上考量而不欲改變產品外形設計之廠商作為參考。
(二)在弁鄔吤D產品新增娛樂性屬性時,應無庸避免外顯其新增屬性之典型性,若改變其典型性並不會發生負面影響;而在新增弁鄔岉搣坋氶A則應盡量保持主產品原有之典型性,以不造成消費者認知上的負擔為前提;若技術上不得已而需將屬性外顯時,則需藉由主產品及新增屬性典型性的改變,來使得消費者能夠對該產品產生新的基模去理解之。
(三)至於娛樂性產品新增娛樂性屬性之情形,則應力求外顯其娛樂性,並忌改變其產品之典型性,因為此改變所帶來的負向效果相當大,甚至超過了改變弁鄔妦ㄚ~新增弁鄔岉搣坋氻夾憳洸吨坏縝V效果;而娛樂性產品引入弁鄔岉搣吨妤“峞A亦需注意不可外顯新增屬性之典型性。至於改變主產品及新增屬性之典型性之情形,則並未有較有利之評價。
以今時今日的技術水準,產品要結合新屬性已非難事,難的在於如何在眾家爭鳴、琳瑯滿目的新產品中脫穎而出,得到消費者的青睞;或甚至節省比其他企業較低的成本卻能反而得到較佳的反應、較高的利潤,進而提升企業長年來之品牌價值或整體形象,即成為各個企業刻不容緩注意並值得採行之課題。


In this quality-pursuing era, the definition of quality not only refers to showing forth the capability, the maintenance of the efficiency, but the whole value of the product and its aesthetic design. According to the prior research, whether a consumer will accept certain products, it relates highly with the aesthetic perception of the design. Consequently, this research attempts to probe into the relation between the evaluation of typicality and of different types of new attributes when the consumer faces new products. We use two-way within-subjects ANOVA in the research. After the analyses we can conclude that:
1. When the product remains its typicality, the consumer will have more favorable evaluation of the product with a new functional attribute than the product with a new hedonic attribute. The discovery can be used as a reference to the manufacturer who aren’t able to change the appearance of the product because of the technique or the cost.
2. When a functional product adds a new hedonic attribute, it’s not necessary to avoid manifesting its typicality of the new attribute. And there won’t be any negative effect if changing its typicality. Conversely, when a functional new product adds a new functional attribute, it should maintain the typicality of the original product as possible as it could in order not to increase the consumer’s cognitive burden. If it is because of technical problem which makes it no alternative but to manifest its new functional attribute, then the change of typicality would be necessary, which lets the consumer are able to arouse new schema to interpret the product.
3. As for the situation of a hedonic product adding a new hedonic attribute, the hedonic typicality should be manifested as possible as the designer could. And the manufacturer should be especially aware that he should not change the typicality of the product and the new attribute. Because the negative effect could be very significant, even exceeds the positive effect of the functional product adding a new functional attribute and changing its typicality.
In today’s technology level, it’s not difficult to make the products add new attributes. Nevertheless, it’s difficult to make the product excel than others and therefore be liked by consumers, even save more cost and gain better responses. Furthermore, a good product design and strategy could raise the company’s brand value or overall image. This becomes an issue that every enterprise should notice immediately and take action on it.


目錄
壹、緒論 4
一、研究動機 4
二、研究目的 5
貳、文獻探討 7
一、產品屬性之相關研究 7
二、典型性之相關研究 8
三、評價之兩條路徑:認知與情感回應 10
參、研究方法 12
一、主要研究架構 12
二、研究假設 13
三、變數的定義與衡量 17
四、研究設計 18
肆、研究結果 28
一、信度分析 28
二、假設檢定 28
伍、結論與建議 37
一、研究結論 37
二、行銷實務涵義 38
三、實驗限制 41
四、未來研究方向 42
陸、參考文獻 43
一、中文部分 43
二、外文部分 43
附錄一:第一次前測問卷 47
附錄二:第二次前測問卷 49
附錄三:正式問卷 52


一、中文部分
李毓芳,購買決策情境對產品屬性選擇偏好之影響,台灣大學商學研究所碩士論文,民國89年6月。
林詩硯,產品屬性與銷售方案建構方式對消費者行為之影響,台灣大學商學研究所碩士論文,民國91年6月。
陳俊傑,訊息典型性、訊息正反性與認知需求與消費者品牌態度之影響,台灣大學商學研究所碩士論文,民國90年6月。
張凱雲,產品特殊屬性與共同屬性對消費者選擇之影響,台灣大學商學研究所碩士論文,民國89年6月。
廖本哲,消費者對於產品屬性漏失值推論行為之研究,台灣大學商學研究所博士論文,民國92年7月。

二、外文部分
Batra, Rajeev and Olli T. Ahtola (1990) “Measuring the Hedonic and Utiliatarian Sources of Consumer Attitudes”, Marketing Letters, 2(2). 159-70.
Berlyne, D. E. (1974a), “The New Experimental Aesthetics”, in Studies in the New Experimental Aesthetics, David E. Berlyne, ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1-25.
――――――(1974b), “Novelty, Complexity and Interestingness,” in Studies in the New Experimental Aesthetics, David E. Berlyne, ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 175-80.
Bloch, Peter H.(1995),“Seeking the Ideal Form: Product Design and Consumer Response”, Journal of Marketing Research, 59(July), 16-29.
Bradstatter, Eduard and Willy C. Kriz(2001), “Hedonic Intensity of Disappointment and Elation”, The Journal of Psychology 135(4), 368-80.
Dhar. Ravi and Klaus Wertenbroch,(2000) “Consumer Choice Between Hedonic and Utilitarian Goods”, Journal of Marketing Research, 37(Feb), 60-71.
Hirschman, Elizabeth C., and Morris B. Holbrook(1982) “Hedonic Consumption: Emerging Concepts, Methods and Propositions”, Journal of Marketing 46(Summer), 92-101.
Hekkert, Paul, Dirk Snelders and Piet C. W. van Wieringen(2003), “’Most advanced, yet acceptable’: Typicality and novelty as joint predictors of aesthetic preference in industrial design”, British Journal of Psychology 94(Feb), 111-24.
Holbrook, Morris and Elizabeth Hirschman, (1982) “ The Experimental Aspects of Consumption Consumer Fantasies, Feelings, and Fun,” Journal of Consumer Research 9, 132-40.
Kahn Barbara E. and Robert J. Meyer(1991), “Consumer Multiattribute Judgements under Attribute-Weight Uncertainty”, Journal of Consumer Research 17(Mar), 508-22.
Kempf, DeAnna S.(1999), “Attitude Formation from Product Trial: Distinct Roles of Cognition and Affect for Hedonic and Functional Products”, Psychology & Marketing 16(Jan), 35-50.
Loken, Barbara and James Ward(1990), “Alternative Approaches to Understanding the Determinants of Typicality”, Journal of Consumer Research, 17(Sep) 361-367.
Meyers-Levy, Joan and Alice M. Tybout(1989), Schema Congruity as a Basis for Product Evaluation”, Journal of Consumer Research 16(Jun), 39-54.
Olshavsky, Richard W. and Richard A. Spreng(1996), “An Exploratory Study of the Innovation Evaluation Process”, Journal of Product Innovation Management 13, 512-29.
Rosch, Eleanor and Carolyn B. Mervis (1975), “Family Resemblances: Studies in the Internal Structure of Categories,” Cognitive Psychology 7(Oct), 573-605.
Rosch, Eleanor and Carolyn B. Mervis (1981), “Categorization of Natural Objects,” Annual Review of Psychology 32, 89-115.
Shiv, Baba and Alexander Fedorikhin(1999), “Heart and Mind in Conflict: The Interplay of Affect and Cognition in Consumer Decision Making”, Journal of Consumer Research 26(Dec), 278-92.
Tversky, Amos (1977), “Features of Similarity,” Psychological Review 84(Jul), 327-52.
Wendy W. Moe and Peter S. Fader(2001), “Modeling Hedonic Portfolio Products: A Joint Segmentation Analysis of Music Compact Disc Sales” Journal of Marketing Research 38, 376-385.
Venkatraman, Meera P. and Linda L. Price(1990), “Differentiating Between Cognitive and Sensory Innovativeness-Concepts, Measurement, and Implications”, Journal of Business Research 20, 293-315.
Ziamou, Paschalina(Lilia)and S. Ratneshwar(2003), “Innovations in Product Functionality: When and Why Are Explicit Comparisons Effective?”, Journal of Marketing Research 67(Apr), 49-61.



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