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研究生:吳宇菁
研究生(外文):Yu-Ching Wu
論文名稱:數位權利管理系統架構的競爭策略
論文名稱(外文):Competitive Strategy of Digital Rights Management Systems
指導教授:江炯聰江炯聰引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:商學研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:一般商業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:97
中文關鍵詞:數位權利管理系統系統競爭網路效果
外文關鍵詞:network effectDigital Rights Management Sytems
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Napster對於音樂發行業者所帶來的巨大衝擊,不得不讓這個先前是靠實體零售商店為主要通路的產業開始正視網路此一虛擬的通路。但是數位產品脫離載體的限制造成可輕易複製、傳送的特性卻又讓消費者和發行業中對於「合理使用」的定義漸行漸遠。為了重拾雙方的共識並讓數位音樂可以擺脫非法的陰影而成為真正的市場,數位權利管理系統(Digital Rights Management System)就順勢的出現了。目前以數位音樂檔案的使用作為管理對象的DRM系統領導廠商共有四家,分別是蘋果電腦的FairPlay、新力的OpenMG、RealNetworks的Helix與微軟的Windows Media DRM。

本論文首先將利用系統架構的理論來分析DRM系統,並進而推導出握有DRM系統架構的領導者可從系統的啟動性技術、應用階層等層面著手,直接訴諸系統的使用者來刺激對於其系統的需求;也可以透過參與標準組織以及發展軟體等平台等的方式從供給面著手來爭取其系統安裝基礎的擴大。雖然這四家領導者廠商均視其本身的能力與所擁有的資源來選擇不同的擴散策略,但因為微軟將DRM系統定位在延續其視窗作業平台在個人電腦以及利用網際網路作為傳輸層的硬體環境中既有優勢的策略性產品,所以其他三家廠商只能退而求其次,利用DRM系統定位的差別爭取和微軟共存的機會。在沒有和微軟的目標直接衝突、而且還可以一起「做大數位音樂市場」(make the pie bigger)進而提高對DRM系統需求的考量下,數位音樂的市場上會有足夠的空間讓一家以上的DRM系統同時存在。


The Napster phenomenon has brought great impact on the music Labels and these companies are now seriously considering Internet as an additional channel to the physical one which dominated most music sales before. The proliferation of Napster-like service has made it more than clear that digital music is just like an unstoppable train, and the days of stamping out albums by the million, stacking discs in record shops, and then ringing up huge profits are over.

But technology has imposed two inflection points on the digital music industry: The first was putting content in digital format, as opposed to physical forms such as tape and CD. Digital content can be copied with perfect fidelity. Unlike in legacy media, a copy of a copy of a copy of a copy is just as good as the original. The second point is the Internet, by which digital content can be sent from place to place instantaneously and extremely cheaply.

For these two reasons, there is widening gap between Labels and consumers in terms of the definition for “fair use”. Restoring the consense among sellers and buyers in this regard is the first step to establish a digital music industry with a real future, and this is why Digital Rights Management Systems come in for help. There are four non-interoperable DRM systems presently on the market- FairPlay from Apple Computer, OpenMG from Sony, Helix from RealNetworks, and Windows Media DRM from Microsoft.

This thesis will see the competitions between DRM systems as architectural competitions, so the company who holds the architecture of the system is the one responsible for forming the competitive strategy to win more install-bases, and usually there are two ways it could start with. The

first one is that the architecture-leader can boost the market demand for their systems by pushing the side where system users stand, either by activating the direct network effect from obtaining more installation or by the indirect network effect through raising the utility users can gain from using the system. The second one focuses on the supply side instead. By participating in relevant standard bodies and offering a software platform solution, the architecture leader can outpace its competitors in building a larger install-base through ubiquitous access to its system.

Apple Computer, Sony, RealNetworks, and Microsoft, these four DRM system architectural leader companies have chosen different competitive strategies according to its own unique strength and the resource it has. Since Microsoft has positioned its DRM system as a strategic product to extend its existing dominance in Personal Computer to more mobile devices with connections to the Internet and to other PCs, in view with Microsoft’s huge war chest, the rest companies should go after the a second goal as the major alternative to Microsoft. By differentiating their DRM system offerings, and avoiding a direct collision with Microsoft’s product, Apple, Sony and RealNetwork still have the chance to coexist with Microsoft in the DRM market.

For example, Apple and Sony use a lead/proprietary standard strategy and they do not license their technology to any third party developers or manufacturers. These two DRM systems are positioned to boost the hardware (portable digital music player) sales, thus a DRM system is more like a means than an ultimate goal to Apple and Sony. As for RealNetworks, its streaming technology has led it to choose a DRM market where most client devices have limited storage space, or where end users do not want to download the content, such as the emerging digital movie industry. For Microsoft, one of the benefits about having a rivary system to compete with is that the competition is very likely to make the digital music market bigger. As for content providers and service provider, in order for them to relish the thought of their business becoming heavily dependent on a standard that Microsoft has total control, there will be some room for another major player who can gain their trust and build innovative content services that bring value to consumers.

第一章緒論..... 1
1.1 研究背景..... 1
1.2 研究動機. ..... 2
1.3 研究範圍定義. .....4
1.4 問題定義..... 5
1.5 研究方法..... 5
1.6 研究架構..... 6
第二章文獻探討....... 7
2.1 系統產品的定義.......7
2.2 系統產品的架構類型..... 9
2.3 系統架構標準的競爭.......11
2.3.1 標準競爭的要素.......11
2.3.2 技術標準.......14
2.3.3 介面標準.......15
2.3.3.1 介面標準的競爭策略.......16
2.3.3.2 架構標準建立後的競爭策略.......18
2.4 系統產品的擴散.......18
2.4.1 網路效應與系統產品.......19
2.4.2 網路效應與關鍵數量.......21
2.4.3 系統擴散的機制.......22
2.4.3.1 應用階層之擴散....... 23
2.4.3.2 啟動性階層之擴散.......25
2.4.3.3 小結....... 27
2.5 本章總結......28
第三章數位權利管理(DRM)系統.......29
3.1「數位權利管理」的定義.......29
3.1.1 前Napster 時代.......29
3.1.2 後Napster 時代.......30
3.1.3 權利的來源.......31
3.1.4 針對「非消費者」的授權.......32
3.1.5 針對「消費者」的授權.......33
3.1.6 小結.......35
3.2 權利模型的設計.......35
3.2.1 數位權利的種類.......35
3.2.2 數位權利的屬性.......37
3.2.3 完整的數位權利模型.......38
3.2.4 小結.......40
3.3 「DRM 系統」的定義....... 40
3.3.1 DRM 系統的功能要素.......41
3.3.1.1 數位加密技術.......41
3.3.1.2 權利表達語言(Rights Expression Language) .......42
3.3.2 數位權利管理系統的發展.......44
3.3.3 完整的DRM 解決方案....... 45
3.3.4 數位權利管理子系統.......47
3.3.4.1 內容保護暨下載管理子系統.......48
3.3.4.2 授權管理子系統....... 48
3.3.4.3 數位權利執行子系統.......48
3.3.5 數位權利管理系統運作流程. .......52
3.4 DRM 系統市場現況.......53
3.4.1 蘋果電腦-FairPlay....... 54
3.4.2 新力-OpenMG.......55
3.4.3 RealNetworks-Helix.......56
3.4.4. 微軟-Windows Media DRM.......58
3.4.5 小結.......60
3.5 本章總結.......61
第四章數位權利管理(DRM)系統架構之競爭策略....... 62
4.1 完整的DRM 系統....... 62
4.2 DRM 系統的關鍵價值....... 63
4.3 從啟動性技術看DRM 系統之擴散....... 64
4.3.1 發行業者....... 65
4.3.2 銷售者....... 66
4.3.3 消費者....... 67
4.3.4 可攜式硬體製造商....... 67
4.3.5 小結....... 69
4.4 從應用階層看DRM 系統之擴散....... 71
4.4.1 DRM 系統的互補品定義....... 71
4.4.2 增加專屬性互補品的供給來源....... 73
4.4.3 爭取專屬互補品的使用者權限....... 74
4.4.4 提供專屬互補品的同儕互薦功能....... 75
4.4.5 小結....... 76
4.5 從標準制定看DRM 系統之擴散....... 77
4.6 從軟體平台看DRM 系統之擴散....... 79
4.7 個案說明....... 80
4.7.1 蘋果電腦的競爭策略....... 80
4.7.2 新力(Sony)的競爭策略........81
4.7.3 RealNetworks 的競爭策略....... 83
4.7.4 Microsoft 的競爭策略....... 84
4.8 本章總結....... 87
第五章結論與建議....... 88
5.1 研究結論.......88
5.2 研究限制.......91
5.3 研究建議與後續.......92
附錄:我國關於科技保護措施之法律規定.......93
參考文獻.......95


中文部分
1.陳勇維(1997),資訊產品之架構標準策略,國立台灣大學商學研究所碩士論文
2.盧俊成(1998),網際網路的典範轉移暨網路市場與新經營模式之探索性研究,國立台灣大學商學研究所博士論文
3.葉淑瑜(1999),產品相容性,網路外部性,與行銷策略,國立台灣大學商學研究所博士論文
4.洪嘉良(2000),系統產品之架構競爭與擴散機制-以無線通訊系統為例,國立台灣大學商學研究所博士論文
5.陳慶蔚(2002),網路系統架構之競爭策略-以Web Service和Microsoft. net為例,國立台灣大學商學研究所碩士論文

英文部分
1.Christensen, C. M. & Raynor, M. (2003). The Innovator''s Solution: Creating and Sustaining Successful Growth . Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
2.Duhl, J. (2003). Worldwide Digital Rights Management Forecast and Analysis, 2002-2007. IDC #29409
3.Grindley, Peter, Standards, Strategy, and Policy, Oxford University Press, 1995
4.Katz, Michael L. and Carl Shapiro (1994), System Competition and Network Effect, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol.8, Issue 2, pp.93-115
5.Lyon, G. E. (2002). A Quick-Reference List of Organizations and Standards for Digital Rights Management. National Institute of Standards and Technology Special Publication 500-241
6.Moore, Geoffrey. (1995) Crossing the Chasm - and Beyond," Inside the Tornado, Chapter 2, Harper Collins, pp. 13-26.
7.Rosenblatt, W. B., Trippe, W. & Mooney, S. (2001). Digital rights management : business and technology. Indianapolis, IN: Hungry Minds, Inc..
8.Shapiro, Carl and Hal R. Varian, Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 1998
9.Vaidhyanathan, S. (2003). Copyrights and Copywrongs: The Rise of Intellectual Property and How It Threatens Creativity. New York : University Press.

網站資料
1.All Streaming Media (2003). MP4 streaming FAQ. Retrieved June 9, 2004 from http://all-streaming-media.com/streaming-media-faq/faq-mp4-streaming.htm
2.Borland, J. (2003). Stalemate on digital content? . Retrieved April 11, 2004 from http://news.com.com/2100-1025-5103601.html
3.Foley, M. J. (2003). Microsoft Readies Cross-Product DRM Platform . Retrieved April 27, 2004 from http://www.microsoft-watch.com/article2/0,1995,1505
904,00.asp
4.Foreman, K. (2004). Helix Player vs. RealPlayer 10 . Retrieved June 14, 2004 from https://helixcommunity.org/forum/forum.php?forum_id=65
5.Lettice, J. (2004). MS hawks vision of DRM future. Retrieved May 17, 2004 from http://www.theregister.co.uk/2004/05/04/ms_drm2_rollout/
6.Loomis , J. (2002). Adding Windows Media Support with the Windows Media Format 9 Series SDK. Retrieved May 5, 2004 from http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/enus/dnwmt/html/addingwindowsmediasupportwiththewindowsmediaformat
7.Microsoft Corporation (2004). Architecture of Windows Media Rights Manager. Retrieved April 7, 2004 from http://www.microsoft.com/windows/windowsmedia/
howto/articles/drmarchitecture.aspx
8.Naraine, R. (2003). Microsoft Pits Windows Media 9 Vs. MPEG-4 . Retrieved April 25, 2004 from http://www.internetnews.com/ent-news/article.php/1565111
9.Rose, F. (2003). The Civil War Inside Sony . Retrieved May 29, 2004 from http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/
11.02/sony_pr.html
10.Rosenblatt, B. (2003). Content Reference Forum Launches and Releases Spec . Retrieved March 21, 2004 from http://www.drmwatch.com/standards/article.php
/3287401
12.Salkever, A. (2004). Apple + HP = iPod Forever. Retrieved April 11, 2004 from http://www.businessweek.com/
technology/content/jan2004/tc20040114
13.Skinner, J. (2004). Protecting Audio and Video Content with Digital Rights Management. Retrieved May 8, 2004 from http://www.microsoft.com/windows
windowsmedia/howto/articles/DRMProtect.aspx
14.Slater, D. (2004). A Copyfighter''s Musings. Retrieved May 18, 2004 from http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/
cmusings/2004/03/18
15.Wilcox, J. (2003). Microsoft Monitor: Music Matters. Retrieved June 3, 2004 from http://www.microsoftmonitor.com/
archives/001713.html


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