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研究生:陳永耀
研究生(外文):Yung-Yaw Chen
論文名稱:由國家政策與社會趨勢探討台灣電資科技人才流動之現象
論文名稱(外文):Study on the Brain Migrations of Taiwan’s Electronic Industry in terms of National Policy and Social Trend
指導教授:柯承恩柯承恩引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:商學研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:一般商業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:63
中文關鍵詞:人才循環人才回流國防役留學人才培育政策
外文關鍵詞:Brain CirculationReverse Brain DrainNational Defense ServiceStudying AbroadPolicy of Human Resources
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近來,台灣大學電機資訊科系的學生選擇在國內就讀研究所與就業之現象越來越普遍。相較之下,出國留學之趨勢似乎下降到30%的低水平。二十年前,台灣有「人才外流」至美國的現象。許多優秀的人才,如台大電機系每年約有85%的畢業生選擇出國留學並大部份留在留學國發展家庭與事業。然由於「人才回流」與「人才循環」的作用,台灣不但能夠奮力求生,更在九十年代創造了台灣經濟奇蹟。由台灣過去的經驗可知,維持與美國或其他國家之人才流動,對於土地與資源有限之台灣,應該是正確的策略。然而在經濟發展所帶來的富裕生活背後,隱藏了科技人才選擇出國留學之高機會成本,也使得國內之優秀人才基於個人短期經濟利益之考慮,紛紛選擇就讀國內研究所,更進而加入國防役之行列,從而放棄出國留學之選擇。長期而言,台灣之國際競爭力將因此受到極大之影響。
本論文以十個國立大學電機資訊科系為對象,進行問卷調查,主要之目的在探討出國留學意願下降之原因。調查發現,缺乏獎學金補助無法負擔出國留學費用之經濟因素,以及國內研究所低入學門檻是影響電機資訊領域學生在國內就讀研究所之重要原因。此外,國防役之實施更提高了出國留學之機會成本。綜合上述各項因素,造成了學生留在國內發展及出國意願的下降。針對調查之分析結果,本論文亦提出設立留學獎學金之建議以供政策制定之參考。
It is from the observations of the author that the EECS students in National Taiwan University are staying in Taiwan for their graduate studies and professional careers increasingly. The trend of studying abroad, mainly in the US, declined to a pretty low level of roughly 30% of the EECS college graduates. Taiwan was one of the countries which suffered from the “Brain Drain” to the US almost two decades ago. A very significant number of our talents, up to 85% in the EECS of NTU, studied in the US and opted for a better life and career. However, Taiwan survived and achieved a miraculous economic development in the 90’s, owing to at least partially to the phenomenon of “Reverse Brain Drain”. From the past successful experience of Taiwan, it seems to be strategically correct that we maintain a constant brain circulation with the US and other countries. In this thesis, a survey of ten EE and CS departments of national universities in Taiwan is conducted. The objective of the survey is to investigate the possible reasons on the decline of the number of students studying abroad. It is found that the lack of scholarship for financial support is the key factor for the EECS students to study domestically and the increasing number of graduate schools in Taiwan also provides the EECS students with easy access to domestic graduate schools. The four-year defense service then effectively raises the opportunity cost of studying abroad. With all these factors combined, an EECS student is likely to develop his career domestically instead of internationally. Some suggestions are also given to be the reference for policy makings.
目 錄

第一章 緒論.................................................................................................1
第一節 研究動機與目的.................................................................................................1
第二節 研究流程.................................................................................................5
第三節 章節安排.................................................................................................7

第二章 腦力循環現象與經濟發展.................................................................................................8
第一節 腦力流出現象.................................................................................................8
第二節 反向腦力流出與腦力循環理論.................................................................................................10

第三章 留學趨勢之演變與分析.................................................................................................15
第一節 留學趨勢之演變.................................................................................................15
第二節 相關之政策.................................................................................................20
第三節 電機資訊領域大學畢業生之生涯規劃路徑分析.................................................................................................26
第四節 以機會成本分析生涯規劃路徑之最佳解.................................................................................................30

第四章 研究假設方法、範圍與限制.................................................................................................35
第一節 研究假設與分析架構.................................................................................................35
第二節 研究方法.................................................................................................36
第三節 研究範圍與限制.................................................................................................38

第五章 分析與討論.................................................................................................40
第一節 問卷調查結果概述.................................................................................................41
第二節 留學意願的主要影響因素.................................................................................................51

第六章 結論與建議.................................................................................................52
第一節 結語.................................................................................................52
第二節 建議.................................................................................................52

參考文獻.................................................................................................56

附錄.................................................................................................59


表 次

表1-1 國立台灣大學電機工程學系畢業生出國留學比例...........................2
表3-1 歷年出國留學人數統計.....................................................................19
表3-2 我國大學校院校數及學生人數成長分析表.....................................21
表3-3 民國八十至九十一年電機資訊科系大學畢業人數統計.................22
表3-4 九十二年度電機資訊科系碩士班招生名額.....................................22
表3-5 九十三學年度台大電機學群各組碩士班新生來源統計.................24
表3-6 四年平均收入表.................................................................................31
表3-7 不同生涯規劃路徑之收益(以平均值計算).......................................33
表3-8 不同生涯規劃路徑之收益(以高檔值計算).......................................33
表5-1 問卷調查系別與回收份數.................................................................40
表5-2 樣本基本資料分佈.............................................................................41
表5-3 國內求學或就業與出國留學比例.....................................................42


圖 次

圖1-1 研究流程圖...........................................................................................6
圖2-1 1971-1999年間回流台灣之留學生人數...........................................11
圖3-1 1985-2000年間美國外籍學生之分布................................................20
圖3-2 國防科技訓儲人才錄取人數.............................................................25
圖3-3 國防科技訓儲人才專長分布.............................................................29
圖3-4 電機資訊科系畢業生生涯規劃路徑.................................................29
圖5-1 兵役狀態區分.....................................................................................42
圖5-2 生涯規劃路徑分佈.............................................................................43
圖5-3 各校之出國留學分佈百分比.............................................................44
圖5-4 就讀國內研究所之原因.....................................................................44
圖5-5 有意願參加國防役之比例.................................................................45
圖5-6 贊成實施國防役比例.........................................................................45
圖5-7 參加國防役之原因.............................................................................46
圖5-8 碩士階段之出國留學意願.................................................................47
圖5-9 博士階段之出國留學意願.................................................................47
圖5-10 進行出國留學準備...........................................................................47
圖5-11 出國留學意願之調查分析...............................................................48
圖5-12 取消國防役後之生涯規劃路徑分佈...............................................49
圖5-13 政府提供留學獎學金對生涯規劃路徑之影響...............................50
參考文獻

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W. J. Carrington and E. Detragiache, “International migration and the brain drain”, The Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 163-171, Summer 1999.

T.-J. Chen and H.-Y. Sue, “On-the-job training as a cause of brain drain”, Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, Vol. 131, No. 3, pp. 526-541, 1995.

C. Cortes (ed), The Latin American Brain Drain to the United States, Arno Press, New York, NY, 1980.

M. Hekmati, “Non-returning foreign students: why do they not return home?”, Die Dritte Welt, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 25-43, 1973.

C. H. Kao and J. W. Lee, “An empirical analysis of China’s brain drain into the United States”, Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 500-513, 1973.

Q. Li, “China’s brain drain to the United States”, The International Migration Review, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 1128-1129, Winter 1997.

J. A. Mathews, “A Silicon Valley of the East: creating Taiwan’s semiconductor industry”, California Management Review, Vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 26-54, 1997.

B. Naughton (ed.), The China Circle: Economics and Technology in the PRC, Taiwan and Hong Kong, Washington DC: Brookings Institute Press, 1997.

A. Portes, “Global villagers: the rise of transnational communities”, The American Prospect, pp. 74-77, March-April 1996.

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