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研究生:賴允慧
研究生(外文):Yun-Hui Lai
論文名稱:扶桑花扦插繁殖技術之研究
論文名稱(外文):Researches of Cutting Propagation of Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis)
指導教授:張育森張育森引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yu-Sen Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:園藝學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:129
中文關鍵詞:發根溫度發根劑品種底部加溫
外文關鍵詞:rootingcultivarstemperaturebottom heatroot promoters
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扶桑花(Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.)又稱朱槿,為錦葵科(Malvaceae)木槿屬多年生木本花卉,原產中國與東南亞,花期長且花色、花型多變,全世界栽培品種已超過萬種。扶桑花主要以扦插繁殖,但大花與重瓣栽培種發根困難,選穗品質與扦插環境又較不受重視,進而影響插穗後續發育。故本研究探討影響插穗發根之因子,期望能改善扶桑難發根品種的產業問題,並有效提昇扶桑花枝插穗發育品質。
本研究以10品種扶桑花供發根試驗,其中以‘乳斑’扶桑發根速度最快,品質最佳,而‘月光’、‘楓葉’、‘紅球’、‘粉團’、‘諾瑪’、‘玉球’扶桑次之;發根能力較差的則為重瓣種‘金球’扶桑,而大花種的‘美人’扶桑插穗發根與存活品質表現皆最不理想。比較其中7品種扶桑花的生長速度,新梢相對節間生長量以‘乳斑’扶桑最高,其次依序為‘紅球’、‘橙紅’、‘粉團’、‘諾瑪’、‘金球’扶桑,‘美人’扶桑生長速度最慢,葉片相對生長量快慢順序也大致相似。橙紅扶桑單節插穗發根試驗,發根階段數值、發根率與存活率皆以頂梢第2~4節表現較佳,而同一枝條頂梢插穗發根階段數值與根原體發生率則優於基部所取的插穗。在未處理發根劑下,短穗的發根能力優於長穗,根徑卻較細;若處理發根劑則長穗的發根表現比短穗好。此外,將插穗分為長穗、短上(部)穗與短下(部)穗三類型,無發根劑時短上穗的發根速度最快,不定根品質卻以長穗較佳;處理IBA粉劑500 mg/L後,長穗的發根表現最好。比較插穗鮮重對發根的影響,鮮重較重的插穗,插穗莖段乾重較高,不定根較長,單位根乾種也明顯重於輕穗。
扦插季節確實會影響插穗發根的能力與品質。噴霧插床下,夏季扦插‘乳斑’扶桑發根速度最快、單位根乾重也最大;秋季扦插則根數較多。在20/15℃、25/20℃、30/25℃與35/30℃不同日夜溫下扦插‘乳斑’扶桑,25/20℃下扦插發根速度最快,發根數與發根率也最多,但不定根後續發育如根長與根徑,則以30/25℃處理最佳。‘乳斑’扶桑隨著扦插環境溫度越高,根原體發生率、插穗存活率與花芽出現率越低;普通朱槿插穗對環境溫度的反應與‘乳斑’扶桑不同,發根表現大都隨溫度升高而越佳,但高溫反而不利插穗存活。冬季低溫下底部加溫可改善插穗發根能力。隨著底部溫度越高(33℃),普通朱槿的發根階段數值、發根數、發根率與根原體發生率也增加,‘乳斑’扶桑則是在25℃根溫下發根表現較佳,‘橙紅’扶桑表現則與普通朱槿相近。扦插用「粗河沙」與「椰纖」、「真珠石+椰纖」的介質,插穗發根速度與發根數較佳;以「蛭石+真珠石」介質扦插,插穗地上部抽梢率最高,「泥炭土+蛭石」則最不適合扶桑花插穗扦插。
比較發根劑濃度對‘乳斑’插穗發根的影響,隨著IBA處理濃度提高,插穗發根數越多但根徑越細,最適濃度約在2500 mg/L,若超過此濃度則表現恰巧相反。較低濃度(250, 500 mg/L)的NAA液劑處理,插穗發根數隨濃度增加而漸增,但若提高濃度(1000 mg/L)卻會使發根數劇增;而粉劑處理濃度在1000mg/L以下,發根數隨濃度增加而漸增,最適濃度約在800 mg/L。不論液劑或粉劑處理,NAA濃度越高插穗不定根根徑越細。單用2000 mg/L IBA液劑對發根數與根徑最有益,但其與250 mg/L NAA的合劑卻可明顯提高不定根的鮮重。以2000 mg/Kg IBA 粉劑與市售「根毛王」10%液劑處理‘金球’扶桑可提高插穗不定根的表現,且以前者效果較顯著。兩藥劑合劑處理應用在‘橙紅’扶桑長插穗(10~12cm)上發根最快,發根數最多,存活率也最高;短插穗(5~6cm)則以「根毛王」液劑處理發根表現最佳。另外在扦插前去除‘金球’扶桑插穗基部樹皮,可明顯提高發根率,並加速發根。
The hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.) belongs to the family of Malvaceae, is a woody perennial plant, and flowering is by self-induced. Cultivars with variety of flower color and type of hibiscus are over 10,000. Cutting propagation is the most and major method and also in Taiwan. But there are some problems in propagation of special cultivars and selection of right cutting, which are influenced with rooted cutting growth. Therefore, this present study discussed the factors influenced cutting rooting, and it is expected to resolve these problems in commercial production of hibiscus.
The response of cuttings in root formation was determined in 10 cultivars, and different cultivars had different rooting abilities. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis ‘Albo-Strip’ gave the fastest rooting rate and greatest number of roots per cutting, and followed by ‘Moon Glow’, ‘Maple’, ‘Ruby-Plenus’, ‘Birma’, ‘Kermesinoplenus’, ‘Norma’ and ‘Albo-Plenus’, while ‘Flavo-Plenus’ and ‘Fluffy Ruffle’gave the lowest. Determined shoot growth rate in 7 cultivars by inter-node length and leaf number.It showed ‘Albo-Strip’ is the greatest, then followed by ‘Ruby-Plenus’, ‘Birma’, ‘Kermesinoplens’, ‘Norma’, ‘Flavo-Plenus’ and ‘Fluffy Ruffle’ is the fewest. Single-node 2-4 from ‘Birma’ gave the fastest rooting rate, rooting and survival percentage. The cuttings taken from upper shoot also had better rooting percentage and young rooting percentage than the bottom part of shoot. Short cuttings had better rooting abilities when untreated with rooting promoters, while long cuttings treated with rooting promoters had much better abilities. High fresh weight cuttings had much more stem dry weight, and also had longer root length and more root dry weight.
The effect of cutting season on root formation and development was better in summer (July to September), but more root number in fall (October to November).At environmental temperature 25/20℃, ‘Albo-Strip’ cuttings had the fastest rooting rate, the greatest number of root, and the highest rooting percentage. And then at 30/25℃, root development(length and diameter) of cuttings were much better. To common hibiscus the higher temperature is better to rooting, but cutting survival percentage would be down when over 30℃. There was the effect on rooting abilities of cuttings with bottom heat in winter. At 25℃ ‘Albo-Strip’ gave the greatest rooting abilities, but to common hibiscus and ‘Birma’, the higher the better. Rough river sand and coconut fiber were the good rooting media to ‘Albo-Strip’ in automatic misting system. But in this case, the popular media—peat mixed perlite is the worst to rooting.
Results indicated that the greatest root number and the longest root length were induced by IBA quick-dip and powder-adhering in 2500mg/L , and NAA powder-adhering in 800mg/L. NAA 1000mg/L quick-dip gave the greatest root number among all treatments, but the root diameter was narrowest. Root fresh weight increased treated with combined of quick-dip 2000 mg/L IBA and 250mg/L NAA. ‘Root inducer’ is office-made product, and combined used with IBA 2000 mg/Kg powder gave more effect than single used of two. Bottom girdling of ‘Flavo-Plenus’ cuttings gave the fastest rooting rate and highest rooting ratio than untreated.
第一章 緒論 (Introduction) 1
第二章 前人研究 (Literature Review) 3
一、扶桑花基本特性 3
(一)植株型態 3
(二)開花特性 4
(三)栽培品種 4
(四)繁殖體系 6
二、觀賞植物之扦插繁殖(The cutting propagation of ornamental plants) 8
(一)扦插繁殖之定義、生理特性、發根類型與優點 8
(二)影響植物扦插繁殖之因子 11
(三)插穗內生因子對插穗發根之影響 11
(四)環境條件對插穗發根之影響 18
(五)扦插前處理對插穗發根之影響 22
第三章 扶桑花品種、插穗節位、長短及鮮重對插穗發根之影響(Effects of cutting cultivars, nodal position, stem length and fresh weight on rooting quality of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis cuttings) 28
摘要(Abstract) 28
一、前言(Introduction) 29
二、材料與方法(Materials and Methods) 32
(一)試驗一 不同品種插穗扦插發根難易之比較 32
(二)試驗二 不同品種植株枝條生長速度比較 32
(三)試驗三 節位(單節插穗)對扦插發根能力之影響 33
(四)試驗四 頂梢與基部枝條發根能力之比較 34
(五)試驗五 插穗長短對其發根之影響 34
(六)試驗六 插穗乾物量與發根能力相關性之探討 35
(七)調查記錄細目 36
(八)試驗設計與統計分析 37
三、結 果(Results) 38
(一)不同品種之扶桑花插穗發根難易之比較 38
(二)不同品種扶桑花枝條生長速度比較 39
(三)單節插穗扦插發根能力之比較 39
(四)頂端與基部插穗發根能力之比較 40
(五)插穗長短差異對發根能力的影響 40
(六)插穗乾物量與發根能力相關性之探討 41
四、討論(Discussion) 58
(一)扶桑花品種間發根與生長之差異與相關性 58
(二)插穗節位與取穗部位對發根的影響 60
(三)插穗長短與發根表現間的相關性 61
(四)插穗重量對發根之影響 62
第四章 季節、環境溫度、冬季底部加溫與扦插介質對扶桑花插穗發根之影響(Effects of season, air temperature, bottom heat and rooting media on rooting quality of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis cuttings) 68
摘要(Abstract) 68
一、前言(Introduction) 69
二、材料與方法(Materials and Methods) 71
(一)試驗一 季節對插穗發根之影響 71
(二)試驗二 扦插環境溫度對插穗發根的影響 71
(三)試驗三 冬季底部加溫對插穗發根的影響 72
(四)試驗四 扦插介質對插穗發根的影響 73
(五)調查紀錄細目 73
(六)試驗設計與統計分析 74
三、結果(Results) 76
(一)季節對扶桑花插穗發根之影響 76
(二)扦插環境溫度對扶桑花插穗發根的影響 76
(三)冬季底部加溫對插穗發根的影響 77
(四)扦插介質對插穗發根的影響 77
四、討論(Discussion) 88
(一)季節對扶桑花插穗發根的影響 88
(二)環境溫度對扶桑花插穗發根的影響 89
(三)冬季底部加溫於扶桑花扦插繁殖之可行性 90
(四)扦插介質對扶桑花扦插發根的影響 90
第五章 發根劑使用與插穗基部環剝對扶桑花插穗發根之影響(Effects of root promoters and bottom girlding to rooting quality on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis cuttings) 92
摘要(Abstract) 92
一、前言(Introduction) 93
二、材料與方法(Materials and Methods) 95
(一)試驗一 IBA液劑與NAA粉、液劑處理對插穗發根之影響 95
(二)試驗二 IBA粉劑處理對插穗發根之影響 96
(三)試驗三 IBA單一濃度粉劑與市售發根劑效果之比較 96
(四)試驗四 基部樹皮環剝對插穗發根之影響 97
(五)調查紀錄細目 98
(六)試驗設計與統計分析 99
三、結 果(Results) 100
(一)IBA液劑與NAA粉、液劑處理對扦插之影響 100
(二)IBA粉劑處理對扦插之影響. 101
(三)IBA單一濃度粉劑與市售藥劑「根毛王」發根效果之比較 102
(四)基部樹皮環剝對插穗發根之影響 102
四、討論(Discussion) 112
(一)IBA與NAA的發根效果 112
(二)IBA與市售藥劑「根毛王」發根效果之比較 113
(三)插穗基部環剝對插穗發根的影響 114
中文摘要 116
Summary 118
參考文獻 (Reference) 120
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