(3.237.48.165) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/09 13:50
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:康繼文
研究生(外文):Chi-Wen Kang
論文名稱:蘭菌與植物生長素對藥用石斛蘭生長發育之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Orchid Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Growth Substances on the Growth and Development of Medical Dendrobium spp.
指導教授:張喜寧
指導教授(外文):Doris C. N. Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:園藝學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:69
中文關鍵詞:蘭菌藥用石斛蘭植物生長素
外文關鍵詞:Orchid Mycorrhizal FungiMedical Dendrobium sppPlant Growth Substances
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:10
  • 點閱點閱:444
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
由石斛蘭及其他蘭科植物根部所分離之真菌,經純化後,在PDA上大量繁殖,再以胡瓜、水稻及蘿蔔小苗進行致病性分析,排除具致病性之菌種後,將6種真菌(R01、R02、R04、Ac-1、Ac-2、Cy)接種至鐵皮石斛(Dendrobium candidum Wall.ex Linkl.)及銅皮石斛(D. moniliforme Linne.)出瓶苗上。接種後生長120天後,調查結果顯示鐵皮石斛(D. candidum)接種R01、R02及Cy皆可促進生長,其中以接種R02之植株其株高最高。接種R01及Cy者假球莖長度和寬度皆達顯著差異。接種120天後Cy處理之植株鮮重為對照組植株鮮重之1.48倍。植株分蘗數以接種R02菌種者為最多,為對照組之1.5倍。以接種R02菌種之銅皮石斛(D. moniliforme)假球莖長度和寬度達顯著差異。接種Cy或R02菌種之銅皮石斛其植株鮮重達顯著差異,約比對照組植株高出一倍或以上。植株分蘗數以接種Cy菌種者為最多,為對照組之1.5倍。本研究結果顯示蘭菌之接種,以R01,R02及Cy三種菌種,對藥用石斛蘭之生長,有縮短培育年限之潛能,其中R01,R02為絲核菌屬(Rhizoctonia spp.),Cy(Cylindrocarpon sp.)則為柱孢屬(Cylindrocarpon spp.)真菌,係由石斛蘭根部所分離。
黃花石斛施用太空精之植株其株高、假球莖長度及節數最佳;氯化膽鹼或環己六醇則能促進假球莖的寬度及葉長;葉片寬度則以施用根毛王之效果最佳。對植株鮮重、根數、分蘗數及葉數的促進則以根毛王加太空精之混合施用的效果最好。有施用藥劑處理之植株平均存活率為99.5%,多對照組(80%)19.5%,顯示施用藥劑可提升黃花石斛組培苗整體出瓶後之移植存活率。施用氯化膽鹼加環己六醇或單獨施用根毛王500 ppm對鐵皮石斛植株高度及假球莖長度之生長促進效果最佳;植株根數、分蘗數及鮮重以施用根毛王者最好,其鮮重(0.44g)為對照組(0.24g)之1.83倍,而根數(6.16)為對照組(3.77)之1.63倍。施用植物生長物質可促進黃花石斛及鐵皮石斛營養生長的能力並增加植株出瓶後的移植存活率。推薦黃花石斛可施用太空精500 ppm或根毛王500 ppm加太空精500 ppm以強健種苗及增加植株重量;鐵皮石斛則推薦施用氯化膽鹼300 ppm加環己六醇50 ppm以獲得最佳的質量。
Several fungi isolated from various orchid roots, including Dendrobium, were isolated, purified and mass cultured on PDA medium. After pathogenic tests for fungi inoculated on cucumber, rice and radish seedlings, those non-pathogenic fungi including R01, R02, R04, Ac-1, Ac-2 and Cy were used as inocula to inoculate roots of Dendrobium candidum Wall.ex Linkl. and D. moniliforme Linne.. After 120 days of inoculation, those inoculated with R01, R02 and Cy, the growth of Dendrobium plants were highly enhanced. Among them, plant height was the highest for those were inoculated with R02 of orchid mycorrhizal fungi (OMF). While those were inoculated with R01 and Cy, the length and diameter of the pseudobulb were significantly increased. The mycorrhizal plant weight and number of tiller increased 148 % (by Cy) and 55 % (by R02) respectively than the non-mycorrhizal control (NM-control). For D. moniliforme, Cy or R02 inoculated plants produced bigger and longer pseudoblubs, and the plant weight was 1.07 fold of the NM-control. Cy inoculated plants increased 146% of tillers than the NM-control. Results showed that the inoculation of OMF could highly stimulate the growth of medical use of Dendrobiums, and had great potential for shorten growing period of Dendrobium spp. Results showed that R01 and R02, which were Rhizoctonia spp. and Cy (Cylindrocarpon sp.), which was isolated from Dendrobium sp. were three effective fungi for growth enhancement of medical use of Dendrobium spp.

The application of Aminosong solution could enhance plant height, pseudobulb length and node number of Dendrobium tosaense Makino. Choline chloride or inositol could improve the width of pseudoblub and leaf length. Leaf width was enhanced by the Lysine#3 treatment. The application of Lysine#3+ Aminosong solution were would highly promote fresh weight, roots, number of axillary buds and leaves. When PGS (plant growth substance) was treated, the average of plant survival percentage is 99.5% which is 19.5% higher than control (80%). It showed that PGS could enhance the plant survival percentage of Dendrobium tosaense tissue culture seedlings after transplanting from bottles. The plant height and pseudoblub length of Dendrobium candidum Wall. ex Lindl. would be highly increased when Choline chloride + Inositol or Lysine#3 (500ppm) were applied. Number of roots, no. of axillary buds and fresh weight were highest when Lysine#3 was applied. Fresh weight (0.44g) is 1.83 folds higher than control (0.24g), and No. of roots (6.16) is 1.63 folds higher than control (3.77). PGS could improve the vegetative growth and plant survival percentage of Dendrobium tosaense and Dendrobium candidum. It was suggested that the use of Aminosong solution (500 ppm) or Lysine#3 (500 ppm) + Aminosong solution (500 ppm), plant fresh weight was increased. For Dendrobium candidum, Choline chloride (300 ppm) + Inositol (50 ppm) would be suggested.
中文摘要………………………………………………………………iii
英文摘要………………………………………………………………iv

第一章 前人研究
壹. 石斛蘭之繁殖、栽培管理、生理及藥理活性研究
前言……………………………………………………………………..1
一. 石斛蘭之繁殖及栽培管理 ……………………………………….2
(一) 石斛蘭之繁殖方法 ………………………………………………2
(二) 石斛蘭之栽培管理……………………………………………….4
二. 石斛蘭之生理及藥理活性研究……………………………………8
三. 論文參試品種簡介…………………………………………………9
貳. 蘭共生菌的定義、分類與蘭科植物生長發育之影響
一. 蘭共生菌的定義 …………………………………………………12
二. 蘭共生菌的分類 …………………………………………………13
三. 蘭共生菌對蘭科植物生長發育之影響 …………………………15
參 植物生長物質介紹
定義與類別…………………………………………………………….22
論文使用之植物生長素種類介紹…………………………………….23
結語…………………………………………………………………….25
參考文獻……………………………………………………………….26

第二章 蘭共生菌對藥用石斛生長發育之影響
摘要……………………………………………………………………34
前言……………………………………………………………………35
材料與方法……………………………………………………………37
結果與討論……………………………………………………………39
結論……………………………………………………………………42
參考文獻………………………………………………………………43

第三章 植物生長物質對藥用石斛生長發育之影響
摘要…………………………………………………………………..52
前言……………………………………………………………………53
材料與方法……………………………………………………………56
結果與討論……………………………………………………………57
結論……………………………………………………………………61
參考文獻………………………………………………………………61
王光遠、劉培、許智宏、蔡南海. 1995. 石斛離體培養中對誘導花芽形成的影響. 植物學報 37:374-378.
王世林、鄭光植、何靜波. 1988. 黑節草多糖的研究. 雲南植物研究 10: 389-395.
王君暉、張毅翔、劉峰、黃純農、葛霽光. 1999. 鐵皮石斛種子、原球莖和類原球莖體的超低溫保存研究. 園藝學報 26:59-61.
王美琇.1999.蘭共生菌與數種蘭科植物生長與發育之影響與應用. 國立台灣大學園藝學研究所碩士論文.
王楷、越同芳. 1986. 石斛屬植植物的化學成份與中藥石斛. 藥學通報 21:666.
王天山、陸躍鳴、馬國祥. 1997. 鼓槌石斛中化學成分對K562腫瘤細胞株生長抑制作用體外試驗. 天然產物研究與開發 9: 1.
包雪聲、順慶生、陳立鉆. 2001. 中國藥用石斛彩色圖譜. 上海醫科大學/復旦大學出版社
丑敏霞、朱利泉、張玉進、張明、別之龍、陳仕江、李泉森. 2000. 光照強度對石斛生長與代謝的影響. 園藝學報 27:380-382.
丑敏霞、朱利泉、張玉進、張明、別之龍、陳仕江、李泉森. 2001. 不同光照強度對金釵石斛生長的影響. 植物生態學報 25:325-330.
立石生化科技研究部. 2000. 植物生長物質手冊. 立石生化科技股份有限公司.
石友亭、楊聯合、段振離、解國一、郝芬蘭、解濤、齊丙申、于丙午. 1995. 曲莖石斛放養研究. 中國中藥雜誌 20:182-183.
朱欽昌. 1987. 蘭科植物的內生菌根菌與蘭菌共生. 洋蘭月刊(17):59-62.
何惠雅 2003 藥用石斛對RAW264.7細胞產生一氧化氮的調節作用與組織培養之研究 中國醫藥學院藥物化學研究所碩士論文.
何晨陽. 2001. 雙核絲核菌誘導水稻增強廣譜抗病性和防禦脢系活性. 植物病理學報 31:208-212.
沈保安. 1989. 石斛与霍山石斛的本草考证. 基層中藥雜誌 4: 39-41.
李江陵、肖小河. 1995. 四川石斛屬藥用植物資源調查. 中國中藥雜誌 20: 7-9.
李哖. 1990. 蘭之胚培養. 中國園藝. 36(4): 223-244.
李華荣. 1999. 絲核菌的菌絲融合群及其遺傳多樣性研究的新進展. 菌物系統 18(1):100-109.
李國基. 2001a. 台灣金線連與蘭菌之鑑定及生產技術改進. 國立台灣大學園藝學研究所博士論文.
李明治. 2001b. 蘭菌(絲核菌)之生理、菌種生產及其對台灣金線連生長之影響. 國立台灣大學園藝學研究所碩士論文.
李滿飛、平田義正、徐國鈞、丹羽正武、吳厚銘. 1991. 金釵石斛精油化學成份研究. 有機化學 11: 219.
吳榮燦. 2002. 藥用及保健植物霍山石斛的開發與利用. 農業生物技術國家型科技計畫91年度成果發表會論文集.
周玲勤. 1997. 彩葉蘭的大量繁殖與蘭菌的應用. 國立台灣大學園藝學研究所碩士論文.
周玲勤. 2004. 台灣金線連、彩葉蘭和其F1雜交種之菌根生理與培育. 國立台灣大學園藝學研究所博士論文.
林宗輝. 2001. 台灣蘭科植物-石斛、連珠石斛與台灣金線連之化學成分及藥理活性研究. 中國醫藥學院中國醫藥研究所博士論文.
林讚標. 1988. 台灣蘭科植物(1). 南天書局有限公司. 台北.
林秋芬. 2002. 蘭菌對石斛蘭種子發芽與幼苗生長之影響. 國立中興大學園藝研究所碩士論文.
林純瑛 1995. 秋石斛的新栽培法 台灣花卉園藝 10: 26-31.
施子隸、何季芬、張桂蘭. 1989. 金釵石斛水煎劑對小白鼠腹腔巨噬細胞吞噬功能影響的實驗觀察. 河南中醫 9: 35.
胡弘道. 1990. 林木菌根. 千華出版公司. 台北.
唐振緇、程式君. 1984. 中藥霍山石斛原植物的研究. 植物研究. 4: 141
唐樹梅、漆智平. 1999. 石斛營養特性及施肥技術初探. 園藝學報 26: 184-187.
徐云鵑、于力文、吳慶生. 1993. 霍山石斛的光合特性研究. 應用生態學報 4(1): 18-21.
徐建華、李莉、陳立站. 1995. 鐵皮石斛與西洋參養陰生津作用研究. 中草藥 26: 79-80.
陳忠川. 1995. 石斛類藥材之生藥學及櫻石斛組織培養之研究.中國醫藥學院中國藥學研究所博士論文.
陳忠川. 2001. 私人聯繫. 中國醫藥學院教授. 台中. 台灣.
張銘、朱峰、魏小勇、羅紫娟. 2000. 鐵皮石斛種胚萌發和原球莖質量控制. 浙江大學學報(理學版) 27:92-94.
張明、銀福軍、陳仕江、別之龍、任凌燕. 2001. 金釵石斛根系的型態及解剖學研究. 中國中藥雜誌 26:384-385.
張棋雯. 2001. 彩葉蘭與彩葉蘭道生種之大量繁殖與蘭菌之利用. 國立台灣大學園藝學研究所碩士論文.
張喜寧、楊秀惠. 2003. 新種類肥料可保全淹水逆境下的葉菜生長. 農業世界雜誌 236: 56-57.
莊錦華、李哖. 1985. 蘭苗共生下之生長生理. 中國園藝 31:189-200.
郭順星、曹文芩、高微微. 2000. 鐵皮石斛及金釵石斛菌根真菌的分離及其生物活性鑑定. 中國中藥雜誌 25:338-341.
黃曼瑩. 2003. 中草藥大熊貓!永豐餘昆山生技石斛研發有成. http://www.ettoday.com/2003/10/09/975-1525794.htm
黃敏展. 1985. 蘭花栽培藝術. 161-165.
曾千容. 2002. 石斛蘭蘭菌之分離、鑑定與培養及其對石斛蘭生長之影響. 國立台灣大學園藝研究所碩士論文. 128頁.
曾宋君、程式君、張京麗、趙逢畔. 1998. 五種石斛蘭的胚培養及其快速繁殖研究. 園藝學報 25: 75-80.
賈敏如. 1995. 關於保護珍稀瀕危中藥的等級標準和種類的建議. 中國中藥雜誌 20:67-70.
楊濤、梁康、張昌穎. 1991. 四種中草藥對大鼠半乳糖白內障防治效果的研究. 北京醫科大學學報 23: 97.
趙永靈. 1994. 兜唇石斛多醣的研究. 雲南植物研究 16: 392.
趙楊景、郭順星、高薇薇、杜淑燕. 1999. 三種內生真菌與大花蕙蘭共生對礦物營養吸收的影響. 園藝學報 26: 110-115.
蔡正雄 譯. 1979. 蘭與蘭苗. 中國蘭藝 2: 151-154.
蔡靜怡. 1997. 蘭菌及溫度對台灣金線連生長之影響. 國立台灣大學園藝學研究所碩士論文.80頁.
蔡麗君. 2003. 蘭菌與植物生長素對拖鞋蘭生長發育之影響. 國立台灣大學園藝研究所碩士論文.
謝廷芳. 1998. 菌核類真菌之鑑定. 檢疫防疫植物病原真菌鑑定研討會專刊. P.239-251.
謝鳳勛、胡延松主編. 1994. 中藥原色圖譜及栽培技術. 金盾出版社. 北京.
藍亦青. 2001. 蘭菌對蝴蝶蘭與拖鞋蘭生長與發育之影響. 國立台灣大學園藝學研究所碩士論文. 93頁.
Alexender, C., and G. Hadley. 1984. The effect of mycorrhizal infection of goodyera repens and its control by fungicide. New Phytol. 97:391-400.
Arditti, J. 1967. Factors affecting the germination of orchid seeds. Bot. Rev. 33:1-97.
Arditti, J. 1982. Orchid Biology. Review and perspective,II. Cornell Univ.Press.
Bernard, N. 1903. La germination des orchides. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris. l37:483-485.
Bernard, N. 1909. L''evolution dans la symbiose. Les orchid''ees. et leur champignons commenseux. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. 9: 1-196.
Beyrle, H., F. Penningsfeld and B. Hock. 1991. The role of nitrogen concentration in determining the outcome to the interaction between Dactylorhiza incarnate L. Soo and Rhizoctonia sp. New phytol. 117:665-672.
Burgeff, H. 1932. Saprophytismus und Symbiose. Studien an Tropischen Orchideen. G. Fischer, Jena.
Burgeff, H. 1959. Mycorrhiza of orchid. In:Withner,C.L.(eds.)The orchids-a scientific survey. The Ronald Press Co. New York. 361-395.
Cubeta, M. A., E. Echandi, and M. L. Gumpertz. 1991. Survival of binucleate Rhizoctonia species, biological control agents, in soil and plant debris under field conditions. Biol. Control 1:218-226.
Curtis, J. T. 1939. The relation of specificity of orchid mycorrhizal fungi to the problem of symbiosis. Amer. J. Bot. 26:372-399.
Dematte, M. E. S. P. and T. T. Graziano. 2000. Growth of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. as related with nutrient concentration in the growing media. Acta Hort. 511: 265-270.
Hadley, G. 1970. Non-specificity of symbiotic infection in orchid mycorrhiza. New Phytol. 69:1015-1023.
Hadley, G. and B. Williamson. 1971. Analysis of the post-infection growth stimulus in orchid mycorrhiza. New Phytol. 70:445-455.
Hadley, G. and B. Williamson. 1972. Features of mycorrhizal infection in some Malayan orchids. New Phytol. 71:1111-1118.
Hadley, J. L. and S. E. Smith. 1983. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. Academic Press, London.
Harley, J. L. 1972. The biology of mycorrhiza. 2nd ed. Leonard Hill, London.
Harvais, G. and Hadley, G. 1967. The development of Orchis purpurelia in asymbiotic and inoculated cultures. New Phytol. 66:217-230.
He, J., G. H. Khoo and C. S. Hew 1998. Susceptibility of CAM Dendrobium leave and flowers to high light and high temperature under natural tropical conditions. Environ. Exp. Bot. 40: 255-264
Hijner, J. A. and J. Arditti. 1973. Orchid mycorrhiza: Vitamin production and requirement by the symbionts. Amer. J. Bot. 60:829-835.
Kamemoto, H., T. D. Amore, and A. R. Kuehnle. 1999. Breeding Dendrobium Orchids in Hawaii. University of Hawaii press, Canada.
Kundson, L. 1925. Physiological study of the symbiotic germination of orchid seeds. Bot.Gaz. 77:345-379.
Lilja, A., A. M. Hietala, R. Karjalainen. 1996. Identification of a uninucleate Rhizoconia sp. By pathogenicity, hyphal anastomosis and RAPD analysis. Plant Pathol. 45:997-1006.
Loewus, F. A. and P. P. N. Murthy. 2000. Myo-inositol metabolism in plants. Plant Sci. 150(1):1-19
Ma, G. S., G. G. Xu., L. S. Xu., and X. T. Wang. 1994. Inhibitory effects of Dendrobium chrysotoxum and its constituents on the mouse HePA and ESC. Zhongguo Yasoke Daxue Xuebao 25: 188-189.
Muir, H. 1987. Symbiotic micropropagation of orchid seed. Orchid Rew. 91:44-48.
Murashige, T. and F. Skoog. 1962. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 15:473-497.
Ogoshi, A. 1996. In:Rhizoctonia species: taxonomy, molecular biology, ecology, pathology and disease control. Kluwer academic publishers.
Ogoshi, A. 1987. Ecology and pathogenicity of anastomosis and intraspecific groups of Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 25:125-143.
Parmeter, J. R. Jr., and H. S. Whitney. 1970. Taxonomy and nomenclature of the imperfect state. P.7-19. in: J. R. Parmeter Jr., ed. Biology and Pathology of Rhizoctonia solani. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Paul, E. A., and Clark, F. E. 1989. Mycorrhizal relationships. Soi. Microbio. Biochem. 198-221. Academic Press, Inc.
Ramsbottom, J. 1923. Orchid mycorrhiza. Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 8: 28-61.
Rasmussen, H., T.F. Andersen and B. Johansen. 1990. Temperature sensitivity of in vitro germination and seedling development of Dactylorhiza majalis (Orchidaceae) with and without a mycorrhizal fungus. Plant, Cell and Enviro. 13:171-177.
Rasmussen, H. N., and D. F. Whigham, 1993. Seed ecology of dust seeds in situ : a, new study technique and its application in terrestrial orchids. Amer. J. Bot. 80: 1374-1378.
Reinecke, T. and Kind. H. 1994. Inducible enzymes of the 9,10-dihydro- phenanthrene pathway: sterile orchid plants responding to fungal infection. Mol. Plant-Microb. Interact. 7:449-454.
Roy, J., and B. Nirmalya. 2003. Induction of callus and plant regeneration from shoot-tip explants of Dendrobium fimbriatum Lindl. var. oculatum HK. f. Sci. Hortic. 97: 333-340.
Smith, S.E. 1966. Physiology and echology of orchid mycorrhizal fungi with reference to essdling nutrition. New Phytol. 45:488-499.
Smith, S.E. 1967. Carbonhydrate translocation in orchid mycorrhizal. New Phytol. 66:371-378.
Sneh, B., L. Burpee and A. Ogoshli. 1991. Identification of Rhizoctonia species. APS Press. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.
Stevenson, J. M., I. Y. Perera, I. Heilmann, S. Persson. and W. F. Boss. 2000. Inositol signaling and plant growth. Trends in Plant Sci. 5: 252-258.
Taiz, L. and E. Zeiger. 1991. Plant physiology. Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc.
Uedan, H. and H. Torikata. 1972. Effect of light and culture medium on adventitious root formation by Cymidiums in aseptic culture. Amer. Orchid. Soc. Bull. 41: 322-327.
Uetake, Y., Kobayashi, K. and Ogoshi, A. 1992. Ultrastructural changes during the symbiotic development of Spiranthes sinensis (Orchidaceae) protocorms associated with binucleate Rhizoctonia anastomosis.group C. Mycol. Res. 96: 199-209.
Wahrlich, W. 1886. Beiträg zur~kenntnis der Orchideen-wurzelpilze. Bot. Zeit. 44 : 480-487 and 498-506.
Wang, Y. T. 1995. Medium and fertilization affect performance of potted Dendrobium and Phalaenopsis. Hort. tech. 5: 234-237.
Wang, K. Z. and W. Y. Gao. 1997. The research progress of medicinal Dendrobium. Chinese Tradi. Herb. Drugs. 28: 633-635.
Warcup, J. H. 1971. Specificity of mycorrhizal association in some Australian terrestrial orchid. New Phytol. 70: 41-46.
Warcup, J. H. 1973. Symbiotic germination of some Australian orchid terrestrial orchid. New Phytol. 72: 387-392.
Yoder, J. A., L. W. Zettler, and S. L. stewart. 2000. Water requirements of terrestrial and epiphytic orchid seeds and seedling, and evidence for water uptake by means of mycotrophy. Plant Sci. 156: 145-15.
Zelmer, C. D. and R.S. Currah, 1997. Symbiotic germination of Spiranthes lacera (Orchidaceae) with a naturally occurring endophyte. Lindleyana 12: 142-148.
Zeng, S. J. and S. J. Cheng. 1996. The fast propagation of test-tube seedling of Dendrobium. J. Chinese Med. Materi. 19: 490-491.
Zettler, L.W. and C. J. Hofer. 1997. Sensitivity of Spiranthes odorata seed to light during in vitro symbiotic seed germination. Lindleyana 12: 26-29.
Zettler, L. W., and T. M. Mcinnis,. 1999. Light enhancement of symbiotic seed germination and development of an endangered terrestrial orchid (Platanthera integrilabia). Plant Sci. 102: 133-138.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔