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研究生:謝欣彣
研究生(外文):Hsin-Wen Hsieh
論文名稱:幾丁聚醣膜之透氣性與對香蕉果實後熟之影響
論文名稱(外文):Gas Permeability of Chitosan Coating and Its Effect on Ripening of Banana Fruit
指導教授:王自存
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:園藝學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:98
中文關鍵詞:幾丁聚醣被膜透氣性後熟氣變
外文關鍵詞:chitosancoatinggas permeabilityripeningmodified atmosphere
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本試驗的目的為研究幾丁聚醣(chitosan)成膜特性、透氣性與對香蕉後熟行為影響,並評估幾丁聚醣是否可作為具氣變(Modified Atmosphere)效果的可食膜。
幾丁聚醣成膜特性受展著劑、溶劑、pH值的影響。添加0.01%之Tween80即可改進溶液的散布性而形成平整的被膜。幾丁聚醣膜的濃度會影響厚度和透氣性。以1%醋酸所製成的1%幾丁聚醣膜所測得的氧氣透氣性與二氧化碳透氣性分別為3.64×10-5 cc-mil/day.m2.atm和4.96×10-5 cc-mil/day.m2.atm,可知氧氣透氣性較低而二氧化碳透氣性較高,幾丁聚醣濃度越高則透氣性越低。
綠熟香蕉用3%幾丁聚醣處理可以延緩果實之自然後熟達6天,但3%幾丁聚醣處理會造成果皮轉色不完全。香蕉在乙烯催熟處理之前以幾丁聚醣被膜,除3%之外,其餘均可正常後熟;但隨幾丁聚醣濃度增加,會使香蕉之乙烯及二氧化碳生成速率降低。香蕉在乙烯催熟處理之後以幾丁聚醣被膜,結果與催熟處理前被膜者相同;經3%幾丁聚糖被膜者在出現芝麻斑點時,其內部之二氧化碳較未處理者高約2%,而氧氣濃度約低2%。
綠熟香蕉與後熟的黃香蕉被覆幾丁聚醣對於內部氣體之氣變效果不同。呼吸速率低的綠香蕉處理幾丁聚醣時僅可稍微減少內部氧氣,3%幾丁聚醣處理組的內部氧氣可比對照組降低約2%,二氧化碳與乙烯無差異。後熟的黃香蕉呼吸作用旺盛,任一濃度幾丁聚醣被膜處理後內部乙烯會累積,內部氧氣與二氧化碳則在6小時內達到平衡濃度,有被覆幾丁聚醣比對照組其內部氧氣濃度較低而內部二氧化碳濃度較高。由透氣性試驗與香蕉後熟試驗可得知幾丁聚醣膜確實具有氣變的效果,且此氣變的效果會隨幾丁聚醣膜的濃度與果實本身之後熟程度而變。
The object of this study was to investigate the potential of chitosan as an edible coating material with modified atmosphere effect for fresh fruit. The characteristics for the formation of chitosan film were studied and the gas permeability of chitosan film was measured. Then the effects of chitosan coating on the ripening behavior of banana were studied.
The formation of chitosan film was affected by several factors, including addition of emulsifier, type of solvent and the pH value. Adding 0.01% Tween 80 to the solvent enabled the chitosan solution to spread out evenly on a flat surface and facilitate the formation of a flat layer. The thickness and gas permeability of the film was affected by the concentration of the chitosan solution. Chitosan film had higher permeability for oxygen than for carbon dioxide. The measured gas permeability of the film made from1% chitosan dissolved in 1% acetic acid was 64x10-5 cc-mil/day•m2•atm and 4.96x10-5 cc-mil/day•m2•atm for oxygen and carbon dioxide respectively. The gas permeability of the chitosan film will decrease as the chitosan concentration further increased.
Coating green banana fruit with 3% chitosan could delay the natural ripening for 6 days, but the same coating caused incomplete coloration of the skin. Banana fruit that were coated with chitosan before ethylene treatment all showed normal ripening behavior except the 3% treatment. However, with the increase in chitosan concentration, lower ethylene and respiration rate was observed. Banana fruit that were coated with chitosan after ethylene treatment had similar results as the previous treatment. At the brown-fleck stage, the internal carbon dioxide concentration of the 3% chitosan treated fruit was approximately 2% higher than the control, and the internal oxygen concentration was approximately 2% lower than the control.
Different results were observed with respect to the internal atmosphere composition of chitosan-coated green and yellow-ripe banana fruit. In the green banana, which had low respiration rate, only 3% chitosan coating caused a slightly reduce in the internal oxygen concentration, and the internal carbon dioxide and ethylene concentration were not affected. In the yellow-ripe banana fruit, which had a high respiration rate, the internal ethylene concentration accumulated in all chitosan-coated fruit, and the internal oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration reached steady-state within 6 hours. At steady state, the internal carbon dioxide was higher than the control and the oxygen concentration was lower than the control. The above results showed that chitosan coating did cause modified atmosphere(MA) effect in treated fruit, and the MA effect will vary depending on the concentration of chitosan used as well as the ripening stage of the fruit.
目錄
頁次
目錄……………………………………………………………….……. I
圖次……………….………………………………………………...….. III
表次………………….…………………………………………..…..…. V
壹、 前言…………………………………………..……………….…. 1
貳、 前人研究………………………………………..………….…..... 3
一、可食膜的發展歷史、種類與特性………….…….…….… 3
(一) 可食膜的發展歷史………………………………… 4
(二) 可食膜的種類與特性……………………………… 6
二、可食膜在果實保鮮上之研究…….……………..…………. 11
(一) 低氧與高二氧化碳對呼吸作用的影響…………… 12
(二) 低氧與高二氧化碳對乙烯生合成與作用的影響... 14
(三) 可食膜在園產品後熟之研究…………………….... 15
三、幾丁聚醣之特性與透氣性之研究……………………….... 18(一)幾丁聚醣之特性………………………………….... 18
(二)幾丁聚醣抗菌性之研究………………………….... 20
(三) 幾丁聚醣透氣性之研究…………………………… 22
參、 材料與方法…………………...…………………………………. 24
一、 試驗材料………………………………………………….. 24
二、 試驗方法…………………………………………………. 24
(一)試驗內容………………………………………….. 24
(二)測量項目………………………………………….. 30
三、 化學藥品…………………………..……………………... 35
肆、 結果與討論…………..……………...………………………….. 37
一、幾丁聚醣膜成膜特性之試驗…………...……………….. 37
(一)添加展著劑對成膜之影響……………………….. 37(二)不同酸溶劑製備3%幾丁聚醣溶液之溶解度試驗
…………………………………………………….. 37
(三)不同酸製備3%幾丁聚醣膜之成膜特性………... 38
(四)調整pH值對成膜之影響………………………... 42
二、不同配方對幾丁聚醣膜透氣性之影響………………….. 43
(一) 不同濃度醋酸製成3%幾丁聚醣膜之透氣性…... 44
(二) 使用1%醋酸製成不同濃度幾丁聚醣膜之透氣性
…………………………………………………….. 47
三、幾丁聚醣被膜對香蕉果實後熟影響之試驗…………….. 51
(一)被覆幾丁聚醣對香蕉果實自然後熟之影響…….. 51
(二)香蕉果實以幾丁聚醣膜處理後再以乙烯催熟之果
實後熟表現……….………………………………. 53
(三) 乙烯催熟處理後被覆幾丁聚醣對香蕉果實後熟之
影響……………………………………………….. 60
(四) 不同轉色指數香蕉果實被覆幾丁聚醣對內部氣
體之影響…………………………………………. 66
伍、 結論…………...…………………………………………………. 76
陸、 中文摘要……………………………………………………….... 79
柒、 英文摘要………………………………………………………… 81
捌、 參考文獻….……………………………………………………... 83




圖次
圖1. 幾丁聚醣膜標準製備方法……………………………………… 27
圖2. 濃度測定法測定裝置示意圖……………..…………………….. 33
圖3. 測量可食膜透氣性的擴散格…………………………………… 33
圖4. 3%幾丁聚醣膜以不同有機酸為溶劑所形成之膜之外觀….... 40
圖5. 醋酸-幾丁聚醣膜之掃描式電子顯微鏡圖……………………... 41
圖6. 幾丁聚醣膜氧氣透過率測定時氧氣濃度及時間關係圖…….... 45
圖7. 不同濃度幾丁聚醣膜與厚度之簡單直線迴歸……………..,…. 49
圖8. 綠香蕉以不同濃度幾丁聚醣被膜處理後於20℃中呼吸速率與
乙烯生成速率………………………………………………….... 52
圖9. 綠香蕉以不同濃度幾丁聚醣被膜處理後儲藏在20℃中之失重
變化……………………………………………………………… 55
圖10. 香蕉以不同濃度幾丁聚醣被膜處理後在20℃中儲藏果皮轉
色情形……………….………………………………………..... 56
圖11. 綠熟香蕉先以幾丁聚醣被膜再以1000ppm乙烯催熟放在20℃
中呼吸速率與乙烯釋放速率變化…………………………….. 57
圖12. 綠熟香蕉先以幾丁聚醣被膜再以乙烯催熟後在20℃之失重
情形…………………………………………………………….. 58
圖13. 香蕉以不同濃度幾丁聚醣被膜處理後再以乙烯催熟之果皮
轉色情形……………………………………………………… 59
圖14. 乙烯催熟後以幾丁聚醣被膜處理在20℃之呼吸速率與乙烯
釋放速率……..……………………………………………..… 62
圖15. 香蕉在20℃乙烯處理24小時後以不同濃度幾丁聚醣被膜處理
之果皮轉色指標..………………………………………….…... 63
圖16. 乙烯催熟後以不同濃度幾丁聚醣處理在20℃之失重情形…. 64
圖17. 綠熟香蕉(顏色指數 1)以幾丁聚醣被膜處理之內部氧氣濃度
變化…………………………………………………………..… 67
圖18. 綠熟香蕉以不同濃度幾丁聚醣覆膜處理之呼吸速率與內部二
氧化碳濃度………………………………………………...…… 68
圖19. 綠香蕉以不同濃度幾丁聚醣覆膜處理之外部乙烯生成速率與
內部乙烯濃度……………………………………………...…… 71
圖20. 黃香蕉(果皮轉色指數 5)以不同濃度幾丁聚醣被膜處理之外
部乙烯生成速率與內部乙烯濃度…………………………….. 72
圖21. 黃香蕉果實(果皮轉色指數 5)以不同濃度幾丁聚醣被膜處理之
內部氧氣濃度…………………………………………………... 73
圖22. 黃香蕉果實(果皮轉色指數5)以幾丁聚醣被膜處理之外部二氧
化碳生成速率與內部二氧化碳濃度………………………,,.…… 74


表次
表1. 多醣類的分類………………………...……………………….… 9
表2. 幾丁聚醣在不同酸溶液中之溶解情況……………………… 39
表3. 以不同濃度醋酸製備3%幾丁聚醣膜之氣體透氣性………… 48
表4. 不同濃度幾丁聚醣膜之氣體透氣性…………………………… 50
表5. 香蕉以不同濃度幾丁聚醣被膜處理後到達乙烯高峰之天數與
延緩天數………………………………………………………… 54
表6. 綠熟香蕉以乙烯催熟後以不同濃度幾丁聚醣被膜後在20℃第9
天之果實內部氣體組成………………………………………… 65
表7. 幾丁聚醣處理果皮顏色指數5之香蕉對24小時內氣體組成之
影響………..,,,…………………………………………………… 75
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