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研究生:賴怡岑
研究生(外文):Yi-Tsen Lai
論文名稱:嗜水性產氣單胞桿菌AeromonashydrophilaprtS1基因缺損株之製作及相關蛋白之探討
論文名稱(外文):Fabrication for Deficient Strain of Aeromonas hydrophila Serine Protease Gene prtS1 and Analysis of Interaction Protein
指導教授:劉俊民劉俊民引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chung-Ming Liou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:微生物與生化學研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:微生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:113
中文關鍵詞:絲胺酸蛋白
外文關鍵詞:Aeromonas hydrophilaserine proteas
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本研究室由成奶j學取得自病人中分離之 Aeromonas hydrophila CKH29 菌株。在先前之研究中由本菌株中選殖出絲胺酸蛋白酶表現基因 prtS1,此 prtS1 基因及表現之產物與 HtrA (DegP) / DegQ / DegS family serine protease 有極高的同源性,同屬於 trypsin-like protease。HtrA (high-temperature-requirement protein A) 最早在 E. coli 中發現與菌株在高溫下之生存有關 (Lipinska et al., 1990),在 S. typhimurium 之突變株研究中又發現 htrA 除了與溫度相關外也可能與其致病性有關 (Johnson et al., 1991)。
本研究中利用製作 prtS1 基因缺損株,探討其表現產物及該產物在菌株內可能扮演的角色與弁遄C採用 conjugation 及 electroporation 兩種方式,送入在 prtS1 基因上嵌入 kanamycin 抗性基因之 prtS1 基因破壞質體,使其進行同源性基因重組後篩選 prtS1 突變株,初步篩選得到七株蛋白酶活性缺損株。但經 PCR 確認後,未能獲得 prtS1 基因突變的缺損株。推測可能在 CKH29 上不只有一個 prtS1 基因位置,所以再選擇 KpnI、SalI、PvuI、PstI、PvuII 限制酶作用 CKH29 染色體後進行 Southern blot,確認 prtS1 基因在 CKH29 染色體上只有一個。
將帶有 His-tagged 之完整 PrtS1 融合蛋白質表現於 E. coli JM109之中,尋找在 E. coli 中可能與之結合的相關蛋白質,藉此以瞭解 PrtS1 蛋白酶所扮演的角色及作用機制。結果得知,採用一步純化的方式,無法避免非專一性蛋白質的干擾,需再進一步改良融合蛋白質於宿主細胞中之表現,再探尋相關結合之蛋白。
針對 PrtS1 蛋白酶活性部位進行討論,發現其中之 PDZ domain 與蛋白酶活性的調節有關,當兩個 domain 缺失時會使 PrtS1 失去調節,導致菌體趨向死亡。PDZ domain II 之缺失會使蛋白酶失去活性,PDZ domain I 之缺損則會使活性下降,研判 PDZ domain II 與辨認特定受質蛋白有關,而 PDZ domain I 與形成適當之聚合體有關。與 PrtS1 活性相關之絲胺酸的活性中心,於第 214 個絲胺酸進行點突變後,仍具有蛋白酶活性,發現於第 211 個絲胺酸有相近之序列,亦將其進行點突變後,則失去蛋白酶活性,證實 PrtS1 有兩個絲胺酸的活性中心。
We obtained Aeromonas hydrophila CKH29 from the patients in National Cheng Kung University. In the previous study, we have cloned and sequenced a proteolytic gene prtS1 of the serine protease, which was highly homologous to HtrA (DegP)/DegQ/DegS family serine protease. Both of the two belonged to trypsin-like protease. In E.coli, HtrA (high-temperature-requir
-ement protein A) is the first known to relate with existence under high temparature (Lipinska, 1990). Moreover, it was observed in the study of S. typhimurium htrA mutant that htrA might also correlate with pathogenicity (Johnson, 1991).
The current study aimed to explore prtS1 and the role and function of its products in two respects. By conjugation and electroporation, we transformed pSup2021-PrtSM into A. hydrophila to perform homologous recombination, so as to find out the influence of prtS1 absence. According to the result, seven serine protease mutants were obtained; while a later PCR indicated that they were not response to prtS. Therefore, we selected KpnI、SalI、PvuI、PstI、PvuII to react upon CKH29 chromosome, and then performed Southern blot to make sure that prtS had only one copy in CKH29.
The behavior of His-tag PrtS1 fusion protein pPDZ03 in JM109 was used to find out whether there is any protein related to PrtS1 and the role it plays. According to the result, the interference of nonspecific proteins was irresistible by the one-step purification being applied. So further improvement and fusion of the proteins in the host cell is needed in order to explore the related interactive proteins.
In the discussion of the protease active region of PrtS1, it was found that the PDZ domain had something to do with the regulator of protease activity. That is, the lack of two domains would cause PrtS1 to fail to regulate, and then the host was inclined to death. When PDZ domain II was missing, the protease would lose the activity; when PDZ domain I was missing, the activity would decrease. We conclude that PDZ domain II might correlate to the recognition of specific substrates and that PDZ domain I might correlate to the formation of appropriate polymer. The center of serine protease related to PrtS1 activity still had protease activity after site mutating at the 214th serine protease. Besides, a similar sequence was observed to occur at the 211th serine protease, and it might be the center of another PrtS1.
壹、前言 1

一、Aeromonas hydrophila 之特性 1
(一)分類 1
(二)生理性質 1
(三)生長環境 3
1. 分佈 3
2. 溫度適應性 4
3. pH適應度 4
4. 適合生長鹽濃度 4
5. 氧的適應度 5
二、Aeromonas hydrophila 之致病性 5
(一)傳染途徑 5
(二)動物感染之疾病與病徵 5
(三)人類感染之疾病與病徵 6
(四)感染處理 6
1. 抗生素 6
2. 疫苗 7
三、Aeromonas hydrophila 之致病機制 7
(一)菌體的附著與侵入 7
1. Surface adhesions/lectins 7
2. Fimbriae(pili) 9
(二)細胞表層構造 9
1. OMP(outer membrane protein) 9
2. LPS(lipopolysaccharide endotoxin) 10
3. S-Layer 10
(三)外泌性因子 10
1. Haemolysin(aerolysin) 12
2. Protease 14
3. Lipase 14
4. Enterotoxin 15
四、蛋白酶之介紹與致病機制 15
(一)分類 15
(二)蛋白酶致病機制 16
1. 破壞宿主細胞蛋白酶調控 16
2. 直接破壞宿主細胞蛋白質 18
3. 活化 kallikrein-kinin cascade 18
4. 引發 blood-clotting cascade 20
5. 影響宿主細胞免疫系統,降低防禦能力 20
6. 修飾及活化其他毒素 20
7. 幫助菌體適應不良環境 21
五、蛋白質體上對於蛋白質間結合關係之研究 21
(一)Two-hybride 22
(二)GST fusion protein 22
(三)Coimmunoprecipitation 24
六、研究動機與目的 24

貳、研究材料 26

一、菌株 26
二、質體 26
三、培養基 26
(一)LB medium 26
(二)LA medium 26
(三)T.C.B.S Cholera medium 32
(四)LA + 2 % skim milk 32
四、藥品 32
五、儀器 32

參、研究方法 34

一、DNA 操作 34
(一)小規模抽取 Aeromonas hydrophila 染色體 34
(二)小規模質體製備 35
(三)限制酶作用 36
(四)受容細胞(competent cell)之製作 37
(五)CaCl2 細胞轉形 37
(六)受容細胞之電轉形 38
(七)電轉形 39
(八)重組突變株之篩選 40
(九)質體快速檢驗法 40
(十)DNA 電泳 41
(十一)PCR 放大反應 42
(十二)以 Boiling 法之 PCR 反應 43
(十三)北方點墨法(Southern blotting) 43
1. 轉印分析 44
2. PCR 探針的合成 45
3. 雜合反應 45
4. 酵素連結免疫反應與鹼性去磷酸酶呈色反應偵測雜合訊息 47
(十四)Site-directed mutation 之製作 48
二、蛋白質操作 49
(一)重組蛋白質之誘導表現 49
(二)粗蛋白質的製備 49
(三)目標蛋白質之純化:以親和管柱層析法純化 50
(四)蛋白質定量 51
1. 總細胞蛋白質之定量 51
2. Bradford 蛋白質定量法 52
(五)蛋白酶活性分析-azocasein 分解測定 52
(六)蛋白質電泳 53
1. SDS-PAGE 53
2. Tricine SDS-PAGE 55
(七)膠片染色法及脫色法 57
(八)硝酸銀染色法 58
(九)膠片乾燥法 59
(十)免疫轉漬法 59

肆、結果與討論 61

一、嗜水性產氣單胞桿菌 prtS1 基因缺損株之製備 61
(一)突變株篩選條件 61
1. 抗生素濃度測試 61
(1)抗生素濃度測試:Kanamycin 63
(2)抗生素濃度測試:Tetracycline 63
2. Skim milk plate 63
3. T.C.B.S plate 63
(二)Conjugation 方式製作突變株 66
(三)Electroporation 篩選突變株 66
(四)缺損株之確認 68
(五)A. hydrophila 染色體上 prtS1 基因數目之確認 68

二、PrtS1 絲胺酸蛋白酶相關蛋白的探討 72
(一)PrtS1 之表現 73
(二)PrtS1 之純化 75
(三)相關結合蛋白質之探討 78
1. 與 E. coli JM109 host 之比較 78
2. 比較以 PMSF 抑制 PrtS1 後之結合 78
3. 以 5M urea 作用確認蛋白質間的結合關係 82
4. 硝酸銀染色確認蛋白質 82
三、PrtS1 絲胺酸蛋白酶活性探討 85
(一)PDZ domain 弁鄐妤敦Q 87
1. Skim milk plate 87
2. Azocasein 87
(二)針對活性區進行點突變 92
(三) PrtS1 之三級結構 92
1. 預測三級結構 92
2. PDZ domain 分析 95

伍、結論 99

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