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研究生:黃浩榮
研究生(外文):Hao-Jung Huang
論文名稱:公共新聞學:審議式民主的觀點
論文名稱(外文):Public Journalism: A Viewpoint form Deliberative Democracy
指導教授:張錦華張錦華引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:新聞研究所
學門:傳播學門
學類:新聞學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:193
中文關鍵詞:媒體與民主政治公共化新聞改革公共新聞學審議民主
外文關鍵詞:journalism reformpublicizationdeliberative democracypublic journalismmedia and democracy
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本文意圖藉由文獻分析的策略來順出公共新聞學(public journalism,亦稱公共新聞報導)的理念內涵。公共新聞學乃是一組實踐性新聞理念(practical journalistic ideas),其目的在於希冀藉由重建讀者與社區、讀者與媒體、媒體與社區三方的聯繫(connectedness),從而喚醒居民對於自身公民身份的醒覺以及居民對公共事務的關懷,促其成為公共生活的主體,對生活中的共同問題思辨審議並謀求解決之道,並同時促成社會在公共事務處理上的理性化,讓人們更能理性地、智慧地溝通協商,達成充分的彼此瞭解,涵養同理心,減少社會衝突、對立的發生;並且,藉由 PJ 重建了公民與政治場域間的溝通管道,公民及媒體得以要求政治人物直接面對公民,更為負責地做出每一次的言行舉動。本文並同時處理了公共新聞學所引發的相關爭議。

續之,筆者援引晚近勃興的審議民主理論來對公共新聞學進行檢視,發現公共新聞學儘管也強調公共審議的運作,但仍有諸多疏漏之處,極待改進;但筆者認為不宜因此抹煞公共新聞學促成審議民主理念發展的潛力,而應積極地以嚴謹的審議程序來更新公共新聞學,將其視為落實審議民主的場域,亦是審議民主理論的社會實踐途徑之一。

最後,作為台灣在這方面的初探研究,筆者採取深度訪談的方式來對國內主要報紙主管、資深政治記者進行經驗研究。發現國內報紙主管雖不排斥公共新聞學,但也不願明確接受;資深政治記者們則指出國內政治新聞報導確有諸多弊病,也確有必要推行公共新聞學來改良,但受制於國內特有的社會脈絡及諸多限制,他們對這項新聞改革運動固然充滿期許,但對其成效卻也抱持較為保留的態度。
This study attempts to make clear what the idea of public journalism (PJ) really means. It has no concrete definition or operational rule though, the idea of PJ would contribute to rebuild the “connectedness,” instead of separations, between the media and the citizens, the citizens and the community where they live, as well as the media and the community. In addition, PJ, in effect, embodies the idea of participatory democracy which encourages the citizens to engage in the public affairs, community issues, and social problems in a more active, even deliberative manner.

Consequently, the author, using a theoretical viewpoint from deliberative democracy, goes on examining the idea and the practice of PJ. It seems that PJ has several procedural flaws, not consistent with the rigorous norms of deliberative democracy, but we shall not have to pessimistically deem PJ as an obstacle of deliberative democracy; on the contrary, the author tries to renew it with the procedural norms of deliberative democracy so as to make PJ a catalyst for deliberative democracy.

Moreover, as an exploratory study on the PJ issue in Taiwan, the author took in-depth interviewing as the method to do an empirical study, by interviewing several key-persons of mainstream newspapers as well as senior reporters on political beats. The result shows that the main papers in Taiwan neither oppose nor assert to take the idea of PJ into practice; at present, profit seems to be their major concern. To those senior reporters, nevertheless, they see the need in Taiwan to have PJ rooted in society, expecting it to transform the existing pattern of political reporting, which excludes the public opinion from the general citizens. Notably, confined to the particular contextual restraints of Taiwan society, though the reporters are looking forward to the experiments of PJ, they don’t lay an optimistic view on how it would work.
目 錄

第一章 緒論…………………………………………………………………………1
第一節 研究背景................................................................................................1
第二節 研究問題與研究目的…………………………………………………1
第三節 研究策略與研究架構............................................................................2
第二章 公共新聞學:歷史緣起與實踐....................................................................4
第一節 公共新聞學的緣起脈絡........................................................................4
一、 民眾對政治與媒體大失所望,投票率迭創新低................................4
二、 報紙發行量長期下滑............................................................................5
三、 公共生活的衰退....................................................................................7
四、 新聞改革號角響起:重振社區精神....................................................7
第二節 公共新聞學運動的早期實踐................................................................8
一、《詢問紀事報》:「2000年後的哥倫布市」計畫.................................8
二、《威奇塔鷹報》:「您的一票,寶貴重要」計畫..................................9
三、《威奇塔鷹報》:「市民計畫」.............................................................10
四、《夏洛特觀察家報》:「夏洛特計畫」.................................................12
第三節 公共新聞學的發展現況......................................................................13
一、 公共新聞學運作成效..........................................................................14
二、 公共新聞學的發展平台......................................................................15
第四節 公共新聞學的實踐策略......................................................................16
本章小結..............................................................................................................18
第三章 公共新聞學:理念發展與爭辯..................................................................20
第一節 公共新聞學的理念內涵......................................................................20
第二節 公共新聞學的理論基礎......................................................................22
一、 Hannah Arendt 的行動理論................................................................23
(一) 理論內涵..................................................................................23
(二) 行動理論與 PJ 如何構連......................................................26
二、 Jürgen Habermas 的溝通理性………………………………………27
(一) 何謂溝通理性………….…………………………………….27
(二) 溝通理性與 PJ 如何構連…………………………………..30
第三節 進出公共新聞學的論爭……………………………………………..35
一、 傳統新聞學對公共新聞學的批評…………………………………..35
(一) 記者角色混淆……………………………………………..…35
(二) 有違客觀性新聞意理………………………………………..37
(三) 過度行銷取向………………………………………………..40
(四) 媒體企業出資的疑慮………………………………………..41
(五) 新聞走向軟性化、讀者取向………………………………..42
(六) 守門犬角色的失守…………………………………………..43
(七) 貶低記者專業………………………………………………..44
(八) 新聞哲學的批評……………………………………………..47
二、 公共新聞學的內部歧見……………………………………………..49
(一) 參與程度的路線歧見………………………………………..49
(二) 社區概念的歧見……………………………………………..52
本章小結..............................................................................................................53
第四章 公共新聞學與審議式民主..........................................................................55
第一節 審議式民主理論……………………………………………………..55
一、 代議民主的流弊……………………………………………………..55
二、 審議式民主的理論內涵……………………………………………..59
(一) 何謂「審議」………………………………………………..60
(二) 為何需要審議………………………………………………..61
(三) 審議民主核心理念與規範原則……………………………..64
(四) 審議民主操作模式…………………………………………..67
(五) 對審議民主的批評…………………………………………..71
小結………………………………………………………………………..83
第二節 公共新聞學與審議民主......................................................................84
一、 理念宗旨的相近..................................................................................85
二、 理論基礎的相似..................................................................................86
三、 從審議民主觀點檢視公共新聞學......................................................87
(一) 新聞媒體在審議民主中的角色:審議民主守門犬..............87
(二) 公共新聞學:審議民主的批評..............................................89
(三) 公共新聞學:審議民主的催化劑..........................................92
1•PJ 與民主更新...................................................................93
2•以 PJ 促成更為審議的民主.............................................98
3•以審議民主理論更新 PJ..................................................101
本章小結………………………………………………………………………105
第五章 公共新聞學在台灣發展的可能…………………………………………107
第一節 台灣媒體與民主如何更為公共化…………………………………107
第二節 研究方法……………………………………………………………109
第三節 研究發現與討論……………………………………………………111
一、 訪談結果分析……………………………...……………………….112
二、 公共新聞學在台灣的發展限制……………………………………132
小結………………………………………………………………………148
第四節 以 PJ 促成台灣民主更新…………………………………………150
第五節 台灣發展 PJ 的可能起點…………………………………………152
第六節 對 PJ 理念的反思…………………………………………………154
本章小結………………………………………………………………………156
第六章 結論………………………………………………………………………158
第一節 研究結論……………………………………………………………158
第二節 研究貢獻……………………………………………………………169
第三節 研究限制與未來建議………………………………………………169
參考文獻……………………………………………………………………………171
中文部分………………………………………………………………………171
外文部分………………………………………………………………………176
附錄一:訪談大綱(媒體主管)…………………………………………………191
附錄二:訪談大綱(資深政治新聞記者)………………………………………192
附錄三:1998-2003年台灣媒體有效廣告量之變遷……………………………..193
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