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研究生:陳盈州
研究生(外文):YING-CHOU CHEN
論文名稱:應用在乙太被動光網路之動態分配頻寬分碼多工的通訊協定之設計與模擬
論文名稱(外文):Design and Simulation of Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Code Division Multiple Access Ethernet Passive Optical Network Protocol
指導教授:吳靜雄
指導教授(外文):Jingshown Wu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:電信工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:81
中文關鍵詞:協定動態分配區域乙太被動分碼多工最後一哩網路接取
外文關鍵詞:EPONEthernetCDMAaccesOCDMAoptical networkPON
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近年來,雖然網路骨幹頻寬增加速率極快,但另一方面,接取網路的頻寬卻沒有增加多少。大量增加的網際網路的流量更凸顯了接取網路頻寬不足。在頻寬充裕的區域網路(LAN)以及高速的骨幹網路之下,最後一哩(Last mile),或稱最初一哩(First mile),網路塞車最主要的瓶頸。今日,最普遍的解決方法是數位回路系統(DSL)和纜線數據機(cable modem)。不幸的是這兩者都不能提供足夠的頻寬給日益增加的頻寬需求,像是視訊隨選播放系統(VOD)、視訊會議、及時互動的線上遊戲、數位資料流量以及諸如此類的東西。這是因為數位回路系統和纜線數據機用的傳輸界質是銅線,銅的物理特性有它的限制,尤其是頻寬和距離的乘積並不大。另一方面,光纖通訊已經被應用了釵h年,並且光纖可以提大量的頻寬和很好的傳輸品質。現在的光纖通訊技術已經可以在單一波長上傳輸400億個位元在每一秒鐘內(40 Gbps)。因此,光纖到府以及光纖到建築物是一個對於最後一哩的網路瓶頸不錯的完整解決方案。乙太被動光網路(EPON)是一個在建設光網路以及維持成本上都極為便宜的架構。因此,它是光纖到府的最佳候選人,而光纖到府則是下一代接取網路的最佳解決方案。

目前,動態分配頻寬之分時多工乙太被動光網路(DBA TDMA EPON)的通訊協定可說是最為普遍的。在直覺上分時多工是最易於被實現的。另外一方面,光分碼多工(OCDMA)通訊協定則是另外一個多工的方案。在這篇論文裡,我們會使用光分碼多工的方法來共用上傳通道的頻寬以避免在局端(CO)發生封包碰撞的事情。此外,我們採用完美相差碼(perfect difference code)在我們的通訊協定裡。這種碼有非常高的效率並且適合用於乙太被動光網路上。為了增加頻寬使用上的效率以及彈性,我們設計了動態分配頻寬之分碼多工乙太被動光網路的通訊協定(DBA CDMA EPON)。換句話說,在使用者那端的光網路單元(ONU)可以根據自己記憶體的情況來使用不同數量的碼來傳輸資料。如此一來,動態分配頻寬之分碼多工乙太被動光網路的通訊協定可以大幅度地增加頻寬使用效率以及彈性。再者,我們將比較動態分配頻寬之分碼多工和分時多工的通訊協定之網路效能。 在此篇論文中我們挑選IPACT來當作我們分時多工的比較對象,IPACT是目前最有名的通訊協定。我們將會解釋並且證明動態分配頻寬之分碼多工乙太被動光網路的通訊協定在各方面勝過IPACT很多,並且我們也會討論造成這些結果的原因。
The capacity of telecommunication backbone networks increased very rapidly in recent years but that of access network changed little. The tremendous growth of Internet traffic has accentuated the severe shortage of access network capacity. The “last mile” (or first mile) still remains the bottleneck between high-capacity local area network (LAN) and the backbone network. Nowadays, the most popular broadband last mile solution is the digital subscriber line (DSL) and cable modem. Unfortunately, they can not provide enough bandwidth for increasing demands such as Voice over IP (VOIP), Video On Demand (VOD), video conference, interactive games, data traffic, and so on. That is because the transmitting media of DSL and cable networks is copper whose capacity-distance product is limited by its intrinsic property. On the other hand, fibers have been applied for many years, which can provide enormous bandwidth and high quality transmission. Nowadays the optical communication technique is able to afford 40 gigabits per second (Gbps) in single wavelength. Therefore the fiber to the home (FTTH) or fiber to the building (FTTB) is a promising solution of the last mile problem. Ethernet Network Optical Network (EPON) which represents the convergence of low-cost Ethernet equipment and low-cost fiber infrastructure appears to be the best candidate for the FTTB which is the best solution for the next-generation access network.

Presently, dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) time division multiple access (TDMA) EPON protocol is popular because TDMA protocol is easy to implement and instinctive to invent. On the other hand, optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) protocol is an alternative solution. In this thesis, we use the OCDMA as channel sharing method in upstream transmission to prevent the packet collision in the central office (CO). Besides, we adopt the perfect difference codes in our DBA CDMA EPON protocol. This code is very efficient and suitable to use in EPON. For increasing the bandwidth efficiency and flexibility, we design the dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) CDMA EPON protocol. In other words, the optical network unit (ONU) which is in user-end can use different number of codes to transmit data according to its buffer condition. In this way, the DBA CDMA EPON protocol can much improve the bandwidth efficiency and flexibility. Additionally, we will compare network performance between IPACT (DBA TDMA EPON protocol) and DBA CDMA EPON protocol. IPACT is the most popular DBA TDMA EPON protocol presently. We will explain and prove that the performance of DBA CDMA EPON is much better than IPACT, and we will discuss the reason of this.
Contents



中文摘要 i
Content iii

Abstract vi

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

1.1 Motivation ……………………………………… 1
1.2 Description of EPON……………………………… 3
1.3 Organization of this Thesis…………………… 5

Chapter 2 EPON Network and Protocol 6

2.1 Multiplexing Protocol of EPON………………… 6
2.2 DBA TDMA EPON Protocol……………………………12
2.2.1 Why DBA TDMA EPON Protocol……………………12
2.2.2 IPACT Algorithm………………………………… 13

Chapter 3 Introduction of CDMA EPON 21

3.1 Perfect Difference Codes ……………………… 21
3.3.1 Perfect Difference Set………………………… 22
3.3.2 Receiver Structure……………………………… 25
3.3.3 Performance Simulation Result…………………26
3.2 System Architecture of CDMA EPON………………30
3.2.1 System Synchronization………………………… 32
3.3 DBA CDMA EPON Protocol……………………………35

Chapter 4 Simulation of DBA CDMA EPON Protocol 45

4.1 Self-similar Traffic………………………………45
4.1.1 Self-similarity and Long Range Dependence…45
4.1.2 Generation of Self-similar Traffic in Our Simulation...49
4.2 Simulation Result of DBA CDMA EPON……………52
4.2.1 Simulation Model………………………………… 52
4.2.2 Simulation Result…………………………………54
4.3 Simulation Result of Tagged ONU in Different Network Load…………60
4.3.1 Performance of the Tagged ONU in Low Load…61
4.3.2 Performance of the Tagged ONU in Medium Load…66
4.3.3 Performance of the Tagged ONU in High Load 71
4.3.4 Throughput Performance of the Tagged ONU in Different Network Load…………………………………………………77

Chapter 5

Conclusion 79

Reference viii
References

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