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研究生:黃騰毅
研究生(外文):Teng-Yi Huang
論文名稱:平衡梯度之穩定態磁振造影及其應用:從穩定態到暫態
論文名稱(外文):Balanced steady-state free precession imaging and its applications: From “steady state” to “transient state”
指導教授:鍾孝文
指導教授(外文):Hsiao-wen Chung
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:電機工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:92
中文關鍵詞:快速成像法磁共振造影術穩定態造影術
外文關鍵詞:MRIRapid imagingSSMagnetic Resonance Imaging
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結合了三軸平衡梯度之快速穩定態磁振造影術最近在臨床應用的發展受到眾人的關注。而本論文的重點是在研發新的穩定態磁振造影技術以及其相關的應用。在本文中這項技術被分成兩個類別來探討,也就是穩定態及暫態。首先在穩定態的理論原理將會被簡單的描述。之後,利用了穩定態的相位特性來做脂肪影像及水影像的分解。人體實驗上則在3 Tesla高磁場下來進行,調整選擇最佳離共振頻率,並利用理論及實驗結果相互佐證。在第二部份,我將以模擬以及受試者的頭部影像來說明暫態的新概念。根據結果,我們證實了穩定態磁振影像在大多數情況下應考慮為質子權重影像以及T2/T1 權重的暫態組合。真正的影像對比將會隨著相位編碼以及射頻脈衝數目的對應關係而有所改變。最後一部份,結合了暫態現象、T2磁化準備以及巡弋迴訊的呼吸監控,我們實作出適合心肌血氧對比影像研究快速成像速。結合了T2磁化對比準備,這項技術擷取了進入穩定態前的暫態信號,所得到的影像呈現出了正確的T2權重對比。在這項技術未來將使用在心肌T2影像的成像術。 結合了上述對這項技術的重新認識,我們認為未來臨床的應用將越來越廣。

Rapid gradient-echo imaging (bSSFP) with balanced gradient waveforms in all three gradient channels has recently raised significant attention in clinical practice. The aim in this work is to develop the new bSSFP techniques and applications. In the thesis, the bSSFP techniques are separated into two different categories, steady-state and transient-sate. First, the classic theory of steady-state bSSFP is shortly discussed. And a newly invented fat-water separation method using the phase property of bSSFP is demonstrated. We demonstrate the feasibility of fat/water separation in bSSFP imaging using the Dixon method in vivo at high magnetic field (3.0 Tesla), with cautions in its usage and optimal off-resonance ranges described using both theories and experimental results. Second, the concept of “transient-state” is introduced and demonstrated by simulations and volunteer brain images. We show that the usual appearance of bSSFP images should be more appropriately regarded as a transient-state combination of proton-density and T2/T1 contrast. The actual image appearance depends on the number of RF pulses experienced by the magnetization prior to data acquisition near the center portion of the k-space. Finally, the transient-state effect combined with T2 magnetization preparation and prospective motion-navigation is applied on the application of myocardial BOLD imaging. Combining T2 magnetization preparation, the transient-state bSSFP, which acquires signal before entering into steady-state, was shown practical to obtain T2-weighted images without segmented acquisition. In the present study, ECG-triggered bSSFP with T2 preparation was proposed to accomplish myocardial T2 mapping on human subjects, with special care taken on the phase-encoding order and motion control.

Chapter 1 Introduction 7
1.1 Application of “steady-state”: Fat-water separation 8
1.2 Concept of “transient-state” 9
1.3 Application of “transient-state”: Myocardial BOLD Imaging 11
Chapter 2 Basic Theory of bSSFP sequence 14
2.1 Pulse sequence characteristics 14
2.2 Steady-state signal intensity and RF pulse phase alternation 16
2.3 Image contrast 23
2.4 Approaching the steady state 32
Chapter 3 Dixon method in Steady-State 35
3.1 Theories: Phase property of bSSFP 35
3.2 Experiment &Image Acquisition 39
3.3 Results of Dixon bSSFP 40
3.4 Discussions: Advantages of Dixon bSSFP and its pitfalls 44
Chapter 4 Transient-state phenomena 48
4.1 Investigation of the transient-state effect: Simulations and validation on human brains 48
4.2 Results from simulations and volunteer studies 50
4.3 Discussions 58
Chapter 5 Myocardial BOLD image using T2-bSSFP 61
5.1 Method: Sequence design ,phantom validation and human study 61
5.1.1 T2 magnetization preparation (T2-prep) 62
5.1.2 Stabilization (STAB) and bSSFP readout in the Transient state 65
5.1.3 Motion control: Breath hold and Prospective acquisition correction (PACE) 65
5.1.4 T2 measurement validation on phantom study 68
5.1.5 In vivo human study 68
5.2 Experiment Results 70
5.2.1 Validation by Phantom study 70
5.2.2 In Vivo T2 measurements 74
5.2.3 PACE motion control: Preliminary Data 81
5.3 Discussion and Conclusions 83
Chapter 6. Conclusion 86
Reference 88



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