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研究生:陳怡倩
研究生(外文):Yi-Chien Chen
論文名稱:台灣產三種原甲藻新種的鑑定
論文名稱(外文):Identification of three new Prorocentrum species (Dinophyceae) isolated in Taiwan
指導教授:周宏農
指導教授(外文):Hung-Non Chou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:漁業科學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:91
中文關鍵詞:原甲藻鑑定
外文關鍵詞:ProrocentrumIdentification
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摘要
本研究針對由臺灣沿海各地所採集、建立的原甲藻藻株,利用傳統分類的形態特徵包括細胞大小、形狀及殼片結構、鞭毛複合體區域以及中間帶等超微細結構,配合脂肪酸及prorocentrolide系列次級代謝物組成的化學分類為輔進行種類的確定。將現有培養中各藻株歸納為三大類包括一個已知種及三個新種:
第一類的特徵與文獻中Prorocentrum lima的描述近似,細胞長32.2-37.3�慆、寬22.8-26.8�慆,長寬比1.4;脂肪酸成分以16:0 ( 27.5- 41.27%)、18:1(n-9) (9.3-15.4%)、20:5 (n-3) (9.4-11.5%)以及22:6 (n-3) (8.3-16.3%)為主,含有prorocentrolide、4-hydroxyprorocentrolide及14-O-acetyl-4- hydroxyprorocentrolide 大環內酯化合物之組成,因此可證實第一類細胞為台灣新紀錄種P. lima。
第二類細胞大小類似 P. lima,長33.3-36.5�慆、寬26.8-28.5�慆,長寬比1.3,但橢圓形的周邊孔及刺絲胞的存在等均與已發表之種類有所不同;化合物的組成亦與P. lima顯著不同,其中脂肪酸成分以16:0 (38.2-39%)、18:1(n-7) (13.3-14.1%)為主,只含有prorocentrolide化合物,現有文獻中並無一致的型態描述,可為新種,因此命名為P. lima var. taiwan sp. nov.。
第三類的細胞明顯較前兩類為小,但採樣地點上的差異及其微細構造以及化學組成上的不同,又可分為兩群:其中分離自於台南養殖場,長8.2-8.8�慆、寬6.2-6.6�慆,長寬比接近1.3,橢圓形的鞭毛孔複合體及鞭毛孔明顯大於附屬孔;脂肪酸成分以16:0 (21.5-25.2%)、18:0 (13.2-13.5%)、20:5 (n-3) (17.6-19.2%)以及22:6 (n-3) (14-18.2%)為主,只含有prorocentrolide化合物,為一新的品種,命名為P. tainan sp. nov.。另一族群則分離自東港養殖池,長7.5-8.5�慆、寬5.2-6.5�慆,長寬比達1.4以上,梯形的鞭毛孔複合體,鞭毛孔與附屬孔大小相近;脂肪酸成分以16:0 (31-36.4%)、20:3 (n-3) (15.3-15.8%)以及20:5 (n-3) (12.4-15.1%)為主,不含prorocentrolide大環內酯化合物,該群藻株明顯不同於P. tainan,命名為P. donggang sp. nov.。
Abstract
Prorocentrum lima and three new species of Prorocentrum were identified according to their external features of cells, such as, shape and size, and ultrastructures of thecal plate ornamentation, intercalary band and architecture of the periflagellar area and grouped into three categoryies. Specimens identified in this research were previousely cloned from samples collected from the coastal area of Taiwan. Idnetification of these pecimens was further supported by their fatty acid and prorocentrolide compositions as chemotaxonomic characters.
Clones of the first group were identified as P. lima (Ehrenberg) Dodge. They have the typical features of cell, oval in valve view, 32.2-37.3 μm long and 22.8-26.8 μm wide, with the body length/width ratio of 1.4. Major fatty acids that count to 50% or more of total fatty acids were found to be 16:0 (27.5-41.27%), 18:1 (n-9) (9.3-15.4%), 20:5(n-3) (9.4-11.5%), and 22:6 (n-3) (8.3-16.3%). All three known macrolides, prorocentrolide 、4-hydroxyprorocentrolide and 14-O-acetyl-4-hydroxyprorocentrolide were found in clones of this group. This is the first record of this species in Taiwan.
Cells among clones of the second group were oblong in valve view, 33.3-36.5 μm long and 26.8-28.5 μm wide, with a length/width ratio of 1.3. Cell size and shape were close to P. lima. Marginal pores on the valve were oblong with trichocysts, were not observed among the published species. Major fatty acids of this species were C16:0 (38.2-39%) and C18:1 (n-7) (13.3-14.1%), lack in PUFA. Prorocentrolide was the only one of the three idenfiable macrolide in this species. So, this species was named as P. taiwan sp. nov., a new species of Prorocentrum.
Cells of the third Prorocentrum group were smaller than the other two. Clones the third group could be further separated into two subgroups, one group contained 3 clones isolated from Tainan aquaculture pond and the other one, 8 clones from Donggang aquaculture pond. Clones from Tainan were oblong in valve view, 8.2-8.8 μm long, 6.2-6.6 μm wide, and a length/width ratio of 1.3, delicate and smooth theca surface. The periflagellar area of Tainan clones had an oblong appearance, and two periflagellar pores, of which the flagellar pore was larger than the auxiliary pore. Fatty acid composition was found to be close to P. lima, with a major part in C16:0 (21.5-25.2%), C18:0 (13.2-13.5%), C20:5 (n-3) (17.6-19.2%) and C22:6 (n-3) (14-18.2%). These clones were named P. tainan sp. nov., another new species identified to contain prorocentrolide. Cells of Donggang isolates were also oblong in valve view, but slightly smaller in size. They were 7.5-8.5 μm long, 5.2-6.5 μm wide, and had a length/width ratio over 1.3. The periflagellar area was trapezoid-shaped, and the two periflagellar pores, the flagellar and auxiliary, were similar in size. The major fatty acids of these clones, C16:0 (31-36.4%), C20:3 (n-3) (15.3-15.8%), and C20:5 (n-3) (12.4-15.1%) and the lack of prorocentrolide pointed these clones were different from P. tainan and named P. donggang sp. nov., another new benthic Prorocentrum species.
目錄
中文摘要……………………………………………………….1
英文摘要……………………………………………………….3
一、前言………………………………………………………...5
二、文獻回顧…………………………………………………..8
三、材料與方法………………………………………………16
1.儀器及藥品……………………………………………..16
  2.藻細胞的採集、單離與培養……………………………17
3.細胞形態的觀察………………………………………..17
4.化學組成分析…………………………………………..18
四、結果………………………………………………………22
五、討論 ……………………………………………………..33
六、參考文獻………………………………………………….40
附表…………………………………………………………...51
附圖…………………………………………………………...58
附錄…………………………………………………………...78
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