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研究生:鄭世澤
研究生(外文):Shih-Tse Cheng
論文名稱:質子交換膜型燃料電池薄膜電極組乾式吸附法製程之研究
論文名稱(外文):Experimental Studies of Dry Layer Preparation in Suction Method of PEMFC Membrane Electrode Assemblies
指導教授:郭景宗郭景宗引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jing-Tzung kuo
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:機械工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:113
中文關鍵詞:性能量測電極薄膜電極組
外文關鍵詞:MEAperformanceelectrode
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薄膜電極組製造成本高昂是燃料電池商品化的一項障礙,本文所提出之MEA新式製作方式採用乾式製程配合粉末吸附與擴散機制將可縮短MEA之製作流程,達到簡化製程之主要目的進而降低生產成本。
在本文中MEA之製作過程因大量減少有機溶劑的使用,在製作過程中也避免了傳統濕式製程中烘乾程序所耗費之時間,也因此在完整之製作過程中所需之時間將可大大的被縮短, MEA之組成結構如同三明治般的結合型態,主要是由氣體擴散基材、碳粉、PTFE、觸媒、Nafion 所組合而成,在製作過程中各種材料的含量與特性上些微的差異,在MEA之性能表現上將會有重大的影響。
在起體擴散背層中PTFE之含量約在40wt% 搭配具有較大表面面積之碳粉Ketjen Black EC600相較於Acetylene black 與 Ketjen Black EC300 可以得到較好的性能表現,在觸媒層的製備上由於吸附壓力與氮氣流量將會明顯影響觸媒層之吸附結果,由實驗結果得到當吸附壓力在12公分水柱高配合4L/min之氮氣流量將可得到明顯較高的性能表現必v密度約在0.21W/cm2,在吸附過程中觸媒塗佈量控制在0.4~0.5mg/cm2。
本文所提出之乾式製備方法採用吸附方式配合粉末擴散機制,提供了一種簡易、快速且可靠的MEA製作方式,並達到了快速製作與減少製作成本之目的。
As production cost will be one of the main challenges for commercialization of fuel cells, a new approach to MEA production for PEMFC has been considered. Electrodes are produced by a new dry layer preparation method in a suction procedure and co-operated with a particle diffusion design.
All structures in MEA of this process were prepared without any organic solvent; therefore the time of preparation procedures can be drastically reduced. MEA’s sandwiched structures were constituted by many materials- diffusion substrate, carbon powder, PTFE, catalyst, ion conductor, Nafion membrane. A slight difference in the quantity and character of each material will cause a apparent influence on the performance of MEAs.
In gas diffusion backing layer the content of PTFE is about 40wt% and with high surface-area Ketjen Black EC600 at an optimized thickness, show better performance compared with Acetylene black and Ketjen Black EC300 carbon in backing layer. In catalyst layer preparation the suction pressure and the flow rate of nitrogen affects directly in the performance of MEA. When the pressure at 12 cm water height and the nitrogen flow rate at 4L/min show an obvious higher power density 0.21 W/cm2. The Pt loading is controlled between 0.4~0.5mg/cm2.
This new dry layer preparation method with suction and powder diffusion procedure offers a simple, rapid and reliable method for MEA’s production. A faster and a low cost objective can be achieved.
中文摘要…………………………………………………………....Ⅱ
Abstract………………………………………………………………Ⅲ
目錄……………………………………………………………………Ⅳ
表目錄………………………………………………………………..Ⅷ
圖目錄………………………………………………………………….Ⅸ
符號說明……………………………………………………………….XII
第一章、序論……………………………………………………………1
1.1 燃料電簡介..........................................2
1.2 燃料電池之發展背景……………………………………..……4
1.2.1 燃料電池對於內燃機之競爭優勢………………………4
1.2.2 燃料電池發展趨勢………………………………………5
1.3 燃料電池運作原理………………………..…………………....6
1.4 燃料電池之特點……………………………..…………………8
1.5 燃料電池之種類…………………………………...……..……9
1.5.1質子交換膜型燃料電池(PEMFC)…………….…………9
1.5.2 鹼性燃料電池(Alkaline Fuel Cell)…………….….……10
1.5.3 磷酸型燃料電池(PAFC)…………….…….………..…..11
1.5.4 熔融碳酸鹽型燃料電池(SCFC)…………………….….11
1.5.5固態氧化物電解質型燃料電池(SOFC)…………………12
1.6 文獻回顧…………………………………………..…………..14
第二章、質子交換膜型燃料電池(PEMFC)…………………………..17
2.1 質子交換膜型燃料電池之結構………………………..……..17
2.2雙極板(bipolar plate)之弁遄K…………………….…………18
2.2.1 流道設計………………………………………………..19
2.3 PEMFC的運作原理…………………………………………….20
2.4 PEMFC 之關鍵技術………………………….………………...22
2.4.1 PEMFC內部水的管理………………….…………..…….22
2.4.2PEMFC的溫度管理………………………………………27
2.4.3PEMFC 的壓力管控………………………...……………30
2.4.4 PEMFC 反應物的管理…...…………...………………...34
第三章、交換膜電極組 (MEA)………………………………………..36
3.1氣體擴散層…………….………………………..……………..36
3.1.1氣體擴散基材……………………………………………37
3.1.2氣體擴散背層…………………………………..………..38
3.2觸媒層…………………………………………………….……38
3.2.1 觸媒…………………..…………….…………………38
3.3高分子薄膜電解質層………….………………………………40
3.4 MEA的反應機制………………………………………..…….42
第四章、MEA之乾式製備實驗…………………………………………46
4.1實驗目的…………………………………………………..……46
4.2實驗設備…………………………………………………..……47
4.2.1 實驗材料……………......................................................47
4.2.2 吸引設備設計與製作…………………………………..47
4.2.3 單電池之組合構件…………………...………………..49
4.2.4 測試與分析系統設計與製作……………………...…..52
4.2.4.1加濕及溫度控制控制模組……………..………...52
4.2.4.2流量控制模組……………………………..………53
4.2.4.3資料擷取模組…………………………………..…54
4.3 MEA之相關製程…………………………….………..…….55
4.3.1 質子交換膜之前處理…………………………………..55
4.3.2 氣體擴散層之疏水處理………………………………..56
4.3.3氣體擴散層背層塗佈…………………………………....57
4.3.4 觸媒層塗佈……………………………………………59
4.3.4.1濕式CCS塗佈製程(Wet CCS method)………….59
4.3.4.2 濕式CCM塗佈製程(Wet CCM method)……….59
4.3.4.3 乾式CCS塗佈製程(Dry CCS method)…………60
4.3.3.4乾式CCM塗佈製程(Dry CCM method)…….……61
4.3.3.5物理氣相沉積製程(Physical Vapor Deposition, PVD)………………………………………………62
第五章、實驗結果與討論……………………………………………....66
5.1實驗步驟…………………………………………….…………66
5.2氣體擴散背層PTFE含量MEA性能之影響…………………..68
5.3導電碳黑之性質對於MEA性能之影響……………………….68
5.4 氣體擴散背層中PTFE之含量對MEA性能之影響…...………69
5.5 觸媒層中Nafion含量對MEA性能之影響………………….71
5.6觸媒層之吸附塗佈實驗………………………..………………72
5.7 結論…………………...………………………………………..74
5.8 未來工作與展望……………………………………………….75
參考文獻………………………………………………………………..77
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