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研究生:王燦鎮
研究生(外文):Tsan-Jen Wang
論文名稱:電動機車能源管理與電子換檔技術研發
論文名稱(外文):Energy Management and Electrical Transmission For Electric Vehicles
指導教授:陽毅平陽毅平引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yee-Pien Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:機械工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:148
中文關鍵詞:電動機車能量管理電子換檔
外文關鍵詞:Energy ManagementElectric VehiclesElectrical Transmission
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本論文提出一種方法可使電動機車具有換檔的弁遄A經由改變馬達的供應電壓及馬達繞組串並聯,可組合出四種檔次,以自動換檔的方式使電動機車行駛在各檔次的高效率區,將可提高電動機車動力系統的效率。
能量管理策略是利用開路電壓法、安培小時補償法及暫態電壓估測法,個別的量測四顆電池的殘餘電量,可提供駕駛人可靠的殘電量指示,亦可避免電池因過度放電傷害電池。
本文由馬達的力矩及效率討論各檔次的切換時機;實驗時是以馬達效率為考量下,以ECE40行車型態測試續航力時,發現若使電動機車動力系統運轉在各檔次的最佳效率曲線上時,將可增加電動機車20%的續航力。


The thesis proposes a novel technology of electric transmission system for electric vehicles. By changing the supply voltage and phase windings of the motor, the electric transmission system can compose four gear types. Thus, the electric vehicles can work in high efficient conditions. In other words, with the proposed electric transmission system, the efficiency of the power system electric vehicles will be increased.

Second, the thesis also presents three energy management strategies, which are open circuit voltage, ampere-hour compensation and transient open circuit voltage estimation methods. By measuring the residual energy of four batteries respectively, the methods can provide driver reliable residual energy display so that can avoid the batteries from running out of energy.

Finally, the timing of switching among four gears can be determined by the torque output and efficiency of the motors. The experiment result shows that the electric vehicles will increase 20% cruise ability if the power system of the four gears working in the best efficient condition.


誌謝........................................................................................................................Ⅰ
中文摘要.................................................................................................................Ⅱ
英文摘要.................................................................................................................Ⅲ
目錄........................................................................................................................Ⅳ
圖表目錄.................................................................................................................Ⅷ
第一章 緒論.............................................................................................................1
1-1 研究動機與目的.................................................................................................1
1-2電動車能源及其管理系統...................................................................................4
1-3文獻回顧.............................................................................................................5
1-4章節摘要............................................................................................................10
第二章 電動車輛儲能系統.....................................................................................12
2-1 前言..................................................................................................................12
2-2 電動車輛儲能元件............................................................................................17
2-2-1化學電池.........................................................................................................18
2-2-2物理電池.........................................................................................................20
2-2-3生物電池.........................................................................................................21
2-3 二次電池的等效電路模型.................................................................................21
2-3-1理想電路模型..................................................................................................22
2-3-2內電阻電路模型..............................................................................................23
2-3-3戴維寧等效電路模型......................................................................................23
2-3-4等效電容電路模型..........................................................................................24
2-3-5Shepherd 方程式等效模型...............................................................................25
2-4 影響電池總容量的因素....................................................................................28
2-4-1理想電池和實際電池的差異...........................................................................28
2-4-2鉛酸電池的特性..............................................................................................28
2-4-2-1 如何決定電容量..........................................................................................28
2-4-2-2 電解質的比重..............................................................................................30
2-4-2-3 單電池的電壓..............................................................................................32
2-4-2-4 放電電流大小..............................................................................................33
2-4-2-5 溫度.............................................................................................................34
2-4-2-6 放電深度.....................................................................................................35
2-4-2-7 極板硫酸鹽化..............................................................................................36
2-4-2-8 內電阻.........................................................................................................37
第三章 電動機車馬達特性介紹..............................................................................38
3-1 扁平式馬達簡介................................................................................................38
3-2 馬達力矩方程式的探討.....................................................................................41
3-2-1 馬達力矩方程式的建立..................................................................................41
3-2-2 能量法推導出馬達力矩方程式.......................................................................48
3-2-2-1 繞組磁阻力矩..............................................................................................48
3-2-2-2 齒阻力矩......................................................................................................49
3-2-2-3 對正力矩......................................................................................................49
3-3 馬達電壓方程式的討論.....................................................................................50
3-3-1 驅動器全橋電路..............................................................................................51
第四章 電動機車能量管理策略...............................................................................54
4-1 簡介...................................................................................................................54
4-2 電池容量估測的實現方法.................................................................................54
4-2-1 安培小時補償法.............................................................................................54
4-2-2 開路電壓法.....................................................................................................58
4-2-3 暫態開路電壓估測法......................................................................................61
4-2-4 實現方法........................................................................................................63
4-3 馬達繞組串並聯模式的改變.............................................................................64
4-3-1 電流對馬達輸出力矩的影響..........................................................................64
4-3-2 靜止起動時的電流波形..................................................................................65
4-3-3 行駛時的最佳波形.........................................................................................65
4-3-4 方波與最佳波形輸入時馬達的輸出力矩........................................................68
4-3-4-1 方波電流輸入..............................................................................................68
4-3-4-2 最佳驅動波形..............................................................................................70
4-3-5 馬達繞組的改變.............................................................................................71
4-4 電池串並聯的改變............................................................................................74
4-4-1 電池串並聯.....................................................................................................74
4-4-2 四顆電池並聯.................................................................................................75
4-4-3 每二顆電池串聯後再並聯..............................................................................76
4-4-4 四顆電池全部串聯.........................................................................................77
4-5 電池與繞組串並聯決定檔次切換......................................................................78
4-5-1 以馬達電壓方程決定檔次切換.......................................................................78
4-5-2 以效率曲線決定檔次切換...............................................................................81
4-5-3 以實驗方法驗證..............................................................................................83
4-5-4 最佳檔次切換的決定......................................................................................87
第五章 數位化驅動控制的整合...............................................................................91
5-1 馬達控制器數位化.............................................................................................91
5-1-1 類比訊號轉為數位訊號..................................................................................93
5-1-2 數位濾波器設計.............................................................................................98
5-1-3 最佳波形產生器...........................................................................................101
5-2 電流型驅動器..................................................................................................103
5-2-1 驅動器隔離電路...........................................................................................103
5-2-2 驅動器保護電路...........................................................................................105
5-3 馬達繞組及電池串並聯的實現........................................................................106
5-3-1 馬達繞組及電池串並聯的實現.....................................................................106
5-3-2 電池串並聯實現電路...................................................................................108
5-4 殘電顯示的實現..............................................................................................109
5-5 數位化控制器..................................................................................................111
第六章 實驗規劃與結果討論.................................................................................113
6-1 實驗設備.........................................................................................................113
6-2 實驗規劃.........................................................................................................118
6-3 各種檔次的效率..............................................................................................119
6-4 ECE40測試續航力...........................................................................................126
6-5 實驗結果與討論..............................................................................................127
第七章 結論與未來展望........................................................................................136
7-1結論.................................................................................................................136
7-2未來展望..........................................................................................................137
參考文獻...............................................................................................................139
附錄A 控制器電路圖.............................................................................................142
附錄B 暫態開路電壓估測法的探討.......................................................................146
附錄C 反電動勢與力矩漣波的關係.......................................................................148


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