(3.236.231.61) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/11 16:15
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:楊欣怡
研究生(外文):Hsin-Yi Yang
論文名稱:日光燈管回收作業勞工汞暴露調查
論文名稱(外文):Occupational Mercury Exposure to Workers in Fluorescent Lamp Recycling Plant
指導教授:林宜長林宜長引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:環境衛生研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:99
中文關鍵詞:生物偵測作業環境測定日光燈管回收作業
外文關鍵詞:biological monitoringenvironmental monitoringmercuryfluorescent lamp processing
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
  • 點閱點閱:209
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
台灣地區每年約使用九千萬支日光燈管,數量相當的龐大,所造成的廢日光燈管數目亦相當可觀。日光燈管中存有汞及其他未能腐化的有害物質,需經適當的處理方能將之資源化及無害化。目前全台已有四家核可廠商進行廢日光燈管的回收處理工作。由於日光燈管回收為一新興作業,環顧國內外,尚無相關暴露資料可供參考。
  因廠內汞蒸氣及附著汞蒸氣的螢光粉塵兩者並存,僅針對汞蒸氣進行評估恐有低估之虞,是以利用汞蒸氣吸附管及被覆二氯化鈀(PdCl2)的MCE濾紙,進行作業環境測定,收集作業人員尿液做為生物偵測之用,分別利用冷蒸氣、石墨爐原子吸收光譜法進行分析;尚針對作業人員的工作習慣、衛生習慣等資料進行收集。
  根據作業環境測定、生物偵測及問卷結果發現,在定點汞蒸氣樣品中,除衍生物料出口外,濃度大多低於0.05 mg/m3,但是不論運轉中或清掃時的機台內定點汞蒸氣濃度均超出0.1 mg/m3,個人採樣方面,暴露濃度高低受到進出機台的頻率、特殊作業的進行(例如:破碎燈管處理、螢光粉蒸餾)、機台內部的清掃,影響甚大。將汞蒸氣吸附管及被覆二氯化鈀的MCE濾紙進行成對採集,採樣結果經直線回歸運算,得出兩者具有高度正相關(R= 0.79),初步得出,僅採集汞蒸氣將低估作業人員的汞暴露。生物偵測方面,各廠的燈管進料人員和其他作業人員相較,尿汞值較高,雖然現場作業人員均有佩戴呼吸防護器具,但其尿汞值顯示,還是有受到汞暴露的影響。綜合問卷資料、個人空氣採樣濃度及尿汞值推測,呼吸防護具使用正確與否,影響各廠作業人員的汞暴露程度。


The consumption of fluorescent lamps in Taiwan is about 90 million each year, thus much hazardous waste has been produced. To reduce environmental pollution, the recycle of fluorescent lamps has begun since 2002 in Taiwan. There are four factories authorized by Taiwan EPA to process waste lamps. Processing disposed fluorescent lamps is a newly-established industry, and there are no exposure assessment data available in Taiwan.
  The assessment of mercury exposure to workers was conducted by environmental monitoring, biological monitoring and questionnaire data.
Among stationary samples of mercury vapor, most of the concentrations were below 0.05 mg/m3, except the exit of treated material. Concentrations inside the processing enclosure were beyond 0.1 mg/m3 , whether enclosure was in operation or during cleaning . Personal sampling concentration is affected by the entering frequency to enclosure or by processing other special work like crumbling broken lamps or distilling fluorescent powder, or cleaning the enclosure. The mercury exposure may be underestimated by using Hydrar sorbent tube alone. In biological monitoring, lamp loading workers had higher U-Hg concentration. Although the workers all wore respirators, U-Hg concentration showed that they were still exposed to mercury. According to questionnaire, personal sampling concentration and U-Hg concentration, whether using respirators correctly or not is the main factor to affect workers’ mercury exposure.


摘要 i
Abstract ii
目錄 iii
表目錄 vii
圖目錄 viii
第一章、緒論 1
1-1研究背景 1
1-2研究目的 2
第二章、文獻探討 4
2-1汞的特性及用途 4
2-2國內日光燈管回收作業發展沿革及現況 5
2-3台灣地區勞工汞蒸氣暴露評估相關研究 9
2-4汞作業環境管制標準 9
2-5人類可能的汞暴露途徑 10
2-6汞的毒物動力學 11
2-6-1吸收 11
2-6-2分佈 12
2-6-3代謝 13
2-6-4移除 13
2-7汞對人體的健康效應 15
2-7-1急性作用 15
2-7-2慢性作用 15
2-7-3其他 16
2-8汞暴露的生物指標 17
2-9汞樣品採集、保存及分析 19
第三章、材料與方法 23
3-1藥品及試劑 23
3-2器材 23
3-3儀器分析條件 25
3-3-1空氣中汞蒸氣及尿液樣品分析 25
3-3-1-1原子吸收光譜儀 25
3-3-1-2樣品注入系統 25
3-3-2空氣中含汞粉塵樣品分析 27
3-3-2-1原子吸收光譜儀 27
3-3-2-2石墨爐昇溫程式 27
3-4 研究架構 28
3-5汞蒸氣樣品 28
3-5-1作業環境及個人汞蒸氣採集 28
3-5-2汞蒸氣吸附管分析方法建立 29
3-5-3檢量線製備 30
3-5-4溶液定量體積對回收率之影響 30
3-5-5方法偵測極限 31
3-6含汞粉塵樣品 32
3-6-1作業環境含汞粉塵採集 32
3-6-2含汞粉塵濾紙分析方法建立 32
3-6-3檢量線製備 33
3-6-4方法偵測極限 33
3-7尿液樣品 34
3-7-1作業人員尿液採集 34
3-7-2尿液樣品分析方法建立 34
3-7-3空白尿液的收集 35
3-7-4檢量線製備 35
3-7-5檢量線製備溶液的選取及基質效應 36
3-7-6回收率 36
3-7-7方法偵測極限 36
3-7-8尿中肌酸酐(Creatinine)測定 37
3-8問卷訪視 37
3-8-1個人基本資料 37
3-8-2工作概況 37
3-8-3生活、工作及衛生習慣 38
3-9樣品分析的品質管制 38
第四章、結果 39
4-1樣品分析方法建立 39
4-1-1冷蒸氣原子吸收光譜儀分析條件 39
4-1-2石墨爐原子吸收光譜儀分析條件 40
4-1-3汞蒸氣吸附管分析方法建立 40
4-1-3-1溶液定量體積對回收率之影響 40
4-1-3-2方法偵測極限 42
4-1-4含汞粉塵濾紙分析方法建立 43
4-1-4-1方法偵測極限 43
4-1-5尿液樣品分析方法建立 43
4-1-5-1檢量線製備溶液的選取及基質效應 43
4-1-5-2回收率 45
4-1-5-3方法偵測極限 46
4-2作業現場訪視概況 46
4-3作業環境測定 50
4-3-1各廠空氣中汞蒸氣樣品採集數目統計 50
4-3-1-1各廠定點汞蒸氣樣品中汞濃度分布 51
4-3-1-2機台內定點汞蒸氣濃度 53
4-3-1-3個人汞蒸氣樣品 54
4-3-2含汞粉塵定點樣品分析結果 56
4-4生物偵測 61
4-5問卷資料整理 63
4-5-1基本資料 63
4-5-2工作習慣 65
4-5-3自覺症狀 67
第五章、討論 69
第六章、結論與建議 81
附錄(一)現場訪視問卷 83
附錄(二)樣品分析數據 88
參考文獻 96



1.Lars Friberg, Gunnar F. Nordberg, Velimir B. Vouk . Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals 2nd edition VolumeⅡ:Specific Metals. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. 1986
2.Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices for Chemical Substances. ACGIH. 2003
3.謝俊明、石東生、林雲卿:日光燈工廠勞工汞蒸氣暴露評估技術探討。勞工安全衛生研究季刊2003;11(2):159-167
4.專案研究計畫EPA-90-HA31-03-90B031:廢照明光源回收清除處理體系建置計畫,行政院環保署,2001
5.李清華、黃士漢、盛茂仁、連奕偉:廢日光燈資源再生處理技術評析。工業污染防治2001;78:41-56
6.黃博宏、劉紹興、徐尚為、石東生:汞作業勞工健康危害之流行病學調查。中華職業醫學雜誌1994;1(2):35-45
7.OSHA Method -ID140:Mercury Vapor in Workplace Atmosphere
(http://www.osha.gov/dts/sltc/methods/inorganic/id140/id140.html)
8.行政院勞工委員會:作業環境空氣中有害物標準分析參考方法
9.John B. Hursh, Lowell A. Goldsmith. Percutaneous absorption of mercury vapor by man. Archives of Environmental Health. 1989;44(2):120-127
10.Hope E. Ratcliffe, G. Marie Swanson. Human exposure to mercury: a critical assessment of the evidence of adverse health effect. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health.1996;49:221-270
11.Toxicological Profile for Mercury. ATSDR. 1999
12.L. Magos, S. Halbach, T. W. Clarkson. Role of catalase in the oxidation of mercury vapor. Biochemical Pharmacology. 1978;27:1373-1377
13.Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 50.Elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds : human health aspects.WHO.2003
14.Chapter 6.9-Mercury.Air Quality Guideline 2nd edition. WHO.2000
15.G. Sällsten, L. Barregård, A. Schutz, et al. Decrease in mercury concentration in blood after long term exposure: A kinetic study of chloralkali workers. British Journal of Industrial Medicine. 1993;50:814-821
16.G. Sällsten, L. Barregård, A. Schutz. Clearance half life of mercury in urine after the cessation of long term occupational exposure: influence of a chelating agent (DMPS) on excretion of mercury in urine. Occupational Environmental Medicine. 1994;51(5):337-342.
17.L. Barregård, A. Schutz, R. Attewell et al. Kinetics of mercury in blood and urine after brief occupational exposure. Archives of Environmental Health. 1992;47(3):176-184
18.Robert A. Goyer and M. George Cherian. Toxicology of Metals: Biochemical Aspects, Hand. Exp. Pharm. 115. Springer. 1995
19.A. M. Williamson, R. K. C. Teo, J. Sanderson. Occupational mercury exposure and its consequences for behavior. International Archives of occupational and environmental health. 1982;50:273-286
20.Y. Muraoka, F. Itoh. Sex difference of mercuric chloride induced renal tubular necrosis in rats. Journal of Toxicology Sciences. 1980;5:203-214
21.R. Lauwerys, H. Roels, P. Genet et al. Fertility of male workers exposed to mercury vapor or to manganese dust : a questionnaire study. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 1985;7:171-176
22.C. Minoïa, E. sabbioni, P. Apostoli. Trace element reference values in tissues from inhabitants of European. A study of 46 elements in urine, blood and serum of Italian subjects. Science of Total Environment. 1990;95:89
23.D.E. Nixon, G.V. Mussmann, T.P. Moyer. Inorganic, organic, and total mercury in blood and urine: cold vapor analysis with automated flow injection sample delivery. Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 1996;20:17-22
24.Robert R. Lauwerys, Perrine Hoet. Industrial Chemical Exposure- Guidelines for Biological Monitoring.2nd Edition. Lewis publishers.1993
25.H. Roels, S. Abdeladim, E. Ceulemans, R. Lauwerys. Relationships between the concentrations of mercury in air and in blood or urine in workers exposed to mercury vapour. Annals of Occupational Hygiene. 1987;31(2):135-145
26.K.D. Roseman, J.A. Valciukas, B.R. Meyers, A. Cinotti. Sensitive indicators of inorganic mercury toxicity. Archives of Environmental Health. 1986;41(4):208-215
27.Maarten M. Verberk, Herman J.A. Salle, Cornelia H. Kemper. Tremor in workers with low exposure to metallic mercury. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal.1986;47(8):559-562
28.Rathje et al. Personal monitoring technique for mercury vapor in air and determination by flameless atomic absorption. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 1974;9:571-575
29.OSHA Method -ID145:Particulate Mercury in Workplace Atmosphere
(http://www.osha.gov/dts/sltc/methods/inorganic/id145/id145.html)
30.X. T. Nguyen. Adsorbents for mercury vapor removal. Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association.1979;29(3):235-237
31.T. H. Diggs, J. O. Ledbetter. Palladium chloride enhancement of low-level mercury analysis. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 1983;44(8):606-608
32.S.Chilov. Determination of small amount of mercury. Talanta.1975;20:205-232
33.曾維昌、黃友利、謝俊明、石東生、林德賢:勞工生物檢體汞物種偵測分析方法研究。勞工安全衛生研究季刊2000;8(1):17-31
34.W. R. Hatch, W. L. Ott. Determination of sub-microgram quantities of mercury by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Analytical Chemistry. 1968;40(14):2085-2087
35.Y. Kimura, V. L. Miller. Mercury determination at the microgram level by a reduction-aeration method of concentration. Analytica Chimica Acta.1962;27:325-331
36.J. Toffaletti, J. Savory. Use of sodium borohydride for determination of total mercury in urine by atomic absorption spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry. 1975;47:2091-2095
37.何敏夫:臨床化學,第三版。合記圖書出版社,2000
38.R. L. Ehrenberg, R. L.Vogt, A. B. Smith et al. Effects of elemental mercury exposure at a thermometer plant. American Journal of Industrial Medcine. 1991;19:495-507


QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔