(3.236.118.225) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/16 13:58
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:朱培倫
研究生(外文):Pei-Lun Chu
論文名稱:第二型血管張力素第二型受器對醛固酮分泌和腎上腺細胞自毀的影響及機制之探討
論文名稱(外文):The Impact and Mechanism of Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor(AT2) on Aldosterone Secretion and Adrenocortical Cell Apoptosis
指導教授:吳寬墩吳寬墩引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kwan-Dun Wu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:臨床醫學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:67
中文關鍵詞:第二型血管張力素第二型受器(AT2)腎素-血管加壓素-醛固酮系統第二型血管張力素(ANGII)人類腎上腺皮質腫瘤細胞(H295R cell)醛固酮細胞凋亡醛固酮合成酵素(CYP11B2)
外文關鍵詞:Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system (RAA system)angiotensin II(ANGII)human adrenocortical carcinoma cell(H295R cell)angiotensin II type 2 receptor(AT2)aldosteronealdosterone synthase(CYP11B2)apoptosis
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:492
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
背景與目的:Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAA system)是體內調控血流動力、體液及電解質平衡非常重要的系統。腎素(renin)使血管張力素原(angiotensinogen)轉換成第一型血管張力素(angiotensin I),再經過血管張力素轉換酵素 (angiotensin converting enzyme,ACE)將第一型血管張力素轉成第二型血管張力素(angiotensin II, ANGII)。ANGII已有不同的受器亞型被發現,主要有第一型及第二型(AT1 & AT2)。當ANGII作用在AT1時,會促使血管收縮使血壓上升,並促進腎上腺增加醛固酮(aldosterone)的產生和分泌。目前已知AT2在胚胎發育時期有廣泛表現,但在出生後卻迅速退化或消失除了在一些特定的組織外。目前對AT2的一般生理功能瞭解包括,抑制細胞生長、促進細胞分化、促進細胞凋亡、促進神經細胞再生、抑制血管新生、促進血壓下降及情緒穩定等,這些大部份似乎都在拮抗AT1的生理功能。在人類腎上腺,有40%的AT2表現在zona glomerulosa中,但這些AT2的生理功能不若AT1研究的透徹,尤其是在aldosterone的分泌及對細胞凋亡的影響,甚少被提出。因此吾人希望能針對此部分作進一步的探討,以瞭解AT2在人類腎上腺對aldosterone分泌及細胞凋亡所扮演的角色。
方法:首先,我們建立了穩定的H295R細胞株,並經由反轉錄聚合酵素連鎖反應(Reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction,RT-PCR)及西方墨點(Western blot)證實H295R細胞上確實有AT2的表現。並利用免疫放射分析法(radioimmunoassay,RIA)分析H295R細胞aldosterone基礎分泌量、ANGII對aldosterone分泌影響之時間與濃度效應、AT阻斷劑和AT2刺激劑對H295R細胞aldosterone分泌之影響。RT-PCR測定aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2)mRNA、西方墨點測定AT2之蛋白質在不同條件下之表現。最後並以流式細胞儀(Flow cytometry)進行細胞凋亡(cell apoptosis)分析。
結果:在加入10-6M ANGII後24小時測得aldosterone分泌明顯的增加4.8倍(p=0.03)。加入valsartan時,ANGII刺激的aldosterone分泌量會降低61%;而PD123319則對ANGII刺激的aldosterone分泌沒有影響,但若與valsartan合併使用,則可以使ANGII刺激aldosterone分泌的作用完全抑制,且分泌量下降達80%。利用RT-PCR則可發現在經過1μM ANGII處理後,在第2個小時偵測到CYP11B2 mRNA之表現開始增加,並於第8個小時達到最大量,約增加25倍。Valsartan可以減低CYP11B2 mRNA的表現量達35%,而同時加入valsartan及PD123319則減低CYP11B2 mRNA的表現量59.8%。雖然CGP42112A也會增加CYP11B2 mRNA的表現,但並不影響aldosterone的分泌。而在H295R細胞株上則並未看到刺激AT2所引起的細胞凋亡。
結論:ANGII增加aldosterone分泌主要是經由AT1的作用,且是藉由CYP11B2 mRNA的表現增加來達成,這個作用並無法以AT2的阻斷劑抑制。吾人進一步發現,同時阻斷AT1和AT2可以完全抑制ANGII刺激細胞分泌aldosterone,這個情形在CYP11B2的轉譯層次也有相同的結果。因此,AT1和AT2在腎上腺細胞也有“相互對話“的現象。這個相互對話的訊息傳遞有待進一步研究。而AT2的表現,目前認為並不影響腎上腺細胞之細胞凋亡。
Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system (RAA system) controls the hemodynamic status, body fluid and electrolyte balance in human body. In the system, ANGII is a key hormone which has 2 main receptor subtypes, AT1 and AT2. Most physiological effects of ANGII were mediated by AT1. It constricts arteries, elevates blood pressure and also stimulates adrenal gland to secret aldosterone. However, the role of AT2 in adrenal gland is not well studied as AT1.
AT2, a G-protein coupled receptor has 7 transmembrane domains, is widely expressed during fetal development. It regresses or even disappears rapidly in early postnatal period except some limited tissue like limbic system, several thalamic nucleus, adrenal medulla, zona glomerulosa and uterine myometrium etc. The general understanding of its functions are inhibition of cell growth, promotion of cell differentiation or cell apoptosis, mediates neural cell remodeling, inhibition of angiogenesis and counteracts AT1’s effects. In adult adrenal gland, 40% of AT2 is presented in zona glomerulosa; however, the significance of its persistent expression is unknown.
We established stable H295R cell line and aldosterone concentration was detected by radioimmunoassay (RIA) which was corrected by total protein amount. CYP11B2 mRNA and AT2 protein expression were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot later. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry.
After ANGII stimulation, aldosterone was detectable since 24th hour and lasted up to 72 hours. The ANGII induced aldosterone secretion was 61% suppressed by AT1 blocker, valsartan; but AT2 blocker, PD123319 has no effect on it. However, co-treatment with valsartan and PD123319 could suppress aldosterone secretion almost totally.
CYP11B2 mRNA expression could be detected since 2nd hour and maxially expressed at 8th hour after 1μM ANGII treatment. Valsartan suppressed CYP11B2 mRNA expression, whereas PD123319 alone has no impact on it. If pretreated with valsartan and PD123319 simultaneously, the expression of CYP11B2 mRNA was suppressed to basal level as control group.The mRNA change seems to correlate with the aldosterone secretion change. Although CGP42112A up-regulates CYP11B2 mRNA expression, it does not interfer aldosterone secretion as PD123319 does. By Western blot, AT2 expression was not altered by every tested condition and the flow cytometry showed no obvious apoptosis.
In conclusion, AT1, is the main receptor for aldosterone secretion through CYP11B2;AT2 is involved too, but there might be a “cross talk”between AT1 and AT2. It does not function via CYP11B2 totally or even with post-transcription, translation modification by AT1 or other pathways. So far, AT2 mediated cell apoptosis was not observed in H295R cell.
目錄:
頁次
一、中文摘要 3
二、縮寫表 5
三、緒論 6
(一)背景 6
(二)實驗假說 9
(三)目的 10
四、研究方法與材料 11
(一)人類腎上腺皮質腫瘤H295R細胞株的取得和培養 15
(二)H295R細胞之實驗前處理 15
(三)Aldostrone濃度的測定 16
(四)ANGII對H295R細胞的aldosterone分泌影響-劑量與時間的效應 16
(五)AT1與AT2拮抗劑對aldosterone分泌的影響 17
(六)AT2刺激劑對aldosterone分泌的影響 17
(七)以反轉錄聚合酵素連鎖反應(RT-PCR)測定醛固酮合成酵素傳訊RNA的表現 18
(八)以西方墨點法(Western blot)測定AT2蛋白質表現 19
(九)流式細胞儀(Flow cytometry)之細胞凋亡分析 20
(十)統計方法 21
五、結果 22
(一)人類腎上腺皮質腫瘤H295R細胞株AT2之表現 22
(二)ANGII對aldosterone分泌的影響-劑量與時間的效應 22
(三)AT2刺激劑對aldosterone分泌的影響 23
(四)AT1與AT2拮抗劑對aldosterone分泌的影響 23
(五)ANGII對CYP11B2 mRNA表現之影響 23
(六)AT2刺激劑對CYP11B2 mRNA表現之影響 24
(七)AT1與AT2拮抗劑對CYP11B2 mRNA表現之影響 24
(八)AT1與AT2拮抗劑及AT2刺激劑對AT2蛋白質表現之影響 24
(九)流式細胞儀之細胞凋亡分析 24
六、討論 26
七、展望 30
八、論文英文簡述(Summary) 32
九、參考文獻 35
十、圖表 46
Al-Dujaili, E.A. and Edwards, C.R. (1978) The development and application of a direct radioimmunoassay for plasma aldosterone using 125I-labeled ligand--comparison of three methods. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 46, 105-113.

Balla, T., Baukal, A.J., Eng, S. and Catt, K.J. (1991) Angiotensin II receptor subtypes and biological responses in the adrenal cortex and medulla. Mol Pharmacol, 40, 401-406.

Bassett, M.H., White, P.C. and Rainey, W.E. (2004) The regulation of aldosterone synthase expression. Mol Cell Endocrinol, 217, 67-74.

Bedecs, K., Elbaz, N., Sutren, M., Masson, M., Susini, C., Strosberg, A.D. and Nahmias, C. (1997) Angiotensin II type 2 receptors mediate inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and functional activation of SHP-1 tyrosine phosphatase. Biochem J, 325 ( Pt 2), 449-454.

Belloni, A.S., Andreis, P.G., Macchi, V., Gottardo, G., Malendowicz, L.K. and Nussdorfer, G.G. (1998) Distribution and functional significance of angiotensin-II AT1- and AT2-receptor subtypes in the rat adrenal gland. Endocr Res, 24, 1-15.

Bhaskaran, M., Reddy, K., Radhakrishanan, N., Franki, N., Ding, G. and Singhal, P.C. (2003) Angiotensin II induces apoptosis in renal proximal tubular cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol, 284, F955-965.

Bird, I.M., Mason, J.I. and Rainey, W.E. (1995) Hormonal regulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor expression and AT1-R mRNA levels in human adrenocortical cells. Endocr Res, 21, 169-182.

Blankley, C.J., Hodges, J.C., Klutchko, S.R., Himmelsbach, R.J., Chucholowski, A., Connolly, C.J., Neergaard, S.J., Van Nieuwenhze, M.S., Sebastian, A., Quin, J., 3rd and et al. (1991) Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a novel series of non-peptide angiotensin II receptor binding inhibitors specific for the AT2 subtype. J Med Chem, 34, 3248-3260.

Bodart, V., Rainey, W.E., Fournier, A., Ong, H. and De Lean, A. (1996) The H295R human adrenocortical cell line contains functional atrial natriuretic peptide receptors that inhibit aldosterone biosynthesis. Mol Cell Endocrinol, 118, 137-144.

Carey, R.M., Wang, Z.Q. and Siragy, H.M. (2000) Role of the angiotensin type 2 receptor in the regulation of blood pressure and renal function. Hypertension, 35, 155-163.

Chamoux, E., Breault, L., Lehoux, J.G. and Gallo-Payet, N. (1999) Involvement of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor in apoptosis during human fetal adrenal gland development. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 84, 4722-4730.

Chamoux, E., LeHoux, J.G. and Gallo-Payet, N. (2000) The AT2 receptor of angiotensin II and apoptosis in human fetal adrenal gland. Endocr Res, 26, 955-957.

Chang, Y.H. and Liao, R.M. (2003) Differential effects of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists on conditioned orienting behavior in the rat. Chin J Physiol, 46, 159-168.

Clark, B.J., Pezzi, V., Stocco, D.M. and Rainey, W.E. (1995) The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein is induced by angiotensin II and K+ in H295R adrenocortical cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol, 115, 215-219.

de Gasparo, M., Whitebread, S., Mele, M., Motani, A.S., Whitcombe, P.J., Ramjoue, H.P. and Kamber, B. (1990) Biochemical characterization of two angiotensin II receptor subtypes in the rat. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol, 16 Suppl 4, S31-35.

de Godoy, M.A. and de Oliveira, A.M. (2002) Cross-talk between AT(1) and AT(2) angiotensin receptors in rat anococcygeus smooth muscle. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 303, 333-339.

Dudley, D.T., Panek, R.L., Major, T.C., Lu, G.H., Bruns, R.F., Klinkefus, B.A., Hodges, J.C. and Weishaar, R.E. (1990) Subclasses of angiotensin II binding sites and their functional significance. Mol Pharmacol, 38, 370-377.

Dudley, D.T. and Summerfelt, R.M. (1993) Regulated expression of angiotensin II (AT2) binding sites in R3T3 cells. Regul Pept, 44, 199-206.

Dulin, N.O., Alexander, L.D., Harwalkar, S., Falck, J.R. and Douglas, J.G. (1998) Phospholipase A2-mediated activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by angiotensin II. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95, 8098-8102.

Fallo, F., Pezzi, V., Barzon, L., Mulatero, P., Veglio, F., Sonino, N. and Mathis, J.M. (2002) Quantitative assessment of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 expression in aldosterone-producing adenomas. Eur J Endocrinol, 147, 795-802.

Goldenberg, I., Grossman, E., Jacobson, K.A., Shneyvays, V. and Shainberg, A. (2001) Angiotensin II-induced apoptosis in rat cardiomyocyte culture: a possible role of AT1 and AT2 receptors. J Hypertens, 19, 1681-1689.

Harding, J.W., Wright, J.W., Swanson, G.N., Hanesworth, J.M. and Krebs, L.T. (1994) AT4 receptors: specificity and distribution. Kidney Int, 46, 1510-1512.

Hayashida, W., Horiuchi, M. and Dzau, V.J. (1996) Intracellular third loop domain of angiotensin II type-2 receptor. Role in mediating signal transduction and cellular function. J Biol Chem, 271, 21985-21992.

Hein, L., Barsh, G.S., Pratt, R.E., Dzau, V.J. and Kobilka, B.K. (1995) Behavioural and cardiovascular effects of disrupting the angiotensin II type-2 receptor in mice. Nature, 377, 744-747.

Horiuchi, M., Akishita, M. and Dzau, V.J. (1999) Recent progress in angiotensin II type 2 receptor research in the cardiovascular system. Hypertension, 33, 613-621.

Huang, X.C., Richards, E.M. and Sumners, C. (1996) Mitogen-activated protein kinases in rat brain neuronal cultures are activated by angiotensin II type 1 receptors and inhibited by angiotensin II type 2 receptors. J Biol Chem, 271, 15635-15641.

Ichiki, T. and Inagami, T. (1995) Expression, genomic organization, and transcription of the mouse angiotensin II type 2 receptor gene. Circ Res, 76, 693-700.

Ichiki, T., Labosky, P.A., Shiota, C., Okuyama, S., Imagawa, Y., Fogo, A., Niimura, F., Ichikawa, I., Hogan, B.L. and Inagami, T. (1995) Effects on blood pressure and exploratory behaviour of mice lacking angiotensin II type-2 receptor. Nature, 377, 748-750.

Imai, M., Ogishima, T., Shimada, H. and Ishimura, Y. (1992) Effect of dietary sodium restriction on mRNA for aldosterone synthase cytochrome P-450 in rat adrenals. J Biochem (Tokyo), 111, 440-443.

Israel, A., Cierco, M. and Sosa, B. (2000) Angiotensin AT(2) receptors mediate vasodepressor response to footshock in rats. Role of kinins, nitric oxide and prostaglandins. Eur J Pharmacol, 394, 103-108.

Janiak, P., Pillon, A., Prost, J.F. and Vilaine, J.P. (1992) Role of angiotensin subtype 2 receptor in neointima formation after vascular injury. Hypertension, 20, 737-745.

Jin, X.H., Wang, Z.Q., Siragy, H.M., Guerrant, R.L. and Carey, R.M. (1998) Regulation of jejunal sodium and water absorption by angiotensin subtype receptors. Am J Physiol, 275, R515-523.

Kakiki, M., Morohashi, K., Nomura, M., Omura, T. and Horie, T. (1997a) Expression of aldosterone synthase cytochrome P450 (P450aldo) mRNA in rat adrenal glomerulosa cells by angiotensin II type 1 receptor. Endocr Res, 23, 277-295.

Kakiki, M., Morohashi, K., Nomura, M., Omura, T. and Horie, T. (1997b) Regulation of aldosterone synthase cytochrome P450 (CYP11B2) and 11 beta-hydroxylase cytochrome P450 (CYP11B1) expression in rat adrenal zona glomerulosa cells by low sodium diet and angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Biol Pharm Bull, 20, 962-968.

Kakuchi, J., Ichiki, T., Kiyama, S., Hogan, B.L., Fogo, A., Inagami, T. and Ichikawa, I. (1995) Developmental expression of renal angiotensin II receptor genes in the mouse. Kidney Int, 47, 140-147.

Kang, J., Posner, P. and Sumners, C. (1994) Angiotensin II type 2 receptor stimulation of neuronal K+ currents involves an inhibitory GTP binding protein. Am J Physiol, 267, C1389-1397.

Kijima, K., Matsubara, H., Murasawa, S., Maruyama, K., Ohkubo, N., Mori, Y. and Inada, M. (1996) Regulation of angiotensin II type 2 receptor gene by the protein kinase C-calcium pathway. Hypertension, 27, 529-534.

Lenkei, Z., Palkovits, M., Corvol, P. and Llorens-Cortes, C. (1997) Expression of angiotensin type-1 (AT1) and type-2 (AT2) receptor mRNAs in the adult rat brain: a functional neuroanatomical review. Front Neuroendocrinol, 18, 383-439.

Li, J.Y., Avallet, O., Berthelon, M.C., Langlois, D. and Saez, J.M. (1998) Effects of growth factors on cell proliferation and angiotensin II type 2 receptor number and mRNA in PC12W and R3T3 cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol, 139, 61-69.

Li, L.A., Wang, P.W. and Chang, L.W. (2004) Polychlorinated biphenyl 126 stimulates basal and inducible aldosterone biosynthesis of human adrenocortical H295R cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 195, 92-102.

Lopez, J.J., Lorell, B.H., Ingelfinger, J.R., Weinberg, E.O., Schunkert, H., Diamant, D. and Tang, S.S. (1994) Distribution and function of cardiac angiotensin AT1- and AT2-receptor subtypes in hypertrophied rat hearts. Am J Physiol, 267, H844-852.

Lucius, R., Gallinat, S., Rosenstiel, P., Herdegen, T., Sievers, J. and Unger, T. (1998) The angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor promotes axonal regeneration in the optic nerve of adult rats. J Exp Med, 188, 661-670.

Matsusaka, T. and Ichikawa, I. (1997) Biological functions of angiotensin and its receptors. Annu Rev Physiol, 59, 395-412.

Mazzocchi, G., Gottardo, G., Macchi, V., Malendowicz, L.K. and Nussdorfer, G.G. (1998) The AT2 receptor-mediated stimulation of adrenal catecholamine release may potentiate the AT1 receptor-mediated aldosterone secretagogue action of angiotensin-II in rats. Endocr Res, 24, 17-28.

Meffert, S., Stoll, M., Steckelings, U.M., Bottari, S.P. and Unger, T. (1996) The angiotensin II AT2 receptor inhibits proliferation and promotes differentiation in PC12W cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol, 122, 59-67.

Moritz, K.M., Boon, W.C. and Wintour, E.M. (1999) Aldosterone secretion by the mid-gestation ovine fetus: role of the AT2 receptor. Mol Cell Endocrinol, 157, 153-160.

Nakajima, M., Hutchinson, H.G., Fujinaga, M., Hayashida, W., Morishita, R., Zhang, L., Horiuchi, M., Pratt, R.E. and Dzau, V.J. (1995) The angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor antagonizes the growth effects of the AT1 receptor: gain-of-function study using gene transfer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 10663-10667.

Nio, Y., Matsubara, H., Murasawa, S., Kanasaki, M. and Inada, M. (1995) Regulation of gene transcription of angiotensin II receptor subtypes in myocardial infarction. J Clin Invest, 95, 46-54.

Ogihara, T., Iinuma, K., Nishi, K., Arakawa, Y. and Takagi, A. (1977) A non-chromatographic non-extraction radioimmunoassay for serum aldosterone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 45, 726-731.

Ohkubo, N., Matsubara, H., Nozawa, Y., Mori, Y., Murasawa, S., Kijima, K., Maruyama, K., Masaki, H., Tsutumi, Y., Shibazaki, Y., Iwasaka, T. and Inada, M. (1997) Angiotensin type 2 receptors are reexpressed by cardiac fibroblasts from failing myopathic hamster hearts and inhibit cell growth and fibrillar collagen metabolism. Circulation, 96, 3954-3962.

Shanmugam, S., Llorens-Cortes, C., Clauser, E., Corvol, P. and Gasc, J.M. (1995) Expression of angiotensin II AT2 receptor mRNA during development of rat kidney and adrenal gland. Am J Physiol, 268, F922-930.

Song, K., Allen, A.M., Paxinos, G. and Mendelsohn, F.A. (1992) Mapping of angiotensin II receptor subtype heterogeneity in rat brain. J Comp Neurol, 316, 467-484.

Speth, R.C. and Kim, K.H. (1990) Discrimination of two angiotensin II receptor subtypes with a selective agonist analogue of angiotensin II, p-aminophenylalanine6 angiotensin II. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 169, 997-1006.

Stoll, M., Steckelings, U.M., Paul, M., Bottari, S.P., Metzger, R. and Unger, T. (1995) The angiotensin AT2-receptor mediates inhibition of cell proliferation in coronary endothelial cells. J Clin Invest, 95, 651-657.

Suzuki, J., Iwai, M., Nakagami, H., Wu, L., Chen, R., Sugaya, T., Hamada, M., Hiwada, K. and Horiuchi, M. (2002) Role of angiotensin II-regulated apoptosis through distinct AT1 and AT2 receptors in neointimal formation. Circulation, 106, 847-853.

Tanabe, A., Naruse, M., Arai, K., Naruse, K., Yoshimoto, T., Seki, T., Imaki, T., Miyazaki, H., Zeng, Z.P., Demura, R. and Demura, H. (1998) Gene expression and roles of angiotensin II type 1 and type 2 receptors in human adrenals. Horm Metab Res, 30, 490-495.

Thomson, L.M., Kapas, S., Carroll, M. and Hinson, J.P. (2001) Autocrine role of adrenomedullin in the human adrenal cortex. J Endocrinol, 170, 259-265.

Tremblay, A., Parker, K.L. and Lehoux, J.G. (1992) Dietary potassium supplementation and sodium restriction stimulate aldosterone synthase but not 11 beta-hydroxylase P-450 messenger ribonucleic acid accumulation in rat adrenals and require angiotensin II production. Endocrinology, 130, 3152-3158.

Wu, K.D., Chen, Y.M., Chu, J.S., Hung, K.Y., Hsieh, T.S. and Hsieh, B.S. (1995) Zona fasciculata-like cells determine the response of plasma aldosterone to metoclopramide and aldosterone synthase messenger ribonucleic acid level in aldosterone-producing adenoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 80, 783-789.

Wu, K.D., Chen, Y.M., Chu, T.S., Chueh, S.C., Tsai, G.C., Tseng, Y.Z. and Hsieh, B.S. (2002) Dopaminergic modulation of aldosterone secretions on changes of sodium intake in aldosterone-producing adenoma. Am J Hypertens, 15, 609-614.

Wu, K.D., Chen, Y.M., Chu, T.S., Chueh, S.C., Wu, M.H. and Bor-Shen, H. (2001) Expression and localization of human dopamine D2 and D4 receptor mRNA in the adrenal gland, aldosterone-producing adenoma, and pheochromocytoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 86, 4460-4467.

Yamada, T., Horiuchi, M. and Dzau, V.J. (1996) Angiotensin II type 2 receptor mediates programmed cell death. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 156-160.

Ye, P., Kenyon, C.J., MacKenzie, S.M., Seckl, J.R., Fraser, R., Connell, J.M. and Davies, E. (2003) Regulation of aldosterone synthase gene expression in the rat adrenal gland and central nervous system by sodium and angiotensin II. Endocrinology, 144, 3321-3328.

Zhuo, J., Alcorn, D., Harris, P.J. and Mendelsohn, F.A. (1993) Localization and properties of angiotensin II receptors in rat kidney. Kidney Int Suppl, 42, S40-46.

Zhuo, J., Dean, R., MacGregor, D., Alcorn, D. and Mendelsohn, F.A. (1996) Presence of angiotensin II AT2 receptor binding sites in the adventitia of human kidney vasculature. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol Suppl, 3, S147-154.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top