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研究生:莊小瑤
研究生(外文):Hsiao-Yao Chuang
論文名稱:臺灣2002年菸稅改革前後吸菸型態之變化
論文名稱(外文):Patterns of smoking before and after the 2002 tobacco tax reform in Taiwan
指導教授:江東亮江東亮引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tung-Liang Chiang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:衛生政策與管理研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:111
中文關鍵詞:菸稅改革臺灣吸菸型態
外文關鍵詞:Pattern of smokingTobacco tax reformTaiwan
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目 的:2002年1月1日臺灣加入世界貿易組織,並於同日起實施菸稅新制,此一新制取消課徵「公賣利益」,自此菸品不再是專賣品。此一菸稅新制不論國產菸或進口菸,每包菸均課徵新臺幣11.8元菸品稅,5%營業稅,以及新臺幣5元菸品健康福利捐;進口菸另徵27%進口關稅。此一菸稅新制施行後,臺灣菸品價格平均上漲約20.6%,因此本研究旨在探討臺灣菸稅新制實施後,國人吸菸行為是否有所改變。
設 計:採次級資料分析。資料來自「2001年國民健康訪問調查」以及「2002年臺灣地區國民健康促進知識、態度與行為調查」,兩者均具全國代表性。
對 象:臺灣年滿15歲及以上人口。去除代答者後二年分析樣本人數,分別為16602人及26064人。
結 果:2001年與2002年男性粗吸菸率分別為44.7%與48.6%,而女性為4.1%與5.8%;2001年與2002年男性年齡標準化吸菸率分別為45.0%與48.4%,而女性為4.1%與5.8%。在控制了年齡、婚姻、教育程度、收入與職業別變項後,男女性吸菸率之增加均達統計顯著水準(P < 0.001)。2001年與2002年男性平均每月粗吸菸量分別為485支與506支,而女性為300支與286支。在控制了年齡、婚姻、教育程度、收入與職業別變項後,男性平均每月吸菸量之增加達統計顯著水準(P < 0.001),但女性則無。
結 論:本研究發現菸稅新制實施後,吸菸率與吸菸量未受菸價上漲而下降。


Objective: When Taiwan entered the WTO on January 1 of 2002, the tobacco tax reform was put into practice. The new tax scheme stopped levying the cigarette monopolistic profit, and since then, Taiwan’s cigarette market has not been monopolistic. Under the new tax scheme, both local and foreign cigarettes per pack are levied NT$ 11.8 excise cigarette tax, 5% business tax and NT$ 5 Health and Welfare Tax. Imported cigarettes are additionally levied a tariff tax of 27%. On average, cigarette prices rose by 20.6% after the tax reform. This study aims to explore the change in smoking patterns after the tobacco tax reform in Taiwan.
Design: Secondary data analysis study. Data were obtained from” Taiwan national health interview survey, 2001 “and “Taiwan national health knowledge, attitude and practice interview survey, 2002 “. Both samples were nation-wide representative of Taiwan.
Participants: The participants of this study were people aged 15 and older in Taiwan. Excluding proxy interviews, the total number of participants came to 16,602 in 2001 and 26,064 in 2002.
Results: The crude prevalence of male smokers was 44.7% in 2001 and 48.6% in 2002, and that of female smokers was 4.1% and 5.8% respectively. Age-adjusted rates in male smokers was 45.0% in 2001 and 48.4% in 2002, and 4.1% and 5.8% respectively in female smokers. After controlling for age, marital status, education, income and occupational variables, there was a statistically significant increase in smoking prevalence both for males and females (P < 0.001). The average number of cigarettes smoked per month for male smokers was 485 in 2002 and 506 in 2002, that for female smokers was 300 and 286 respectively. After controlling for age, marital status, education, income and occupational variables, the increase of cigarettes consumption for male smokers reached was statistically significant (P < 0.001), but not for female smokers.
Conclusion: This study found that neither smoking prevalence nor the number of cigarettes smoked reduced after the tax-induced price increases.

目 次
第一章 前言 1
第一節 研究背景 1
第二節 研究動機 2
第三節 研究目的 3
第四節 論文結構 3
第二章 文獻探討 4
第一節 菸稅、菸價與價格彈性 4
第二節 菸稅與吸菸行為:實證研究 9
第三節 影響吸菸之其他相關因素 17
第三章 研究材料與方法 25
第一節 研究架構與假說 25
第二節 研究材料 27
第三節 研究變項 30
第四節 統計分析 33
第四章 研究結果 34
第一節 2001年與2002年樣本特性描述 34
第二節 2001年與2002年吸菸行為之差異比較 39
第三節 2001年與2002年吸菸行為之多變項分析 41
第五章 討論與建議 44
第一節 研究限制 44
第二節 討論 45
第三節 未來建議 52
參考文獻 55
附 錄 92

附錄一 「2002年臺灣地區國民健康促進知識、態度與行為調查」部分問卷內容 93
附錄二 「2001年國民健康訪問調查」部分問卷內容 96
附錄三 職業分類表 100
附錄四 附表 105

圖表目次

圖3-1 研究架構 26
表4-1 2001年及2002年受訪者特性描述 68
表4-2 2001年及2002年男女受訪者特性描述 70
表4-3 2001年15歲及以上男性受訪者有無吸菸之特性描述 72
表4-4 2002年15歲及以上男性受訪者有無吸菸之特性描述 74
表4-5 2001年15歲及以上女性受訪者有無吸菸之特性描述 76
表4-6 2002年15歲及以上女性受訪者有無吸菸之特性描述 78
表4-7 2001年及2002年15歲及以上男性吸菸率(%)之差異 80
表4-8 2001年及2002年15歲及以上女性吸菸率(%)之差異 82
表4-9 2001年及2002年15歲及以上男性有吸菸者每月平均吸菸量之差異 84
表4-10 2001年及2002年15歲及以上女性有吸菸者每月平均吸菸量之差異 86
表4-11 2001年及2002年男性受訪者有無吸菸行為之對數複迴歸分析 88
表4-12 2001年及2002年女性受訪者有無吸菸行為之對數複迴歸分析 89
表4-13 影響男性吸菸者其吸菸量之因素以線性複迴歸分析結果 90
表4-14 影響女性吸菸者其吸菸量之因素以線性複迴歸分析結果 91

附表 105
附表一 2002年15歲及以上女性吸菸者購買國產菸及進口菸之比率 106
附表二 2002年15歲及以上男性吸菸者購買國產菸及進口菸之比率 108
附表三 2002年有吸菸者購買香菸是否有受2002年起菸品漲價之影響 110


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