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研究生:吳政霖
研究生(外文):WU,CHENG-LIN
論文名稱:MPEG-4群播技術之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Research of MPEG-4 Multicast Technique
指導教授:陳秋華陳秋華引用關係
指導教授(外文):CHEN,CHYOU HWA
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:資訊工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:群播壅塞MPEG-4
外文關鍵詞:MulticastCongestionMPEG-4
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視訊串流(video streaming)經由網路傳輸,它和傳統以TCP為基礎的應用程式為了頻寬使用的競爭,近來是非常熱門的研究題目。在這篇論文中,有關網路的穩定性(stability)、頻寬使用率的公平性(bandwidth utilization fairness)都是重要的問題;為了解決這些問題,我們要使用來源端的速度控制(source rate control)來適應網路的情況,讓以UDP為基礎做傳送的視訊串流變成TCP-friendly。所以我們在TCP/IP的網路上提出一個可適性的視訊架構來傳送MPEG-4視訊串流給多個使用者。MPEG-4將一個畫面分成多個Audio-Visual Content (AVOs),我們利用這個特性再加上當傳送資料遇到壅塞(congestion)時所傳回的回饋(feedback),來源端就可以遵照SMCC(Smooth Multirate Multicast Congestion Control)預測的傳送速率(sending rate)動態的針對每個不同接收能力的接收者增加或減少MPEG-4 AVO傳送的個數,去適應網路壅塞的情況。
  MPEG-4的影片經由FGS(Fine Granularity Scalability)的方法編碼之後,會產生兩層,一層是基本層(Base Layer),另一層是進階層(Enhancement Layer);由於Base Layer的重要性比較高,所以我們使用差異性服務(Differential Service)來讓Base Layer獲得較好的服務。
  因為壅塞所造成的封包遺失(packet loss),我們利用FEC(Forward Error Correction)依照框架(Frames)的重要性給予不同的FEC數量去保護傳送的資料。以防有封包遺失的時候,就無法解出完整的Frame。
Video streaming over the internet is becoming very popular and it competes with traditional TCP based applications for bandwidth utilization. In this paper, network stability and resource utilization fairness become critical issues. To solve these problems source rate control and adaptation should be introduced for UDP-based traffic to become TCP-friendly. We propose an adaptive streaming framework for multicast streams over TCP/IP networks. Based on Audio-Visual Content (AVOs) classification and network congestion feedbacks, the video server can use these characters dynamically adds and drops MPEG-4 AVO for every receiver to conform to SMCC (Smooth Multirate Multicast Congestion Control) mechanism and adapt to current network situation.
The MPEG-4 video encoded by FGS (Fine Granularity Scalability) mechanism generates two layers. One of these two layers is base layer and the other one is enhancement layer. Base layer’s priority is higher than enhancement layer. So we provide better service for base layer by using differential service.
Because of the packet loss caused by network congestion, we use FEC (Forward Error Correction) to protect the important data. We give the frames that have higher priority more FEC protection and give lower priority’s frames less protection. By using FEC, we still have chance to decode complete frames when packet loss happens.
論文摘要 1
Abstract 3
誌謝 5
目錄 1
圖表索引 4
Chapter 1 Introduction 7
Chapter 2 Background 10
2.1 FGS-Encoded MPEG-4 Video Source 10
2.2 Reed-Solomon FEC Codes 12
2.2 TFMCC 14
2.2.1 Feedback Suppression Scheme 15
2.2.2 Measuring the Loss Event Rate in TFMCC 15
2.2.3 Round-Trip Time Measurements in TFMCC 16
2.3 SMCC 18
2.3.1 Setting up Layers and CLRs 19
2.3.2 Additive Increase Join 20
2.4 Streaming MPEG-4 Audio Visual Objects Using TCP-Friendly Rate Control and Unequal Error Protection 22
2.4.1 Adaptive AVO Streaming Using TCP-Friendly 23
Chapter 3 Layered Multicast for MPEG-4 Video 26
3.1 MPEG-4 Audio-Visual Object Classification 27
3.2 AVO Protection Using FEC 29
3.3 Adaptive AVO Streaming Using TCP-Friendly 30
Chapter 4 Experiment Design and Simulation Result 35
4.1 MPEG-4 Traffic Model 36
4.2 Heterogeneity 39
4.2.1 Topology 39
4.2.2 Layer Subscription and Throughput 39
4.3 Different FEC Size 45
4.3.1 Topology 45
4.3.2 Without FEC Protection 45
4.3.3 With FEC Protection 46
4.3.4 With Unequal Size FEC Protection of Each Frame 47
4.4 Differential Service 49
4.4.1 Topology 49
4.4.2 Without Differential Service 49
4.4.2 With Differential Service 50
4.5 TCP Late Join 54
4.5.1 Topology 54
4.6 Large Topology 58
4.6.1 Topology 58
Chapter 5 Conclusion 62
Reference 63
Reference
[1] McCanne, S., Jacobson, V., and Vetterli, M., “Receiver-driven Layered Multicast”, ACM SIGCOMM, pp. 117-130, August 1996.
[2] Philippe de Cuetos, Martin Reisslein, “Evaluating the streaming of FGS-encoded Video with Rate-Distortion Traces”, Institut Eurecom Technical Report, June 2003. http://trace.eas.asu.edu/indexfgs.html.
[3]Sally Floyd, Mark Handley, Jitendra Padhye, and Joerg Widmer, Equation-Based Congestion Control for Unicast Applications, May 2000, to appear in SIGCOMM 2000. simulation scripts
[4] Jorg Widmer and Mark Handley, "Extending Equation-based Congestion Control to Multicast Applications", Proc. ACM SIGCOMM , August 2001.
[5] Gu-In Kwon and John W. Byers, “Smooth Multirate Multicast Congestion Control”, To appear in IEEE INFOCOM ''03, April 2003.
[6] David D. Clark and Wenjia Fang, Explicit Allocation of Best Effort Packet Delivery Service, ACM Transactions on Networking, August, 1998 .
[7] Alexander E. Mohr, Eve A. Riskin, and Richard E. Ladner. “Graceful Degradation over Packet Erasure Channels through Forward Error Correction." Proceedings of the 1999 Data Compression Conference (DCC). March 1999, 10 pages.
[8] A. Albanese, J. Blomer, J. Edmonds, M. Luby, and M. Sudan. “Priority encoding transmission”, IEEE Trans. Info. Theory, 42(6), pp. 1737--44, November 1997.
[9] Toufik Ahmed, Ahmed Mehaoua and Vincent Lecuire "Streaming MPEG-4 Audiovisual Objects Using Tcp-Friendly Rate Control And Unequal Error Protection", IEEE International Conference On Multimedia & Expo, Baltimore, ICME''03, July 2003.
[10] Toufik Ahmed and Ahmed Mehaoua "Adaptive MPEG-4 Streaming Based On AVO Classification And Network Congestion Feedback", (Poster Session) in Packet Video PV''2003, April 28-29, Nantes, France, April 2003.
[11] LBL, Xerox PARC, UCB, and USC/ISI, “ns-2 network simulator (ver 2)”, URL:http://www-mash.cs.berkely.edu/ns
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