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研究生:張文曜
研究生(外文):Wen-Yao Chang
論文名稱:地面電台廣播與市區行動通訊之特定環境傳播模擬
論文名稱(外文):Site-Specific Propagation Modeling for Terrestrial Broadcasting and Urban Mobile Communications
指導教授:楊成發楊成發引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chang-Fa Yang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:電機工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:120
中文關鍵詞:均勻繞射理論電波傳播地形市區
外文關鍵詞:uniform theory of diffractionwave propagationterrainurban
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本文以啟發式均勻繞射理論為基礎,發展與電子地圖結合之電波傳播模型,來分析山脈地形與市區環境之無線電波傳播特性,以供電波場強涵蓋區預測及發射基地台規劃之用,期能提高地面電台廣播與市區行動通訊之無線電波傳播的涵蓋品質。
山脈地形之特定環境電波傳播模型乃自解析度為 之電子地圖讀取發射天線與接收天線間之山脈鉛垂剖面,並發展一線性化法將山脈剖面簡化為二維之楔形與梯形,同時以排列法搜尋所有前向電波傳播路徑,來減少搜尋傳播路徑與計算場強分佈所需可觀之計算時間,再應用包含多重邊緣過渡區繞射之啟發式均勻繞射理論,來計算所有路徑的前向繞射貢獻以及接收天線附近之地面反射貢獻。
市區之特定環境電波傳播模型乃自比例尺為1:1000之電子地圖讀取發射天線與接收天線間之建築物主體輪廓與高度,並應用一鉛垂與橫向剖面法將建築物主體簡化為兩相互垂直剖面之二維楔形邊緣組合,同時以排列法搜尋前向電波傳播路徑,再應用多重楔形繞射與反射之啟發式均勻繞射理論來計算所有前向散射的貢獻,以有效率地獲得市區行動通訊場強分佈。
本研究部分模擬結果乃分別與北台灣VHF電視頻道及台北市公館地區GSM基地台之信號量測值進行比較,來驗證程式模擬的適切性,而考慮實際環境的複雜度,所得模擬與量測結果的變化趨勢相當吻合。
In this thesis, wave propagation models with digital maps, based on heuristic uniform theory of diffraction (UTD), are developed to analyze the propagation characteristics over hilly terrain and in urban environments. Those approaches can be applied to predict signal coverage and deploy base-stations, so that the coverage qualities of the terrestrial broadcasting and urban mobile communications may be improved.
For the site-specific model determining wave propagation over hilly terrain, vertical terrain profiles between the transmitting and receiving antennas are obtained from digital maps, having a resolution of along the longitudinal and latitudinal directions. A profile linearization method is developed to simplify those terrain profiles into 2-D wedges and trapezoids, and a sequence arrangement algorithm is developed to search all forward propagation paths. Thus, computation time in finding propagation paths and evaluating field distributions may be significantly reduced. A heuristic UTD approach including multiple-edge transition zone diffractions is then applied to determine path losses for waves propagating through those 2-D structures. Entire forward diffracting contributions plus a ground reflection near the receiving antenna are included to evaluate the field distributions.
As to the site-specific model for determining wave propagation in urban environments, the contours and heights of main building structures between the transmitting and receiving antennas are obtained from 1:1000 digital city maps. A method using vertical and transverse profiles is applied to simplify those building structures into 2-D wedge combinations in two perpendicular profiles, and a sequence arrangement algorithm is developed to search all forward propagation paths. All the forward scattering contributions are computed by including multiple-wedge diffractions and reflections, based on the UTD. Thus, field distributions for mobile communications in urban may be obtained efficiently.
Some of the simulations are compared with measurements of the VHF TV signals in northern Taiwan and also GSM signals from base-stations in Gong-Guan area of Taipei city to evaluate the accuracy of the simulations. Good agreements are obtained, considering the complexity of wave propagation through irregular terrains and urban environments.
中文摘要 I
英文摘要 II
誌謝 III
目錄 IV
圖表索引 VII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 文獻回顧 2
1.3 研究成果 4
1.4章節概述 5
第二章 啟發式均勻繞射理論 6
2.1 前言 6
2.2 介質楔形邊緣繞射 6
2.3 斜率繞射 11
2.4 距離因數計算 15
2.4.1 Luebbers之距離因數計算法 15
2.4.2 Andersen之距離因數計算法 16
第三章 山脈地形之電波傳播 21
3.1 前言 21
3.2 地形高度圖 21
3.2.1 山脈地形剖面建立 21
3.2.2 大氣層之折射效應 23
3.3電波傳播模型 25
3.3.1 自由空間傳播模型 25
3.3.2 Deygout模型 26
3.3.3 UTD模型 30
3.3.3.1 UTD模型建立步驟 30
3.3.3.2 電波傳播路徑搜尋 33
3.3.3.3 路徑搜尋加速 34
3.3.3.3.1 山脈剖面簡化法 34
3.3.3.3.2 障礙區分法 36
3.3.3.4 障礙檢測 38
3.4 量測與模擬 39
3.4.1 量測系統與量測方法 39
3.4.2 量測場強與傳播損失之轉換 40
3.4.3 模擬與分析 41
第四章 市區之電波傳播 70
4.1 前言 70
4.2 市區地形圖 70
4.3 電波傳播模型建立步驟 74
4.4 建築物與截面的交點計算 75
4.5 電波傳播路徑搜尋 79
4.5.1 路徑搜尋加速 79
4.5.2 縱截面剖面之傳播路徑 80
4.5.3 橫截面剖面之傳播路徑 81
4.6 障礙檢測 87
4.6.1 縱截面傳播路徑之障礙檢測 87
4.6.2 橫截面傳播路徑之障礙檢測 87
4.7量測與模擬 91
4.7.1 量測系統 92
4.7.2 模擬與分析 92
第五章 結論 111
5.1 總結 111
5.2 未來研究方向 113
參考文獻 114
作者簡介 119
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