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研究生:彭大展
研究生(外文):Peng Dazhan
論文名稱:內傾式三輪車輛之設計與分析
論文名稱(外文):The Design and Analysis of aTilting Three-Wheeler
指導教授:徐茂濱徐茂濱引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:機械工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:三輪車輛可內傾式翻覆氣壓式內傾機構
外文關鍵詞:TTWtiltingrollover
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為了有效地改善都市交通壅塞的問題,我們著眼於個人車輛的改善,但現今各種的個人式車輛,例如:機車、汽車及一般三輪車輛,做為都市的交通工具有不安全、佔用空間……等缺點,未來都市的交通工具應具備高便利性(適合於都市駕駛及駐車)、高安全性(保障人員安全)、低油耗性(因應能源危機、綠色環保)及低成本(普及於社會大眾),如此才能符合未來都市交通工具的要求。
本研究旨在設計一部適合未來都市的個人式車輛,此車輛為一部可內傾式前二輪後一輪三輪車(2F/1R TTW),具備體積小(高便利性、低油耗性)、過彎可內傾(高安全性)及簡單的氣壓式內傾機構(低成本)等特色。而本研究現階段是採用腳踏車作為分析設計實體,並針對過彎翻覆的安全性及氣壓式內傾機構的可行性來研究,且利用理論分析、實車設計、製作與測試及電腦模擬來說明本2F/1R TTW的特性。
本2F/1R TTW過彎時與一般二輪車輛相同,駕駛者可依所需向心力的大小來控制內傾的角度,因此不會發生如傳統三輪車過彎超出翻覆閾值而向外側翻車的情形,最壞的情況也只是向彎道外側滑出而不會翻覆,並且也不會如二輪車輛發生向內滑倒的情形,因此大幅提高了安全性。而本2F/1R TTW因內傾機構設計良好,不僅過彎可內傾,更可以保持車身鉛直地穿越於凹凸路面或橫行於斜面及階梯,並可鎖定內傾機構使車身不傾倒。因此本車不僅適合都市騎乘,更適合發展成為全功能的個人車輛。
To improve the situation of traffic, traffic problems and traffic congestion in cities effectively, efforts in the improvement of personal vehicles have to be strengthened. Personal vehicles such as motor cycles, cars and three-wheelers, which are nowadays in widespread use in cities, still show many disadvantages, i.e. they are still not safe enough, need a lot of space etc. City transportation vehicles of the future have to be more convenient (suitable for driving and parking in cities), safer (safety guarantee for people), petrol saving (raw material crisis, green environment), production cost saving (affordable for everyone), only then vehicles will fulfill the demands of modern city traffic.
The task of this thesis is to construct a personal vehicle suitable for modern city traffic (hereafter short “our vehicle”). Our vehicle is an tilting three wheeler with two front wheels and one rear wheel (2F/1R TTW). Our vehicle has following special characteristics: small volume (high convenient, petrol saving), tilting when turning right or left (high safety), simple air pressure tilting construction (low production costs).This thesis uses a bicycle as analysis design object and researches rollover prevention when turning right or left as well as the possibilities of air pressure tilting constructions. Furthermore, the special characteristics of our vehicle are explained by theoretical discussion, real vehicle design and construction and computer simulation.
The characteristics of our vehicle when turning right or left are the same as these of most other bicycles: The driver is able to control the angle of tilting analog to the demanded size of centripetal force. Therefore, there is no danger of rollover as it occurs when driving traditional three wheelers in curves which exceed its rollover threshold value. The worst case of our vehicle is: 1. It will leave the road by exceeding the margin of the outer lane, but it won’t roll over. 2. Other than two wheelers, it won’t overturn or fall to the ground. This means that our vehicle provides great safety improvements. Additionally, because of the good tilting construction design, our vehicle is not only able to tilt in curves, but also can keep the vehicle balanced when driving over uneven or inclined surfaces or over stairs. Changes in the tilting construction prevent the vehicle to overturn. Resume: Our vehicle fits the demands of traffic in modern cities and holds a lot of potential for further development into a multi-functional personal vehicle.
中文摘要………………………………………………………………Ⅰ
英文摘要………………………………………………………………Ⅱ
致 謝………………………………………………………………Ⅲ
目 錄………………………………………………………………Ⅳ
圖 索 引………………………………………………………………Ⅶ
表 索 引………………………………………………………………Ⅸ
符號說明………………………………………………………………Ⅹ
第一章 緒論…………………………………………………………1
1.1 研究動機……………………………………………………1
1.2 研究目的……………………………………………………2
1.3 相關文獻回顧與整理………………………………………2
1.4 本文架構……………………………………………………4
第二章 可內傾式車輛之翻覆分析…………………………………6
2.1 可內傾四輪車輛之翻覆閾值分析…………………………7
2.2 銷上可內傾2F/1R三輪車輛之翻覆閾值分析……………12
2.3 全車可內傾2F/1R三輪車輛之翻覆閾值分析……………17
2.4 銷上與全車可內傾車輛翻覆閾值之比較…………………22
2.5 小結…………………………………………………………27
第三章 全車內傾式2F/1R三輪車之設計…………………………28
3.1 設計理念……………………………………………………28
3.2 機構設計……………………………………………………30
3.2.1 驅動機構之介紹………………………………………30
3.2.2 轉向機構之設計………………………………………31
3.2.3 內傾機構之設計………………………………………32
3.3 設計尺寸與實車規格………………………………………41
3.4 小結…………………………………………………………50
第四章 實車測試、電腦模擬與騎乘感受…………………………51
4.1 實車測試……………………………………………………51
4.1.1 實驗目的………………………………………………51
4.1.2 實驗原理………………………………………………51
4.1.3 實驗器材………………………………………………51
4.1.4 實驗方法及步驟………………………………………52
4.1.5 實驗結果與討論………………………………………53
4.1.6 實驗數據與理論值之比較……………………………54
4.2 電腦模擬……………………………………………………56
4.2.1 ADAMS 模擬之模型建立與設定………………………56
4.2.2 2F/1R 三輪車過彎伴隨加速或煞車狀況之模擬……57
4.2.3 2F/1R TTW 與二輪車輛過彎側滑狀況之模擬………62
4.3 騎乘感受……………………………………………………68
4.3.1 過彎感受………………………………………………68
4.3.2 橫向行駛階梯及傾斜路面……………………………69
4.3.3 行經突起障礙物………………………………………70
4.3.4 慢速行駛及靜止………………………………………71
4.4 小結…………………………………………………………72
第五章 結論與建議…………………………………………………74
5.1 結論…………………………………………………………74
5.2 建議及未來展望……………………………………………76
參考文獻………………………………………………………………79
作者簡介………………………………………………………………81
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[2] 丁定華,四輪車與三輪車在加速轉向時之穩定分析,國立中央大學機械工程學研究所碩士論文,1992。
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[4] 劉邦佑,可內傾殘障機車之翻覆性分析,國立台灣科技大學機械工程學研究所碩士論文,2003。
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[14] Milliken, W. F., Race Car Vehicle Dynamics, SAE International, Warrendale, PA, 1995.
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