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研究生:楊景光
研究生(外文):Ching-kuang Yang
論文名稱:珍•奧斯汀《傲慢與偏見》與《艾瑪》中的婚姻與女性掙扎
論文名稱(外文):Marriage and Female Struggle in Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice and Emma
指導教授:林春枝林春枝引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chun-chih Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中國文化大學
系所名稱:英國語文學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:94
中文關鍵詞:珍•奧斯汀傲慢與偏見艾瑪浪漫時期婚姻
外文關鍵詞:Jane AustenPride and PrejudiceEmmaRomantic periodmarriage
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奧斯汀的《傲慢與偏見》與《艾瑪》中婚姻為其中心議題。小說情節與人物行為縈繞在此主題上。就書中的人物而言,婚姻並非意味著男女間無法控制的熱情而是雙方與社會間的契約產物。小說人物全然融入其社會現實,依循社會規則,譜出故事情節。由於明白婚姻關係可提供階級提升與經濟改善的機會,財力與社會地位為決定結婚對象的相關條件。
本文以社會女性主義觀點切入,檢視奧斯汀的社會背景,探索社會環境如何影響女性在面臨婚姻時,內心的焦慮與掙扎。就社會女性主義者而言,物質環境為塑造女性婚姻意識的決定因素。對於當時男性階級與女性地位的探索,將可助於釐清為何婚姻為奧斯汀小說議題的原因。事實上,婚姻,就小說人物而言,為一個階級交換與經濟交流的市場。為了達成結婚的目的,女性人物擅於把自己轉化成商品,展示其外貌與才藝,吸引男性目光。此一時期女性受到社會價值的鼓勵,利用其女性特質來贏得婚姻伴侶。然而,奧斯汀的女性人物在面臨婚姻伴侶的抉擇時往往呈現對婚姻無意識的不安。本文根據奧斯汀當時的英國社會環境,揭露《傲慢與偏見》與《艾瑪》中女性婚姻觀點,其內在的焦慮與掙扎。

Marriage is the central topic in Austen's Pride and Prejudice and Emma: the plots of the novels and the actions of the characters revolve around marriage. For Austen's characters, marriage does not mean the act of ungoverned passion but a complex engagement between the marrying couple and society. Austen's characters are completely integrated into society and play out the stories within the social rules. They realize that marriage can provide opportunities of class mobility and financial support; money and class are thus closely connected in their decision of marital partners.
Based on Socialist-feminism, this thesis examines social background in Austen's time and explores how social conditions influence females' psychological struggle and anxiety toward marriage. For Socialist-feminists, material factors shape women's marital consciousness in determinate ways. The discussions of male class and female status in the end of the eighteenth century are helpful for understanding why marriage is the central topic in Austen's novels. In a sense, marriage is regarded as a market place to exchange upward class mobility and financial support for Austen's characters. In order to achieve the goal of marriage, females are good at transforming themselves into commodities by displaying their appearances and accomplishments to appeal to male gazers. Women at the time were encouraged by the social value of performing manners of femininity to win husbands. However, when Austen's female characters face mate selections, an unconscious apprehension toward marriage can be observed. From the social consideration of Austen's time, this thesis will reveal female marital perspectives, anxieties, and inner struggle in Pride and Prejudice and Emma.

Introduction…………………………………………………………1
Chapter One:
Male Class in the Romantic Period 1780-1835………………13
I. Class and Economy………………………………………………13
II. Class Distribution……………………………………………16
III. Social Mobility………………………………………………28
Chapter Two:
Female Status in the Romantic Period 1780-1835……………33
I. Family Inheritance……………………………………………33
II. Female Education………………………………………………36
III. Female Careers………………………………………………45
Chapter Three:
Female Marital Consciousness……………………………………53
I. Ideology in Marriage…………………………………………53
II. Female Anxiety…………………………………………………57
III. Ball as a Social Activity…………………………………65
Conclusion……………………………………………………………71
Bibliography…………………………………………………………84

1. Abbott, Pamela and Roger Sapsford. “Women and Social Class: An Overview." Women and Social Class. London: Tavistock, 1987. 1-35.
2. Abrams, M. H., et al. “The Romantic Period (1785-1830).” The Norton Anthology of English Literature. 6th ed. Vol. 2. New York: Norton, 1993. 1-17. 2 vols.
3. Althusser, Louis. “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses.” Culture Theory and Popular Culture: A Reader. Ed. John Storey. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1994. 151-63.
4. Berg, Maxine. “Custom and Community in Domestic Manufacture and the Trades." The Age of Manufactures: Industry, Innovation and Work in Britain 1700-1820. New Jersey: Barnes and Noble Books, 1985. 159-75.
5. Bermingham, Ann. “Elegant Females and Gentlemen Connoisseurs: The Commerce in Culture and Self-image in Eighteenth-century England.” The Consumption of Culture 1600-1800. Eds. Ann Bermingham and John Brewer. London: Routledge, 1995. 489-513.
6. Bloom, Harold. Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice. New York: Chelsea House,1987.
7. Bolt, Christine. “The Setting for the Women’s Movements: From the Eighteenth Century to the 1820s.” The Women’s Movements in the United States and Britain from the 1790s to the 1920s. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1993. 12-25.
8. Briggs, Asa. “The Language of ‘Class’ in Early Nineteenth-Century England." History and Class: Essential Readings in Theory and Interpretation. Ed. R. S. Neale. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1984. 2-29.
9. Brooker, Peter. A Concise Glossary of Culture Theory. London: Arnold, 1999. Cassin-Scott, Jack. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Costume and Fashion: 1550-1920. London: Blandford, 1986.
10. Castellanos, Gabriela. “Carnival and Austen’s Feminism.” Laughter, War and Feminism: Elements of Carnival in Three of Jane Austen’s Novels. New York: Peter Lang, 1994. 27-65.
11. Christie, Ian R. “Conservatism and Stability in British Society.” The French Revolution and British Popular Politics. Ed. Mark Philp. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1991. 169-87.
12. Copeland, Edward. Women Writing About Money. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1995.
13. Cuddon, J. A. Literary Terms and Literary Theory. 4th ed. New York: Penguin, 1999.
14. Davidoff, Leonore, and Catherine Hall. Family Fortunes: Men and women of the English middle class, 1780-1850. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1987.
15. Day, Gary. Class. London: Routledge, 2001.
16. Ferguson, Ann. “On Conceiving Motherhood and Sexuality: A Feminist Materialist Approach.” Feminist Social Thought: A Reader. Ed. Diana Tietjeans Meyers. New York: Routledge, 1997. 39-63.
17. Francis, Diana. Criticism. Novels for Students. Vol. 1. Ed. Diane Telgen. New York: U States of America P, 1997. 297-99.
18. Fritzer, Penelope Joan. Jane Austen and Eighteenth-Century Courtesy Books. London: Greenwood, 1997.
19. Gay, Penny. “Emma: Private Theatricals in Highbury.” Jane Austen And The Theatre. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2002. 123-46.
20. Gillie, Christopher. “Jane Austen’s Place in English Fiction.” A Preface to Jane Austen. Rev. ed. New York: Longman, 1985. 149-64.

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