(3.215.183.251) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/22 11:26
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:陳俊輝
論文名稱:以眼球運動軌跡探討偽裝辨識的視覺歷程與效果評估
指導教授:李天任李天任引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中國文化大學
系所名稱:資訊傳播研究所
學門:傳播學門
學類:一般大眾傳播學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:123
中文關鍵詞:偽裝配對比較法眼動追蹤光學物理特徵
外文關鍵詞:camouflagepair comparisoneye trackingoptical characteristic
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:19
  • 點閱點閱:479
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
摘要
綜合過去研究文獻可知,探討偽裝辨識的議題橫跨物理光學、視覺生理學與心理學等領域。因為問題本身複雜度極高,為了便於釐清某些變項的影響,過去的研究多簡化了刺激材料或僅單純探討光學領域的問題,而忽略生理與心理向度。本研究首次嘗試以台灣較具代表性的全彩地形影像為材料,其中鑲嵌有由Photoshop特效工具製作的偽裝主體。透過兩兩配對比較程序、眼球運動軌跡追蹤與搜尋反應時間的紀錄,同時由主觀評量、光學特徵差異量,視線特徵與搜尋反應時間等四種不同角度,評估何種偽裝製作方法,較能發揮偽裝之效用。初步結果,歸納如下:
1.從主觀評量評量的結果來看,Photoshop中之「塗抹繪畫」特效工具所製作的偽裝主體,其偽裝效果最佳,它適用於大部分地形。
2.同一種特效工具中,比較六色的製作方式、四色的製作方式與三色製作方式,結果顯示色彩數越多,在受測者主觀評量上就具有較佳的偽裝效果。
3.由搜尋到偽裝主體的反應時間來看,在棕色岩石、黃色土石與冬季山岳林木地形上,仍然以「塗抹繪畫」方式具有較佳的偽裝效果。但在灰色岩石地形上則以「結晶化效果」較佳;夏季山岳林木地形上,則是「乾性筆刷」效果較佳。
4.由偽裝主體與背景的物理特徵差異量來看,在棕色岩石、黃色土石與冬季山岳林木地形上,仍然以「塗抹繪畫」方式具有較小的物理特徵差異,較佳的偽裝效果。但在灰色岩石地形上則以「結晶化效果」較佳;夏季山岳林木地形上,則是「乾性筆刷」效果較佳。
5.由視線第一次落入偽裝主體內之前所耗費的凝視點個數來看,仍以「塗抹繪畫」方式在黃色土石、夏季山林、冬季山林地形上偽裝效果較佳,但在灰色岩石上則以「結晶化效果」較佳,棕色岩石地形上則是「乾性筆刷」較佳。
6.由搜尋過程中,視線的平均跳視幅度來看,以「壁畫效果」在夏季山林、冬季山林地形上偽裝效果較佳,但在灰色土石上以「塗抹繪畫」較佳、棕色土石以「挖剪圖案」,黃色土石以「乾性筆刷」,具有較佳的偽裝效果
7.綜合前述有效偽裝主體的特徵發現,其偽裝主體內皆具有與背景相近的色調表現、較少的直線線條、較小的幾何圖形時。
整體結果顯示,僅從物理特徵來解釋偽裝良窳似乎仍不完備。為了深入理解影響偽裝效果的因素有哪些,我們進一步將前述光學特徵差異量與視線特徵共同納入迴歸模型。初步結果發現,主觀評量值與實際搜尋到偽裝主體的反應時間的確呈現正相關。但是,主觀評量值約只解釋搜尋時間之總變異的8%。如果將主觀評量結果加上搜尋過程中的凝視時間、跳視幅度與平均亮度差等等指標,合併建立複迴歸,則可解釋搜尋時間之總變異的43%。顯然,在實際的複雜環境中,要評估偽裝目標是否容易被搜尋出來,無法單純依賴主觀的心理評量或物理亮度差異的評量。
Abstract
According to literature, the discussion about camouflage across the physical optics、visual physiology and psychology domain. This is the first research which attempts to take most representative color terrain image of Taiwan as a material, to evaluate the camouflage target intelligibility which manufactures by the Photoshop special effect tool from optical、physiological and psychological view.
We build the subjective scale by the pair comparison procedure, compute the optics characteristic difference quantity, and get the visual characteristics by eye tracking method and reaction time recording method. Preliminary result induction as follows:
1. From subjective scaling view, the “Paint Daub” tool in Photoshop has the best camouflage effect. it is suitable for the majority of terrains.
2. In the identical kind of special effect tool, we compared with six colors manufacture ways, four colors manufacture way and the tricolor manufacture way. Result demonstrates that six colors manufacture ways has the best camouflage effect in subjective scale.
3. From the reaction time of searching for the camouflage target, in the brown rock, yellow ochre stone and winter mountain forest terrain, "Paint Daub" tool still have the better camouflage effect. But the "Crystallize" tool in Photoshop is better for the pessimistic rock terrain; and the "Dry brushes" tool is better for the mountain forest terrain.
4. From optical characteristic difference quantity results, the " Paint Daub " tool still make the smaller physical characteristic difference, better camouflage effect in the majority of terrains. But the "Crystallize" tool is better for the pessimistic rock terrain; and the "Dry brushes" tool is better for the mountain forest terrain.
5. Given the number of Fixations in searching process, the " Paint Daubs" tool still make better camouflage effect in the majority of terrains. But on pessimistic rock, " Crystallize" is better, and "Dry brushes " is better for the brown rock terrain.
6. From the data of average amplitude of the saccade, results aren’t somewhat consistent with above. For example, The "Fresco" tool is better for summer-wooded mountain and winter wooded mountain terrain. The "Paint Daubs" tool is better for brown ochre stone terrain. The "Dry brushes" tool especial better for the yellow ochre stone.
7. Summarizing above results, it demonstrates that the more effective camouflage target has, the less straight lines and the smaller geometric figures it possesses.
The overall results show that, it is still incomplete to explain camouflaged effect only from the optical characteristic difference. In order to thoroughly understand which factors influence camouflage effect, we further build the stepwise regression model with all visual and optical characteristics. The preliminary results show that, subjective rating only explain 8% of the total search time variation. If combine with subjective rating、optical characteristic difference、number of Fixations and the average amplitude of the saccade, it might explain 43% of the total search time variation.
目 次
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的與問題 3
第三節 研究流程與架構 4
第四節 研究範圍與限制 7
第二章 文獻探討 8
第一節 視覺認知人因相關文獻探討 8
第二節 偽裝辨識的認知心理歷程 15
第三節 物理光學特徵計算 19
第四節 眼球運動機制 22
第五節 眼動追蹤方法 27
第三章 研究方法 30
第一節 實驗一 32
第二節 實驗二 36
第三節 實驗三 38
第四節 實驗四 42
第五節 研究變項定義 44
第四章 研究結果與分析 49
第一節 偽裝效果評估之主觀評量分析 49
第二節 搜尋情境對視覺生理的反應影響結果分析 58
第三節 物理特徵差異與主觀評量之比較分析 63
第四節 受測者主觀評量與視線特徵之比較分析 67
第五節 視覺生理反應與物理特徵反應之結果分析 77
第六節 偽裝效果預測之迴歸分析 81
第五章 結論與建議 86
第一節 研究結論 86
第二節 研究討論 91
第三節 後續研究建議 93
參考文獻 94
參考文獻
(一) 中文部分
P. G. Zimbardo著,游恆山編譯,(民88),《心理學》,五南圖書,臺北,pp.244~270。
Robert W. Bailey 著,林修如譯,1995,《應用人因工程學》,桂冠圖書,臺北,pp.61~63。
李天任 (民89)視覺模擬在地景偽裝之應用先趨研究,國防科技發展方案,國家科學委員會,中華民國行政院。
李天任 (民90)視覺模擬在地景偽裝之應用研究(I),國防科技發展方案,國家科學委員會,中華民國行政院。
李天任 (民91)視覺模擬在地景偽裝之應用研究(II),國防科技發展方案,國家科學委員會,中華民國行政院。
李天來,1992,《包裝點、線、面PART1》,新形象出版事業,臺北,p.40。
李麗雪、洪德娟、顏家芝(民85),景觀視覺評估與分析。台北:田園城市文化事業。
柳閩生,(民81),《版面設計》,幼獅文化事業,臺北,p.44、45、63、146、147、153。
唐大崙,(民92),未出版之上課講義
張一岑,(民86),《人因工程學---Human factors engineering and ergonomics》,揚智文化事業,臺北,pp.357~359。
張叔平,(民88),“距離改變對於肉眼判斷視標正確性影響之研究”,《第四屆技術及職業教育研討會論文集》,國立高雄工專,pp.5327~5336。
張春興,(民81),《現代心理學》,東華書局,臺北,p.121。
張清波,(民81),“視距視角改變對於看板字體大小影響之研究”,《第七屆全國技術及職業教育研討會工業類論文集》,明志工專,pp.397~406。
許勝雄、彭游、吳水丕,(民80),《人因工程學》,揚智文化事業,臺北,p.193。
郭瓊瑩,(民89),自然景觀中之環境色彩美學,第一屆亞太流行色彩研討會論文集
野村順一,(民85),《增補色の祕密最新色彩學入門》,文藝春秋,東京,p.39。
楊裕富,(民88),《創意思境:視傳設計概論與方法》,田園城市文化事業,臺北,p.81。
萬台飛、陸建邦(民75),眼振圖手冊,第10-50頁,台北,合記圖書出版社。
董基宏,(民82),“國小高年級教科書橫排之字體種類、字距及行距設計之研究”,中國文化大學造紙印刷研究所印刷組碩士論文。
劉英茂,(民89),《基本心理歷程》,文笙出版社,臺北,P43
鄭昭明,(民82),《認知心理學》,桂冠圖書,臺北。
鍾聖校,(民79),《認知心理學》,心理出版社,臺北,p.128。
(二) 英文部分
Akerman,A. & Kinzly,R.E.(1979). Predicting aircraft detectability. Human Factors, 21(3), 277-291.
Backs,R. W. & Walrath, L.C.(1992), Eye movement and papillary response indices of mental workload during visual search of symbolic displays, Applied Ergonomics, 23(4), 243-254
Balling, J. D.,& Falk, J. H. , 1982,Development of visual preference for natural environments, Environment and Behavior, 14,5-28
Birkemark, C.M.(2001). CAMEVA, a methodology for estimation of target detectability. Optical Engineering, 40(9), 1835-1843.
Boring, E. G. (Ed).(1945). Psychology for the Armed Services. Washington, D. C.: Infantry Journal. (1945). xvii, 533.
Campbell,F.W., & Robson,J.G.(1968).Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings. Journal of Physiology, 197, 551-566.
Cathcart,J.M., Doll,T.J., & Schmieder,D.E.(1989).Target detection in urban clutter. IEEE Transaction System & man Cybernetic, SMC-19, 1242-1250.
Copeland,A.C., & Trivedi,M.M.(2001). Computational models for search and discrimination. Optical Engineering, 40(09), 1885-1895.
De Valois, R. L., & De Valois, K. K.(1988). Spatial vision. Cognitive Psychology, 12, 97-136.
Galley,N.(1993). The evaluation of the electrooculogram as a psychophyisiological measuring instrument in the driver study of driver behaviour. Ergonomics, 36(9), 1063-1070
Gould, J. D. and Schaffer, A.(1965), Eye movements parameters in pattern recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 74, 521-535
Greening,C.P.(1976). Mathematical modeling of air-to-ground target acquisition. Human Factors, 18(2), 111-148.
Henderson, J. M. & Hollingworth, A. (1999). High-level scene perception. Annual Review of Psycholgy., 50, 243-271.
Henderson, J. M., Weeks, P. A., and Hollingworth, A. (1999). The Effects of Semantic Consistency on Eye Movements During Complex Scene Viewing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 25, 210-228.
Henderson,J.M., & Hollingworth,A.(1998). Eye movement during scene viewing: An overview. In Eye Guidance in Reading and Scene Perception, G. Underwood, Ed. Elsevier Science Ltd., 269-293.
Hibben, S. G. Reid, K. M. (1942). Comments on blackouts. Illuminating Engineering, Including Transactions of the Illuminating Engineering Society. New York. 37 1942, 210-216.
Holzman, Philip S.(2000). Eye movements and the search for the essence of schizophrenia. Brain Research Reviews. Vol 31(2-3) Mar 2000, 350-356.
Just, M.A., & Carpenter, P.A. (1976). Eye fixations and cognitive processes. Cognitive Psychology, 8, 441-480.
King, M.G., Stanley, G.V., & Burrows, G.D.(1984). Visual search processes in camouflage detection. Human Factors, 26(2), 223-234.
Thurstone,L. L. (1927), A law of comparative judgment, Psychol. Rev. 34,273—286 .
Mackworth,N., & Morandi,A.(1967). The gaze selects informative details within pictures. Perception and Psychophysics, 2, 547-552.
MackWorth,N.H., & Bruner,J.S.(1970). How adults and children search and recognize pictures. Human development, 13, 149-177.
Megaw ,E.D. and Richardson, J. (1979),Target uncertainty and visual scanning strategies., Human Factors, 21, 302-315.
Moorhead,I.R., Gilmore,M.A., (2001). CAMEO-SIM: a physics-based broadband scene simulation tool for assessment of camouflage, concealment, and deception methodologies. Optical Engineering, 40(9), 1896-1905.
Mueller, P. U., Cavegn, D., d''''Ydewalle, G., & Groner, R.(1993). A comparison of a new limbus tracker, corneal reflection technique, Purkinje eye tracking and electro-oculography. d''''Ydewalle, Gery (Ed); Van Rensbergen, Johan (Ed). (1993). Perception and cognition: Advances in eye movement research. Studies in visual information processing, Vol. 4. (pp. 393-401). Amsterdam, Netherlands: North-Holland/Elsevier Science Publishers. xvi, 420pp.
Neboit , M. and Richardson, J.,(1987),Eye movement recording in ergonomics and applied research. Eye Movements: from physiology to Cognition, Elsevier Science Publishers B. V., North-Holland, 551-561
Nyberg,S., & Bohman,L.(2001). Assessing camouflage methods using textural features. Optical Engineering, 40(9), 1869-1876.
O’Kane B. L., Walters C. P., and J. D’Agostino(1993), Report on perception experiments in support of low observables thermal performance models,Technical report, U.S. Army, Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate, Fort Belvoir.
Pickering, M. J., Traxler, M. J., & Crocker, M. W.(2000). Ambiguity resolution in sentence processing: Evidence against frequency-based accounts. Journal of Memory & Language. Vol 43(3) Oct 2000, 447-475.
Pieters, R., Rosbergen, E., & Wedel, M.(1999). Visual attention to repeated print advertising: A test of scanpath theory. Journal of Marketing Research. Vol 36(4) Nov 1999, 424-438.
Pieters, R., Rosbergen, E., & Wedel, M.(1999). Visual attention to repeated print advertising: A test of scanpath theory. Journal of Marketing Research. Vol 36(4) Nov 1999, 424-438.
Posner, M. I., Snyder, C. R. & Davidson, B. J. (1980). Attention and the detection of signals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 109(2), 160-174.
Prost, D. B.,& Buhyoff, G. J.,(1980), Policy capturing and landscape preference quantification: A methodological study. Journal of Environmental Management,11, 45-49
Ratches J. A. (1976),Static performance model for thermal imaging systems, Opt. Eng. 15(6), 525—530.
Schroeder, H. W., (1984), Environmental perception rating scale : A case for simple methods of analysis, Environment and Behavior,16,pp573-598
Snyder, H. L. and Taylor, D.F.(1976), Computerized of eye movements during Static display visual search. Areospace Medical Research Laboratory Report, AMRL-TR-75-91, Ohio.
Steinbach, M. J. & Held, R.(1968). Eye tracking of observer-generated target movements. Science. 161(3837), 187-188.
Toet, A., Bijl, P., & Valeton, J.M. (2000). Test of three visual search and detection models. Optical Engineering, 39(5), 1344-1353.
Treisman, A. & Gormican, S. (1988). Feature analysis in early vision: Evidence from search asymmetries. Psychological Review, 95, 15-48.
Treisman, A. M., & Gelade, G. (1980). A feature-integration theory of attention.
Weldon,T.P., Higgins,W.E., & Dunn,D.F.(1996).Gabor filter design for multiple texture segmentation. Optical Engineering, 35(10), 1-17.
Williams, D. E. & Reingold, E. M. (1997) Patterns of eye movements during parallel and serial visual search tasks. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology.51(2). 151-164. Wolfe, J. M. (1994). Guided Search 2.0: A revised model of visual search. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 1(2), 202-238.
Wolfe, J. M. (1998). Visual search. In H. Pashler(Ed), Attention, (pp.13-73 ). Hove, England: Psychology Press/Erlbaum (UK). England: Psychology Press/Erlbaum (UK).
Zahn,T.P., Frith,C.D., & Steinhauer,S.R.(1991). Autonomic functioning in schizophrenia: Electrodermal activity, heart rate, pupillography. In S.R. Steinhauer, J.H. Gruzelier, & J.Zubin, (Eds.), Handbook of Schizophrenia, Vol. 5: Neuropsychology, Psychophysiology and Information Processing, pp.185-224. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Zelinsky, G., Rao, R. P. N., Hayhoe, M. M., & Ballard, D. H. (1997) Eye movements reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of visual search. Psychological Science, 8,448-453.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔