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研究生:楊景斌
研究生(外文):Jing Ping, L. Yang
論文名稱:第二及第三人稱自傳小說:《一個人的聖經》敘述技巧之分析
論文名稱(外文):Second- and Third-person Novel as Autobiography: A Study of Narrative in One Man’s Bible
指導教授:蔡恪恕蔡恪恕引用關係
指導教授(外文):Josef Szakos
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:英國語文學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:82
中文關鍵詞:敘述學獨白意識流人稱代名詞
外文關鍵詞:person pronounnarratologymonologuestream of consciousness
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高行健是首位華人於西元二千年獲得諾貝爾文學獎。本論文探討小說“一個人的聖經”敘述技巧。而該小說最引人注目的乃是其人稱用法的多樣性。不同於一般自傳性著作,高在敘述自己時,引用“他”及“你”分別代表過去與現在的自己。同時,高自創“語言流”(實際上類似意識流)的寫作技巧也使本書增添色彩。本研究參照法國結構主義﹙例如Genette, 1988﹚及美國學派﹙例如Chatman, 1986﹚等所提出的理論,探討高的語言技巧。研究結果顯示,高雖然顛覆傳統第一人稱自傳小説,但符合Genette所提之homodiegetic﹙同質性﹚敘述,也達到語言溝通的功能。此外,高作品的對話獨白人稱變化也產生了戲劇效果。
Gao Xingjian is the first Chinese to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2000. The thesis is to discuss narrative techniques in One Man’s Bible. The uniqueness of the novel is his diversity of personal pronoun uses. Different from general autobiographic works, Gao uses “you” and “he” to designate the past “he” and present “he” in his story. Meanwhile, Gao also creates “stream of language” (my translation), which is similar to “stream of consciousness”. The research follows French structuralism (e.g. Genette, 1988) and Anglo-American studies (e.g. Chatman, 1986) to explore Gao’s techniques in the novel. It is found that though Gao overturns the traditional first-person norms of autobiographical writing, we shall categorize it as Genette’s “homodiegetic” narration. It is communicative between the author and the reader. Meanwhile, his second- and third-person dialogue monologue is a distinguish skill in narrative. Finally, alternation between “you” and “he” in reference to the same protagonist causes dramatic effect successfully.
Acknowledgements i
English abstract ii
Chinese abstract iii
Table of Contents iv
List of figures and tables viii

Chapter 1: Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Purpose 1
1.3 Background and Writings of Gao Xingjian 2
1.4 One Man’s Bible as autobiography 4
1.4.1 Definition of autobiography 4
1.4.2 Figures 5
1.4.3 Personal uses on autobiography 6
1.4.4 The story and its structure 6
1.5 Methodology 8
1.6 Organization 8

Chapter 2: Literature Review 10
2.1 The research of literary style 10
2.1.1 Bally and the Saussurian origins of structural stylistics 10
2.1.2 Russian formalism 12
2.1.2.1 Viktor Shklovsky 12
2.1.2.2 Vladimir Propp 13
2.1.3 French structuralism 13
2.1.3.1 Ronald Barthes 13
2.1.3.2 Gerard Genette 14
2.1.4 “Discourse in the novel” of Bakhtin 15
2.1.5 “Poetic function” of Jakobson 16
2.1.6 Dualism and pluralism 18
2.2 Narratology 19
2.2.1 Definition of narratology 19
2.2.2 Narrative text 20
2.2.3 Narrative communication 22
2.2.4 Narrative structure 22
2.2.4.1 Diegesis and miesis 22
2.2.4.2 Narrative situations 23
2.2.4.3 Types of narration 24
2.2.4.4 Covert and overt narrator 26
2.2.4.5 Free indirect discourse 27
2.3 Deixis in narrative 28
2.3.1 Deixis 28
2.3.2 Deictic field in narrative 29
2.3.3 Referential shift in free indirect discourse 30

Chapter 3 Narrative Text 31
3.1 Text and time 31
3.1.1 Order 31
3.1.2 Duration 34
3.1.3 Summary and scene 34
3.1.4 Frequency 34
3.2 Focalization 36
3.3 Speech and thought presentation 37
3.3.1 Speech presentation 37
3.3.1.1 Direct speech and indirect speech 37
3.3.1.2 Free direct speech and free indirect speech 39
3.3.1.3 Narrative report of speech acts 40
3.3.2 Thought presentation 42
3.3.2.1 The categorization of thought presentation 43
3.3.2.2 Monologue 43
3.3.2.3 Stream of consciousness 46
3.4 Point of view 48
3.5 Summary 50

Chapter 4: Personal narrative 51
4.1 Person 51
4.1.1 The speaking person in the novel 52
4.1.2 Real author, implied author, narrator, real reader, implied reader, narratee 53
4.2 First-person narrative 54
4.3 Second-person narrative 56
4.4 Third-person narrative 61
4.5 Second and third-person narrative 63
4.6 Summary 68

Chapter 5: Conclusion 69
5.1 Findings 69
5.1.1 Linguistic side 69
5.1.2 Literary style 72
5.2 One Man’s Bible in translation 72
5.2.1 The translator 73
5.2.2 Translation principle 73
5.2.3 Translation and culture 74
5.2.4 Literary and free translation 75
5.3 Limitations and suggestions for future development 76
Bibliography 77
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