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研究生:陳賦祥
研究生(外文):Fu-Hsiang Chen
論文名稱:"著"字語意發展及語法化之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on the Semantic Development and Grammaticalization of ZHE
指導教授:鄭縈鄭縈引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ying Cheng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:英國語文學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:166
中文關鍵詞:持續體標記語法化語意發展
外文關鍵詞:durativeaspect markergrammaticalizationsemantic developmentZHE
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「著」當體標記來表示事件的持續狀態的用法,是漢語語法史上重要的發展之一。學者普遍認為,現代漢語體標記「著」的用法最早起源於「著」早期當引出地點之類似介詞功能的用法,且帶有明顯的「附著」義。此外,歷史上很多「著」的用法也都是直接或間接地來自於「著」的「附著」義。然而到目前為止,驅使「著」從「附著」義進一步衍生出其他的動詞義或語法義的因素似乎還沒有一個較確切的答案。「著」的用法的來源與各個用法之間的關聯性還需要較廣泛與詳盡的說明與解釋。本論文的目的即在於從語意發展及語法化的角度進一步探索、揭示「著」的歷史發展過程。根據我們對歷史文獻的考察,「著」的發展大致呈現三個語法化路徑,分別是:從動詞到持續體標記、從動詞到職責助動詞(deontic modal),及從動詞到結果補語。從語法化的理論來檢視「著」的發展,我們發現「重新分析(reanalysis)」是引起動詞進一步語法化的主要機制。我們的研究也發現「著」的發展基本上遵循著「單向性」(unidirectionality)原則。「著」的演化歷經一連串歷程,標示如下:
著(動詞) >>>著(結果補語) >>>著(動相補語)>>>著(體標記)
「著」從動詞到體標記的語法化過程中,遵循著字義由實到虛,從一種語法範疇到另一種語法範疇的方向。這個演化鏈呈現出如下的現象:
動作事件(activity) >>> 空間(space)>>>時間(time)
The use of ZHE著 as an aspect maker to indicate a durative situation of events is one of the most important syntactic developments in the history of Mandarin Chinese. It is widely accepted that the suffixal aspect marker ZHE著 is generated from its earlier attested function as a locative complement with a verbal meaning ‘to attach’. Besides, a variety of uses of ZHE著 are also found to derive from the meaning ‘to attach’. However, until now the factor or factors which motivate the change of verbal meaning ‘to attach’ into another verbal or grammatical meanings remain neglected. There is no comprehensive and more detailed exposition proposed to determine the etymology of ZHE著, and to specify how each meaning of ZHE著 is related. The aim of this thesis is to explore and reveal the historical developments of ZHE著 in terms of the semantic and grammatical evolution. On the basis of a number of historical documents, it is found that the developments of ZHE著 mainly manifest three grammaticalization paths. One is the cline of verb-to-durative aspect maker. Another is the cline of verb-to-deontic modal. The other is the cline of verb-to-resultative verbal complement. By utilizing the theories of grammaticalization, this study posits that reanalysis is the major linguistic factor which leads to the grammaticalization of concrete verb. It is also found that the developments of ZHE著 basically conform to the principle of unidirectionality. The evolutional process of ZHE著 can be shown as below:
ZHE著(V) >>> ZHE著(RC) >>> ZHE(PC)>>>ZHE(ASP)
The cline of verb-to-durative aspect marker follows the normal courses of grammaticalization in which a concrete word becomes abstract and thus shifts into different categories, since the chain reveals the following development:
ACTIVITY >>> SPACE >>> TIME
Acknowledgements…………………………………………i
Table of Contents…………………………………………………ii
Chinese Abstract…………………………………………………vi
English Abstract…………………………………………………vii
List of Abbreviations…………………………………………viii
List of Tables…………………………………………………ix
List of Figures…………………………………………………x
Chapter 1. Introduction……………………………………………………………1
1.1 Motivation and purpose of this study………………………………………1
1.2 The database………………………………………………………………3
1.3 Organization of the thesis……………………………………………………5

Chapter 2. Literature Review……………………………………………………6
2.1 Previous studies of the historical development of ZHE著…………………6
2.1.1 Shimura (1972)………………………………………………………6
2.1.2 Zhao (1979)…………………………………………………………8
2.1.3 Mei (1988) …………………………………………………………9
2.1.4 Zhu (1991) …………………………………………………………12
2.1.5 Yang (1992) …………………………………………………………13
2.1.6 Liu et al. (1992) ……………………………………………………15
2.1.7 Wu (1996) …………………………………………………………18
2.1.8 Summary and closing remarks………………………………………20
2.2 Previous synchronic studies of the Min tioh………………………………22
2.2.1 Chung (2001) ………………………………………………………23
2.2.2 Lien (2001)………………………………………………………25
2.3 Previous studies of the imperfective aspect marker ZHE著………………27
2.3.1 Summary of scholars’ standpoints of ZHE著……………………27
2.3.2 Description of major viewpoints……………………………………29
2.3.2.1 The viewpoint of “progressive”……………………………30
2.3.2.2 The viewpoint of “durative”…………………………………30
2.3.2.3 The viewpoint of “situation”…………………………………34
2.3.2.4 The viewpoint of “state maker”………………………………35
2.3.2.5 The viewpoint of “inertia”…………………………………37
2.3.2.6 The viewpoint adopted in this paper………………………37
2.4 Theoretical background……………………………………………………38

Chapter 3. The Historical Development of ZHE著………………………42
3.1 The period of Old Chinese…………………………………………………42
3.1.1 The pre-Qin Dynasties………………………………………………42
3.1.1.1 ZHE著 meaning “to attach”………………………………43
3.1.1.2 ZHE著 meaning “to be conspicuous”………………………43
3.1.1.3 ZHE著 meaning “to write”…………………………………47
3.1.1.4 Summary……………………………………………………48
3.1.2 The Western Han Dynasty…………………………………………49
3.1.2.1 ZHE著 meaning “to attach”…………………………………50
3.1.2.1.1 ZHE著 meaning “to store up”………………………50
3.1.2.1.2 ZHE著 meaning “to place”…………………………51
3.1.2.1.3 ZHE著 meaning “to put on”; “to wear”………….…52
3.1.2.1.4 ZHE著 meaning “to touch”; “to bump into”………52
3.1.2.2 ZHE著 meaning “to write (a book)”…………………….…..52
3.1.2.3 ZHE著 meaning “to exist”…………………………………53
3.1.2.4 Summary…………………………………………………54
3.2 The period of Middle Chinese………………………………………………55
3.2.1 The Wei-Jin-Nan-Bei Dynasties……………………………………56
3.2.1.1 ZHE著 meaning “target hitting”……………………………56
3.2.1.2 ZHE著meaning zai在 ‘to be in/on/at’………………………58
3.2.1.3 ZHE著 meaning dao到 ‘to reach’…………………………59
3.2.1.4 Summary……………………………………………………61
3.2.2 The Tang Dynasty…………………………………………………61
3.2.2.1 ZHE著 meaning “to make someone do something”………62
3.2.2.2 ZHE著 meaning “to persist in”……………………………63
3.2.2.3 ZHE著 meaning “to ignite”…………………………………64
3.2.2.4 ZHE著 meaning “to suffer”………………………………66
3.2.2.5 ZHE著 meaning “to use”……………………………………68
3.2.2.6 ZHE著 meaning “to need” or serving as “deontic modal”…69
3.2.2.7 ZHE著 serving as “resultative complement zhao” (RC)……70
3.2.2.8 ZHE著 serving as “phase complement” denoting “durative”
(DPC)……………………………………………………72
3.2.2.9 ZHE著 serving as “phase complement” denoting “perfect”
or “perfective” (PPC)………………………………………75
3.2.2.10 Summary……………………………………………………76
3.3 The period of Early Mandarin……………………………………………77 Dynasty…………………………………………………77
3.3.1.1 Construction of “V/Adj + ZHE著 + VP”…………………78
3.3.1.2 V + ZHE著(RC) + le了; V + de得 + ZHE著(RC)……………79
3.3.1.3 Summary……………………………………………………80
3.3.2 The Yuan Dynasty…………………………………………………80
3.3.2.1 The appearance of durative aspect marker ZHE著…………81
3.3.2.2 Existential sentence…………………………………………82
3.3.2.3 ZHE著 and le were still used interchangeably………………83
3.2.2.4 Summary……………………………………………………84
3.3.3 The Ming & Qing Dynasty…………………………………………85
3.3.3.1 Fix division of labor of ZHE著 and le………………………86
3.3.3.2 Summary……………………………………………………87
3.4 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………88

Chapter 4. The Semantic Development and Grammaticalization of
ZHE著……………………………………………92
4.1 The cline of verb-to-durative, perfect aspect marker………………………92
4.1.1 From “to attach” to “to exist”………………………………………93
4.1.2 From “to exist” to complement zai ‘to be in/on/at’ and dao
‘to reach’……………………………………………………93
4.1.3 From complement zai ‘to be in/on/at’ to aspectual meaning
‘durative’………………………………………………………… 96
4.1.4 From complement dao ‘reach’ to aspectual meaning
‘perfect’………………………………………………………100
4.2 The cline of verb-to-deontic modal………………………………………103
4.2.1 From “to attach” to “to persist in”…………………………………103
4.2.2 From “to persist in” to “to need”…………………………………105
4.2.2.1 From “to need” to causative “to make”……………………106
4.2.2.2 From “to need” to “deontic modal”………………………108
4.3 The cline of verb-to-resultative verb complement………………………111
4.3.1 From ‘to attach’ to ‘target hitting’ then to ‘resultative
complement zhao…………………………………………………111
4.3.2 From ‘target hitting’ to passive ‘suffer’ then to passive
marker……………………………………………………………116
4.4 Other semantic development of ZHE著…………………………………121
4.4.1 From ‘to attach’ to ‘conspicuous’ to ‘to write’……………121
4.4.2 From ‘to attach’ to ‘to touch’………………………………123
4.4.3 From ‘to attach’ to ‘to wear’………………………………………124
4.4.4 From ‘to attach’ to ‘to place’………………………………………124
4.4.5 From ‘to attach’ to ‘to use’…………………………………125
4.4.6 From ‘to attach’ to ‘to ignite’……………………………126
4.5 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………127
4.5.1 Features of grammaticalization of ZHE著…………………………128
4.5.1.1 Layering……………………………………………………128
4.5.1.2 Divergence…………………………………………………129
4.5.1.3 Persistence…………………………………………………120
4.5.1.4 Specialization………………………………………………130
4.5.1.5 De-categorization…………………………………………131
4.5.2 The overall development of ZHE著………………………………131
4.5.3 Comparisons between the grammaticalization process of ZHE著 and
le…………………………………………………………………133

Chapter 5. The Syntactic Structure Evolution of ZHE著: from a Verb to an Aspect Marker…………………………………………………135
5.1 Syntactic patterns signaling progressive aspect in modern Chinese………135
5.2 The syntactic structure evolution of ZHE著………………………………140
5.2.1 ZHE著 moving from the main predicate to secondary predicate serving as a complement…………………………………………140
5.2.2 ZHE著 in an existential sentence…………………………………142
5.2.3 The appearance of durative aspect marker ZHE著………………146
5.2.3.1 From resultative complement (RC) to phase complement(PC)…………………………………………………………147
5.2.3.1.1 ZHE著 as phase complement………………………150
5.2.3.1.2 The distinction between RC and PC………………150
5.2.3.2 From a phase complement denoting durative (DPC) to a durative aspect marker (D-ASP)…………………………152
5.3 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………153

Chapter 6. Conclusion…………………………………………………………155
6.1 Summary of this study……………………………………………………155
6.2 Theoretical implication…………………………………………159
6.3 Limitations of this study and suggestions for future study………………160

References………………………………………………162
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