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研究生:李光勳
研究生(外文):Kuang-Hsun Lee
論文名稱:廣告代言人與代言品牌的形象差異性及代言人可信度對廣告效果影響之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Difference Between Celebrity And Brand Images Under Celebrity Credibility : The Effects Of Endorsements In Advertising
指導教授:林陽助林陽助引用關係
指導教授(外文):Young-Chu Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東吳大學
系所名稱:企業管理學系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:91
中文關鍵詞:廣告代言人品牌形象形象差異性代言人可信度廣告效果
外文關鍵詞:EndorserBrand ImageCelebrity CredibilityAdvertising Effect
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現代的行銷環境日趨激烈,不僅產品生命週期越來越短、替代性產品越來越多,國際間的競爭也越來越強。是故產品要迅速打入消費者的心房,唯有透過獨特的品牌形象。而廣告代言人是能夠快速塑造品牌形象的方式,但在塑造品牌形象的同時,有可能只達到廣告認知卻造成品牌認知的混淆。因此本研究主要係探討在不同的代言人可信度下,廣告代言人與代言品牌的形象差異性,對廣告效果的影響。
本研究採實驗設計的方式,並依前測-品牌形象、代言人形象(功能性、象徵性、經驗性),以及代言人可信度(吸引力、信賴感、專業性),對十個品牌及十位代言人的衡量結果發展問卷。最後歸納出可信度最高及最低之二位代言人,並以其代言人形象對應至二個品牌形象。正式問卷即為形象差異性大/小,代言人可信度高/低,2x2的實驗設計,共有四組不同的實驗情境;並考量代言人職業與產品間的相關性高/低,分別探討其廣告效果(廣告態度、品牌態度、購買意願)是否顯著。主要的分析方法為因素分析、T檢定、2-Way ANOVA。
本研究之研究結果如下:
1.單就形象差異性對廣告效果無顯著影響。因為受測者會依過去對品牌的印象,影響形象差異性對廣告效果的衡量。
2.代言人可信度對廣告效果有顯著影響。代言人可信度高之廣告效果皆顯著較佳。
3.受測者對於廣告態度及購買意願,會偏重參考代言人可信度;但對於品牌態度則會偏重參考品牌印象。
4.當形象差異性小,則品牌形象與代言人形象趨同,此時代言人職業與產品相關性高會加強代言人可信度,產生較佳的品牌態度。而不管當形象差異性大或小,代言人職業與產品相關性高時,購買意願都較佳。
Marketing today is a keen competition. Products would be recalled through unique brand images. And using celebrities is the fastest way to build up unique brand images. When using endorsers in advertising, too much attention to the cognition of ad would probably confuse the cognition of brand. This study is aimed at examining the effects of endorsements in advertising through the difference between celebrity and brand images under celebrity credibility.
This study used 10 brand names and 10 celebrities as a pre-test, and wanted to realize how brand images, celebrity images (functional, symbolic, experiential) and celebrity credibilities (attractiveness, trustworthiness, expertise) were. We developed a 2x2 experimental design from the pre-test. There were 4 different situations in the questionnaire and it examined the advertising effect (attitude toward the ad [Aad], attitude toward the brand [Ab], purchase intentions [PI]). The data was analyzed mainly by factor analysis, T-test and 2-Way ANOVA.
The major conclusions are:
1.The difference between celebrity and brand images didn’t significantly influence the advertising effect, because the consumers were influenced by brand impression before.
2.Celebrity credibility significantly influenced the advertising effect. Higher credibility made better advertising effects.
3.Consumers would consider celebrity credibility to Aad and PI. And they would consider brand impression to Ab.
4.When the difference of images was low, the celebrity’s occupation, with high relativity on products, would enhance the celebrity credibility and it would create a better Ab. And no matter if the difference of images was low or high, it would make better PI.
圖目錄.....................................................IV
表目錄......................................................V
第一章 緒論.................................................1
第一節 研究背景...........................................1
第二節 研究動機...........................................2
第三節 研究目的...........................................4
第四節 研究流程...........................................5
第二章 文獻探討.............................................6
第一節 廣告代言人.........................................6
一、廣告代言人的效益....................................6
二、廣告代言人的理論....................................7
三、廣告代言人的分類....................................9
四、廣告代言人的研究...................................10
第二節 品牌形象..........................................13
一、品牌形象的定義.....................................13
二、品牌形象的理論.....................................13
三、品牌形象的分類.....................................14
第三節 廣告代言人的可信度................................16
一、可信度的定義.......................................16
二、可信度的理論.......................................17
三、可信度的分類.......................................18
第四節 廣告效果..........................................20
一、廣告的定義.........................................20
二、廣告效果的理論.....................................22
第五節 來源適配性........................................29
第三章 研究方法............................................30
第一節 研究架構..........................................30
第二節 變數的操作性定義與衡量............................31
一、自變數的操作性定義.................................31
二、自變數的衡量方式...................................31
三、應變數的操作性定義.................................32
四、應變數的衡量方式...................................32
五、干擾變數的操作性定義...............................33
六、干擾變數的衡量方式.................................33
第三節 研究假設..........................................34
一、廣告代言人與代言品牌的形象差異性對廣告效果的影響...34
二、廣告代言人的可信度對廣告效果的影響.................35
三、形象差異性與代言人可信度對廣告效果的影響...........35
四、來源適配性對廣告效果的影響.........................37
第四節 研究設計..........................................39
第五節 實驗內涵..........................................40
一、前測-品牌的選擇...................................40
二、前測-廣告代言人的選擇.............................40
三、前測結果...........................................41
四、實驗產品的選擇.....................................42
五、廣告文案的設計.....................................43
六、正式問卷設計.......................................43
第六節 資料蒐集與分析方法................................45
一、抽樣及樣本結構.....................................45
二、實驗過程...........................................45
三、資料分析方法.......................................46
第四章 研究結果............................................47
第一節 因素分析、信度與效度..............................47
一、因素分析(Factor Analysis)..........................47
二、信度分析(Reliability)..............................47
三、效度分析(Validity).................................48
第二節 形象差異性及代言人可信度的操弄檢定................50
一、形象差異性.........................................50
二、代言人可信度.......................................50
第三節 自變數對廣告效果影響的操弄檢定....................51
一、自變數對廣告態度之影響.............................51
二、自變數對品牌態度的影響.............................53
三、自變數對購買意願的影響.............................56
第四節 干擾變數對廣告效果影響的操弄檢定..................59
一、干擾變數對廣告態度之影響...........................59
二、干擾變數對品牌態度之影響...........................61
三、干擾變數對購買意願之影響...........................63
第五節 情境別的廣告效果比較..............................65
第五章 結論與建議..........................................67
第一節 研究發現與討論....................................67
一、形象差異性對廣告效果的影響.........................67
二、代言人可信度對廣告效果的影響.......................68
三、形象差異性及代言人可信度對廣告效果的交互影響.......69
四、來源適配性及形象差異性對廣告效果的交互影響.........70
第二節 行銷實務上的涵意..................................71
一、形象差異性的運用...................................71
二、代言人可信度的運用.................................72
三、形象差異性、代言人可信度與來源適配性的交互運用.....72
第三節 研究限制..........................................73
第四節 後續研究建議......................................74
參考文獻...................................................75
附錄一 前測問卷............................................83
附錄二 廣告文案............................................85
附錄三 正式問卷............................................89
一、中文部分
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7.Kevin Lane Keller,吳克振譯(民90),品牌管理,台北:華泰書局。
8.Philip Kotler,方世榮譯(民89),行銷管理學,台北:東華書局。
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21.羅文坤、鄭英傑(民78),廣告學-策略與創意,台北:華泰書局。
22.別蓮蒂(民92),「產品契合度與品牌特質聯想對品牌延伸效果的影響」,管理評論,第二十二卷第二期,頁87-109。
23.陳正男、楊宗欣(民92),「以模糊多元尺度法衡量消費者對廣告代言人之知覺與偏好」,管理評論,第二十二卷第三期,頁67-89。
24.王德剛(民86),品牌概念形象、廣告策略與品牌權益之關係,東吳大學企業管理研究所碩士論文。
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26.朱家賢(民89),促銷性廣告、產品品牌聯想形象、消費者屬性對廣告效果影響之研究,東吳大學企業管理研究所碩士論文。
27.何昭賢(民89),產品屬性、訊息來源對廣告溝通效果的影響,東吳大學企業管理研究所碩士論文。
28.施淑琳(民87),品牌概念、品牌廣度與品質變異程度對品牌延伸效果之影響,台灣大學商學研究所碩士論文。
29.陳敏郎(民90),廣告代言人對推薦品牌廣告效果影響之研究,交通大學經營管理研究所碩士論文。
30.童曉君(民88),廣告訴求、廣告代言人、自我監控程度、消費者與廣告代言人的人格一致性程度對廣告效果之影響,元智大學管理研究所碩士論文。
31.彭金燕(民89),代言人可信度對廣告效果與購買意願影響之研究,大葉大學事業經營研究所碩士論文。
32.葉香麟(民92),品牌形象、品牌關係與知覺品質關係之研究-以美白化妝品業為例,銘傳大學管理科學研究所碩士論文。
33.蔡東波(民89),品牌概念形象與資訊曝露量對廣告效果的影響,東吳大學企業管理研究所碩士論文。
34.蔡淑妹(民92),運動品牌代言人可信度來源因素對消費者購買意願影響之研究,台灣科技大學管理研究所碩士論文。
35.練乃華(民79),推薦式廣告之溝通效果研究,台灣大學商學研究所碩士論文。
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45.Walker, Mary, Lynn Langmeyer & Daniel Langmeyer (1993), “Commentary: Celebrity endorsers - Do you get what you pay for ? ” The Journal of Product and Brand Management, 2, Iss. 3, pp. 36-43.
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