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研究生:葉吳極
研究生(外文):Yeh Wuchi
論文名稱:品牌組成策略及產品涉入程度對品牌擴張效果影響之探討
論文名稱(外文):A Study of the Effects of Ingredient Branding Strategies and Product Involvement on Brand Expansion
指導教授:林陽助林陽助引用關係阮金祥阮金祥引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jinshyang RoanMichael Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東吳大學
系所名稱:企業管理學系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:品牌組成策略品牌擴張產品涉入程度
外文關鍵詞:Ingredient Branding StrategiesBrand ExpansionProduct Involvement
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品牌組成,指的是將一個品牌的關鍵屬性與另外一個品牌做一整合,在行銷界變的越來越風行,市場上越來越多的品牌將她們的產品或是其他的行銷方案跟其他廠商或是品牌做連結以締造聯盟,因此可以反映這個策略已經是大勢所趨。品牌組成之目的在於藉由賦予母品牌更特別的組合屬性以增強母品牌對於競爭者的差異化,不但可以增加母品牌的競爭力,更甚者,品牌組成可以將母品牌提供了兩個優質品牌的組合利益的訊息傳送給顧客,如此更可增加母品牌的權益。
本研究主要探討在兩種不同的品牌擴張類型下,搭配不同的品牌組成策略會對組成品牌評價帶來什麼樣的效果。此外,產品涉入程度的差異所造成品牌組成策略的影響以及母品牌評價是否會受到組成品牌評價的影響而有所變化也是本研究欲探討之議題。
本研究以多個品牌擴張為例,衡量消費者在接觸到不同的品牌組成策略後對於組成品牌的評價以及母品牌評價變化的改變。採取2(品牌擴張類型) X 2(品牌組成策略)實驗設計,涉入程度高低為干擾變數。
研究結果發現,組成品牌的品牌評價與採用的品牌組成策略有顯著關係,除此之外品牌組成策略與品牌擴張類型也同時對組成品牌評價有交互作用影響。另外、低涉入的產品類別,其組成品牌評價較會受到品牌組成策略所影響,但同樣的情形並不見於高涉入產品類別。最後,母品牌評價會受到組成品牌評價的影響而有正向關係的變化。
Ingredient branding, in which key attributes of one brand are incorporated into another brand as ingredients, is becoming increasingly popular among marketers. The strategy is an example of a broader marketing trend reflected by the increasing number of firms that are establishing brand alliances by linking themselves through their products or other aspects of their marketing program to other firms or brands. The basic motivation for using ingredient branding is that it enhances the differentiation of the host brand from competition by characterizing the ingredient attribute in the host brand more specifically. This will improve the competitiveness of the host brand. Moreover, ingredient branding could enhance the equity of the host brand by sending a strong signal to consumers that the host product offers the combined benefits of two quality brands in one.
The purpose of the present study is to consider how consumers evaluate ingredient brand and host brand with different ingredient branding strategy in two brand expansion types. Besides, we also want to explore the influence of the product involvement on ingredient brand and the influence of the ingredient brand evaluation on host brand evaluation.
This study uses several brand expansions as experimental factors. The experimental design involved a 2 (expansion type: slot-filler or new attribute) x 2 (ingredient branding strategy: self-branded or cobranded ingredient) mixed factorial experiment. The moderating variable is product involvement.
The results indicate that ingredient branding strategies are significantly correlated with the ingredient brand evaluation. Moreover, the Brand expansion type and ingredient branding strategy also have interaction effect on ingredient brand evaluation. Finally, the ingredient brand with lower product involvement is significantly affected by different ingredient branding strategy, but this phenomenon is not seen in low-involvement products.
目 錄
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 3
第三節 研究流程 4
第二章 文獻探討 5
第一節 品牌 5
第二節 品牌擴張與品牌組成策略 7
第三節 品牌評價 9
第四節 涉入程度 11
第三章 研究方法 13
第一節 研究架構 13
第二節 研究假設 14
第三節 變數操作性定義和衡量與問卷設計 18
第四節 實驗設計 21
第四章 資料分析與研究結果 26
第一節 樣本結構 27
第二節 信度與效度 29
第三節 品牌擴張類型操弄檢定 37
第四節 同質性檢定 38
第五節 品牌組成策略對組成品牌評價之操弄檢定 39
第六節 MANOVA整體模型顯著性分析 41
第七節 自變數對組成品牌評價的操弄檢定 42
第八節 干擾效果對於組成品牌評價之檢定 47
第九節 組成品牌評價對於母品牌評價反饋效果檢定 52
第五章 結論與建議 55
第一節 研究結論 55
第二節 管理實務意涵與建議 57
第三節 研究限制 58
第四節 後續研究建議 60
參考文獻 61
附錄A:LISREL CFA圖示 65
附錄B:前測問卷一 67
ㄧ、STARBUCKS前測問卷1 67
二、DOVE前測問卷1 71
三、NIKE前測問卷1 72
四、SONY ERICSSON前測問卷1 73
附錄 C:前測問卷二 74
ㄧ、STARBUCKS前測問卷2 74
二、DOVE前測問卷2 79
三、NIKE前測問卷2 80
四、SONY ERICSSON前測問卷2 81
附錄D:正式問卷-自我品牌 82
ㄧ、STARBUCKS正式問卷-自我品牌 82
二、DOVE正式問卷-自我品牌 89
三、NIKE正式問卷-自我品牌 90
四、SONY ERICSSON正式問卷-自我品牌 91
附錄E:正式問卷-聯合品牌 92
ㄧ、STARBUCKS正式問卷-聯合品牌 92
二、DOVE正式問卷-聯合品牌 99
三、NIKE正式問卷-聯合品牌 100
四、SONY ERICSSON正式問卷-聯合品牌 101
圖 目 錄
圖2-1品牌擴張與品牌組成策略名詞以及概念關連圖 8
圖3-1 本研究架構圖 13
圖4-1 組成品牌消費者態度之估計邊緣平均數圖 43
圖4-2 組成品牌知覺價值之估計邊緣平均數圖 43
圖4-3 組成品牌購買意願之估計邊緣平均數圖 43
圖4-4 低涉入產品之組成品牌消費者態度估計邊緣平均數圖 50
圖4-5 低涉入產品之組成品牌知覺價值估計邊緣平均數圖 50
圖4-6 低涉入產品之組成品牌購買意願估計邊緣平均數圖 50
圖4-7 母品牌消費者態度變化之估計邊緣平均數 53
圖4-8 母品牌知覺價值變化之估計邊緣平均數 53
圖4-9 母品牌購買意願變化之估計邊緣平均數 53
圖A-1組成品牌評價之CFA圖示 65
圖A-2母品牌評價變化之CFA圖示 66
表 目 錄
表3-1 品牌評價構面項目表 19
表3-2 ZAICHKOWSKY個人涉入量表 20
表3-3 實驗組合 21
表3-4 前測一結果 23
表3-5 前測二結果 25
表4-1 以情境區分之樣本結構 27
表4-2 以品牌擴張類型區分之樣本結構 28
表4-3 以品牌組成策略區分之樣本結構 28
表4-4 產品涉入程度之信度衡量 29
表4-5 組成品牌評價-因素分析與信度衡量 32
表4-6 母品牌評價變化-因素分析與信度衡量 33
表4-7 組成品牌評價之收斂效度分析 34
表4-8 母品牌評價變化之收斂效度分析 35
表4-9 組成品牌評價之區辨效度分析 36
表4-10 母品牌評價變化之區辨效度分析 36
表4-11 品牌擴張類型之操弄檢定 37
表4-12 誤差變異量的 LEVENE 檢定等式 38
表4-13 組成品牌評價T檢定之組別統計量 39
表4-14 組成品牌評價之獨立樣本T檢定結果 39
表4-15 自變數解釋整體模型的顯著效果---組成品牌評價 41
表4-16 自變數解釋整體模型的顯著效果---母品牌評價變化 41
表4-17 組成品牌評價之MANOVA分析表 42
表4-18 組成品牌評價之條件檢定分析表 44
表4-19 組成品牌評價於新屬性擴張之敘述統計估計值 44
表4-20 組成品牌評價之條件檢定分析表 45
表4-21 組成品牌評價於產品線補充類型之敘述統計 45
表4-22 產品線補充涉入程度的平均數相等T檢定 47
表4-23 產品線補充涉入程度的組別統計量 47
表4-24 新屬性擴張涉入程度的平均數相等T檢定 48
表4-25 新屬性擴張涉入程度的組別統計量 48
表4-26 低涉入組組成品牌評價之MANOVA分析表 49
表4-27 高涉入產品之組成品牌評價MANOVA分析表 51
表4-28 母品牌消費者態度變化之ANOVA分析結果 52
表4-29 母品牌知覺價值變化之ANOVA分析結果 52
表4-30 母品牌購買意願變化之ANOVA分析結果 52
ㄧ、中文部份
1.王敏容(民88年),消費者之品牌認同程度、所有權狀態與產品,線延伸策略對品牌評價之影響,國立台灣大學商學研究所未出版碩士論文。
2.邱瓊惠(民91年),顧客利益與顧客行為關聯性之研究-以航空業為例,私立東吳大學企業管理研究所未出版碩士論文。
3.薛賢文(民91年),促銷方式、產品線延伸策略、產品涉入與品牌評價之關係,國立中正大學企業管理研究所未出版碩士論文。
二、英文部分
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4.Boush, David and Barbara Loken (1991), "A Process Tracing Study of Brand Extension Evaluations," Journal of Marketing Research, 28 (February), 16-28.
5.Bridges, Sheri, Kevin Lane Keller, and Sanjay Sood (1999), "Communication Strategies for Brand Extensions: The Effects of Dominant Parent Brand Associations, Perceived Fit, and Explanatory Links," working paper, Wake Forest University.
6.Broniarczyk, Susan M. and Joseph W. Alba (1994), "The Importance of Brand in Brand Extension," Journal of Marketing Research, 31 (May), 214-28
7.David Aaker (1992), "The Effects of Sequential Introduction of Brand Extensions," Journal of Marketing Research, 25 (February), 35-50.
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9.Dhruv Grewal, Kent B Monroe and R Krishnan, "The effects of price-comparison advertising on buyers'' perceptions of acquisition value, transaction value, and behavioral intentions." Journal of Marketing. Chicago: Apr 1998. Vol. 62, Iss. 2; p. 46 (14 pages)
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11.Farquhar, Peter H. (1989), "Managing Brand Equity," Marketing Research, I (September), 24-33.
12.Herr, Paul, Peter Farquhar, and Russell Fazio (1996), "Impact of Dominance and Relatedness on Brand Extensions," Journal of Consumer Psychology, 5 (2), 135-59.
13.Jap, S.D. and S. Ganesan (2000), “Control Mechanisms and the Relationship Life Cycle Implications for Safegurding Specific Investments and Developing Commitiment,” Journal of Marketing Research, 37(May), 227-45.
14.Keller, Kevin Lane (1998), Strategic Brand Management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
15.Keller, Kevin Lane (2002), "The Effects of Ingredient Branding Strategies on Host Brand Extendibility," Journal of Marketing, Vol.66 (1), P.73-93
16.Kim, Chung K., Lavack and Anne M. (1996), "Vertical brand extensions: current research and managerial implications, " The Journal of Product and Brand Management. Santa Barbara Vol. 5, Iss. 6; p. 24
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18.Marsha, R. L. and Peter H. Bloch (1996), "After the new wears off: The temporal context of product involvement." Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 13(September), pp. 280-285.
19.Michael S. McCarthy, and Sandra J. Milberg (1993), "An Examination of the Negative Reciprocity Effects Associated with Direct and Sub-branding Extension Strategies," working paper, University of Pittsburgh.
20.Norris, Donald G. (1992), "Ingredient Branding: A Strategy Option with Multiple Beneficiaries," Journal of Consumer Marketing, 9 (3), 19-31.
21.Park, C. Whan, Sung Youl Jun, and Alan D. Shocker (1996), "Composite Branding Alliances: An Investigation of Extension and Feedback Effects," Journal of Marketing Research, 33 (November), 453-66.
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26.Simonin, Bernard L. and Julie A. Ruth (1998), "Is a Company Known by the Company It Keeps? Assessing the Spillover Effects of Brand Alliances on Consumer Brand Attitudes," Journal of Marketing Research, 35 (February), 30-42.
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