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研究生:顏士傑
研究生(外文):Shih-Chien Yen
論文名稱:員工心理契約與主管領導風格相關性之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study of the Relationship between Employees’ Psychological Contracts and Their Perceptions toward Managers’ Leadership Style
指導教授:朱惠琴朱惠琴引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hui-Chin Chu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:樹德科技大學
系所名稱:經營管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:99
中文關鍵詞:心理契約領導風格
外文關鍵詞:psychological contractleadership style
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當新的市場、競爭者、與科技開始影響到整個企業環境,企業瘦身、裁員、組織重整以及合併,就是組織不得不改變員工策略與需求,以達到企業成長與獲利的手段 (Lester & Kickul, 2001)。在這樣的環境裡,組織更需要有高技能、高投入、以及積極奮發的員工(De Meuse, Bergmann, Lester., 2001)。不可諱言,這些手段自然造成員工與企業雇主的關係上的改變,也相對的且深遠的影響到了員工的心理契約 (Psychological Contract)。心理契約的破壞,是造成員工工作績效低落,甚至離職的原因;而相反的,心理契約較滿足的員工則擁有較高的組織忠誠與對組織的支持與付出,也較願意努力以達到組織目標(Lester & Kickul, 2001)。領導者的領導風格與員工的工作投入與組織承諾有極其密切的關係,而今日領導的重點在於設法創造並維持良好的勞資關係;因此,領導者必須要經由了解員工的心理契約以及心理契約不斷因環境改變而改變的本質,然後發展出一套能引導員工高度投入與積極的心理契約(Lester & Kickul, 2001)。本研究最主要的目的,即在探討員工之“心理契約”與主管之“領導風格”之間的關係,並探討員工個人屬性的不同是否會對其心理契約以及對主管領導風格的認知造成影響。
本研究採用問卷調查的方式作為主要的研究方法,以「高雄楠梓加工出口區」作為研究對象。實證結果發現,員工個人屬性的不同會影響員工心理契約之傾向,也造成員工對其主管領導風格感受上的差異。而實證結果亦發現當員工對其主管之領導風格的感受不同時,確實會影響其心理契約之傾向。很值得一提的是,研究發現楠梓加工區員工對主管領導風格之認知幾乎一面倒向「高定規」,且「高定規」領導風格導致員工心理契約較高的滿足,不論其主管領導風格是「高關懷高定規」或「低關懷高定規」的領導風格。這樣的結果與國外文獻有相當大的差異,這種情況到底是因為文化上的影響,抑或是產業別的影響不得而知,值得後續研究在就這兩個構面再深入探討。
When new market appear or the competitor and technology begging to have influence on the whole business environment, the enterprise have to change their strategy and demand on employee like downsizing, layoff, organizational restructuring, and merger to reach the company’s growing and benefit purpose(Lester, Claire & Kickul, 2001). At this situation, the companies need more skill, input, and active employee (Lester et. al, 2001). But, these also cause some relationship change between employee and employer and influence the psychological contract of employee. The psychological contract destroy is the reason that employee have lower performance and even they quit; but if the employee’s psychological contract more be satisfied, the employee will more obey, support, and strive to reach the organizational goals (Lester et. al, 2001). The leadership styles have tight relation with the work’s input and organizational commitment of the employee, and the most important thing of today’s leadership is trying to create and maintain well labor-capital relations. That’s why leaders have to understand the employee’s psychological contract and the character which psychological contract will change by changing environment and develop a psychological contract that can make the employee work hard and active (Lester et. al, 2001). Our study is to probe the relationship between employee’s psychological contract and leadership style, and if the different attribute will have influence on the psychological contract and the recognition of leadership style.
This study adopted questionnaire surveys, and collect the data from the NEPZ of Kaohsiung. The results shows that the different attribute indeed have influence on the psychological contract and the recognition of leadership style. And different recognition of leadership style has influence on the psychological contract of employee. It is worth to notice that the employee almost perceived that the leadership style is high initiating, and this fulfill high satisfaction of employee’s psychological contract, whatever it is high consideration-high initiating or low consideration-high initiating. It is very different from the results of foreign study. It maybe causes by different culture or industries, but we have to rely on follow-up study to tell it.
ㄧ、緒論
1.1 研究背景與動機..............................1
1.2 研究目的....................................3
1.3 研究問題....................................4
1.4 研究之重要性................................4
1.5 研究之理論依據..............................5
1.6 研究步驟與進程..............................5
二、文獻探討
2.1 心理契約....................................8
2.2 領導風格....................................18
2.3 心理契約與領導風格相關性之研究..............29
2.4 結論........................................35
三、研究方法
3.1 研究設計....................................36
3.2 研究架構....................................37
3.3 研究假設....................................38
3.4 研究工具....................................39
3.5 資料分析方法................................40
3.6 研究之操作型定義............................47
3.7 研究對象....................................48
3.8 抽樣方法....................................50
四、實證結果與分析
4.1 問卷回收....................................51
4.2 信度分析....................................51
4.3 敘述性統計分析..............................52
4.4 推論性統計分析..............................59
4.5 研究假設整理................................78
五、結論與建議
5.1 研究發現與討論..............................80
5.2 研究建議....................................84
5.3 研究限制....................................87
中文參考文獻....................................88
英文參考文獻....................................89
附錄一、前測量表................................94
附錄二、正式量表................................97
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