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研究生:楊明憲
研究生(外文):Ming-Sian Yang
論文名稱:線性器改良5.2GHz功率放大器
論文名稱(外文):A 5.2 GHz SiGe/Si HBT-Based MMIC Power Amplifier
指導教授:陳文山陳文山引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-Shan Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:南台科技大學
系所名稱:電子工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:50
中文關鍵詞:功率放大器矽鍺
外文關鍵詞:poweramplifierSiGe
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本論文研製5.2GHz 11a 頻帶之重要關鍵零組件,利用矽鍺電晶體研製足以
提供操縱在高頻下之元件,研究的方向在射頻前端部分最重要的---功率放大器。
「功率放大器(power amplifier)」對整個通信系統的傳送端而言,扮演著一個非常重要的角色。當訊號處理完,從傳送端發送之前,我們則使用功率放大器將訊號放大,以防止訊號在傳遞過程受到干擾而失真。本論文中,我們採用Tsmc 0.35μm SiGe 標準製程設計一個操作頻率為5.2GHz 的兩級式功率放大器。此電路是利用ADS 軟體來完成其模擬,並利用Cadence 畫出電路的佈局(Layout)。晶片內的元件皆使用Tsmc 0.35μm SiGe 標準製程所提供的高頻模型。其直流電壓源為3V,在5.2GHz 的頻帶時,功率放大器的輸出功率為23dBm,最大功率效率(PAE)為32%。
In this thesis we design key devices of 5.2GHz ISM band. We use the SiGe transistor to fabricate high frequency devices and support suitable characters in our operation frequency. The devices that we research are the most important devices in RF
frond end, power amplifier.
Power amplifier(PA) plays an important role in conventional RF front-end transmitter. We utility PA to amplify transmitted signals to avoid interference and distortion of propagation process. Thus, the performance of PA affects the quality of wireless device. In this thesis, a two-stage power amplifier using TSMC 0.35μm SiGe process is designed for 5.2GHz application. We have simulated the circuit with ADS, and performed layout of PA with Cadence. The RF models of TSMC 0.35μm SiGe process is used for the transistors and the on-chip inductors and capacitors. The supply voltage of proposed. power amplifier is 3V. While RF is set to 5.2GHz, the simulation result is an output power of 23 dBm, the maximum power-added-efficiency of 32%.
CONTENTS
CH 1. Introduction 1
1.1Motivation 1
1.2 Characteristic of SiGe 1
1.3 Organization of thesis 3
CH2 The concept of Power Amplifier Design 4
2.1 Architecture of an RF Front-End System 4
2.2 S-parameters 5
2.3 Reflection Coefficient and Stability 7
2.3.1 Reflection Coefficient 7
2.3.2 Stability 8
2.4 Power Gain 9
2.4.1 Transducer Power Gain 10
2.4.2 Available Power Gain 11
2.4.3 Operating Power Gain 11
2.5 Classification of Power Amplifier 12
2.5.1 Class A Amplifier 12
2.5.2 Class B Amplifier 16
2.5.3 Class AB Amplifier 18
2.5.4 Class D,E,F Amplifiers 19
CH 3 5.2GHz PA with Active Linearizer 20
3.1 Important Specifications of Amplifier 20
3.2 Efficiency 21
3.3 Output Power and 1-dB Compression Point 22
3.4 Noise Figure 22
3.5 Load line theory 24
3.6 Using I V curve to fine Ropt 28
3.7 Design goals 29
3.8 Design flow Design of single stage 30
3.9 The Active Linearizer circuit 32
3.10 Choice of PA Class 34
3.11 Multi-Stage Design 35
3.12 Tuned Design 36
CH4 Fabrication and Measurements 39
4.1 Power Amplifier Structures 39
4.2 Simulations results 40
4.2.1 S Parameter and Stable factor 40
4.2.2 Circuit performance 42
4.2.3 Comparision effect of Linearizer 45
4.4 Layout Fabrication 47
CH5 Conclusion 48
Reference 49
FIGURE CAPTIONS 53
FIGURE CAPTIONS
Fig 2. 1 Basic Radio Transceiver Block Diagram 4
Fig 2. 2: Two port network 5
Fig 2. 3: Two port network of the transistor 7
Fig 2. 4: Signal flow chart of power 9
Fig 2. 5: Drain voltage and current for ideal Class A amplifier 14
Fig 2. 6: Drain voltage and current for ideal Class B amplifier 16
Fig 2. 7 Class of PA 19
Fig 3. 1 P1dB for output power 21
Fig 3. 2: Noise figure model for two stage amplifier 23
Fig 3. 3 Consider package and Cds 26
Fig 3. 4 P1dB” Power contour 27
Fig 3. 5 Load line theories 28
Fig 3. 6 Design flow Design of single stage 30
Fig 3. 7 Design of complete circuit 31
Fig 3. 8 The PA with linearizer 32
Fig 3. 9 Frequency response 37
Fig 4. 1 Power Amplifier Structures 39
Fig 4. 2 Iuput Return Loss 40
Fig 4. 3 Output Return Loss 40
Fig 4. 4 Power Gain 41
Fig 4. 5 Stable Factor 41
Fig 4. 6 Output power 1dB compression point 42
Fig 4. 7 Output Harmonic Spectrum 42
Fig 4. 8 Output Waveform 43
Fig 4. 9 IIP3 plot 43
Fig 4. 10 List of Gain,PAE% 44
Fig 4. 11 List of Pin vs. Harmonic 44
Fig 4. 12 Comparison of collector current 45
Fig 4. 13 Comparison of P1dB 45
Fig 4. 14 Comparison of PAE% 46
Reference
[1] P. D. Tseng, L. Zhang, G. B. Gao, Senior Member, IEEE, and M. F. Chang, Fellow, IEEE, “A 3-V Monolithic SiGe HBT Power Amplifier for Dual-Mode (CDMA/AMPS) Cellular Handest Applications”, IEEE Jounral of solid-state circuits, vol. 35, no. 9, Sep. 2000.
[2] J. D. Cressler, G. Niu, “Silicon-Germanium Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors”, Artech House, 2003.
[3] G. Gonzalez, “Microwave Transistor Amplifier Analysis and Design”, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1997.
[4] Y. T. Fu, "Design and Implementation of 2.4GHz RF Power Amplifier", M. S. Thesis, Chung Hua University Dept. of EE, Jun. 2001.
[5] S. C. Cripps, "RF Power Amplifiers for Wireless Communications", Artech House, Mar. 1999.
[6] Y. Tan, M. Kumar, J. Lau, " A 900-MHz fully integrated SOI power amplifier for single-chip wireless transceiver applications", IEEE Solid-State Circuits, vol. 35, Issue: 10 , P1481 ~1486, Oct. 2000.
[7] S. Shinjo, H. Ueda, T. Sugano, “High P1dB and Low Quiescent Current SiGe HBT Power Amplifier MMIC Using Self Bias Control Circuit for 5.8GHz ETC Terminals”, IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit Symposium, no.3, Mar. 2003.
[8] Y. S. Noh, Student Member and C. S. Oark Member, “PCS/W-CDMA Dual-Band MMIC Power Amplifier With a Newly Proposed Linearizing Bias Circuit”, IEEE journal of circuits, vol. 37, no. 9, Sep. 2002.
[9] X. Zhang, G. Henderson, “An Accurate Physics-Based Large-Signal Model for High Power SiGe BJT’s”, IEEE MTT-S Digest , 1999.
[10] M. A. Copeland, D. Marchesan, “5-GHz SiGe HBT Monolithic Radio Transceiver with Tunable Filtering”, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory And Techniques, vol. 48, no. 2, Feb. 2000.
[11] T. Itoh, G. Haddad, J. Harvey, “RF Technologies for Low Power Wireless Communications”, John Wiley & Sons, 24 Aug. 2001.
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