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研究生:劉嘉祺
論文名稱:超寬頻DS-CDMA與脈波跳時系統中時脈誤差對通訊性能影響之模擬與研究
論文名稱(外文):Computer Simulation and Research of Jitter Effect on Communication Performance of UWB DS-CDMA and Time-Hopping Pulse System
指導教授:林福林
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:南台科技大學
系所名稱:電子工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:超寬頻時間跳躍-脈波位置調變直接序列展頻-分頻多工時脈誤差
外文關鍵詞:Ultra WideBand (UWB)Time-Hopping Pulse Position Modulation (TH-PPM)Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA)Timing error
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  超寬頻通訊具有低成本、低耗電及高傳輸速度的特性。目前可能使用的技術主要有脈衝無線電 ( Impulse Radio, IR )與多頻帶系統( Multi-band system )。
  在脈衝無線電方面,調變技術可以採用跳時脈波位置調變( UWB TH-PPM ),由於一個傳輸符號的時間很短,因此接收機內部對時脈的準確度要求相對較高,本論文的第一個部分即是考慮各種相關器在不同時脈誤差( timing error )情形下,以Matlab程式模擬分析其通訊性能惡化的程度,同時也提出設計各種相關器的最佳參數以提供UWB TH-PPM電路設計參考。
  在多頻帶系統方面,調變技術可以採用DS-CDMA架構,其中一個傳輸符號( symbol )的時間由於將來源資料乘上了一組特殊設計的三態碼( ternary code ),因此與脈衝無線調變系統相較,可延長單一符號的時間。本論文的第二個部分即是針對XtreamSpectrum(簡稱XSI)公司所提出的DS-CDMA標準進行研究,主要目的在提出一種研究的方法以分析接收機內部的時脈產生器( clock generator )存在jitter現象時,其造成之timing error對通訊性能的惡化程度,並探討根餘弦濾波器( root raised cosine filter, RRC filter )使用不同滾邊係數( roll-off factor ) 值對UWB系統位元錯誤率的影響,最後並以Matlab撰寫模擬程式以驗證吾人推導結果的正確性。
  UWB is a promising transmission technology for low-cost, low power consumption and high data rate in the future. UWB communications can include the impulse radio and the multiband system.
  For the impulse radio, a time-hop pulse position modulation (TH PPM) may be adopted as the modulation technology. In this system, the accuracy of the clock is highly requested since the symbol time is relatively short. The first part of this thesis is to evaluate the communication performance when considering various correlators with different timing errors. And then we propose the optimum parameters of the various correlators for the UWB TH-PPM circuit designers’ reference.
  For the multiband system, a direct sequence CDMA may be adopted as the transmission technology. In this system, a symbol time is longer relative to the impulse radio. The reason is that a symbol is resulted from a source data multiplied by a special ternary code. The second part of this thesis is to study the standard of the UWB DS-CDMA system provided by XtreamSpectrum. We first present a detailed approach to analyze the influence by the timing error which is resulted from the phenomenon of jitter in the clock generator. The evaluation is based on the bit error rate (BER) calculation when considering the different roll- off factors of the root raised cosine filter (RRC filter). Finally, the accuracy of the approach is proved by computer simulation using Matlab.
摘  要....................................................iv
誌 謝....................................................iv
圖目錄......................................................vii
表目錄......................................................x
第一章 緒論................................................1
1.1 UWB 概念介紹.........................................1
1.2 Timing jitter 對於UWB訊號的影響......................3
1.3 論文內容概要.........................................4
第二章 UWB TH-PPM調變系統..................................5
2.1 簡介.................................................5
2.2 脈波形狀 (Pulse Shape)...............................5
2.3 TH-PPM 調變方式......................................8
2.4 系統錯誤率...........................................12
第三章 Timing jitter對於TH-PPM系統之影響...................13
3.1 模擬架構.............................................13
3.2 模擬結果.............................................14
第四章 UWB DS-CDMA / M-BOK調變系統.........................20
4.1 簡介.................................................20
4.2 頻帶規劃.............................................20
4.3 M-BOK調變方式........................................24
4.4 三態正交序列之產生...................................30
4.5 系統架構.............................................32
4.6 M-BOK調變訊號之產生..................................40
第五章 Timing jitter對於DS-CDMA/M-BOK系統之影響............43
5.1 簡介.................................................43
5.2 滾邊係數對於M-BOK訊號之影響..........................43
5.3 Timing jitter 對系統之影響...........................48
5.3.1 Timing jitter現象...............................48
5.3.2 系統錯誤率分析..................................50
5.4 模擬架構.............................................51
5.5 模擬結果.............................................60
第六章 結論................................................66
參考文獻....................................................67
附錄 A. DS-CDMA/M-BOK之傳送訊號架構........................69
A.1. 亂數化處理..........................................69
A.2. 前置錯誤更正編碼器..................................71
A.3. 前置碼預先擱置......................................71
A.4. 符號映對器..........................................75
附錄 B. 論文中之Matlab程式(節錄)...........................77
B.1. TH-PPM系統..........................................77
B.2. DS-CDMA系統.........................................82
作者簡介....................................................88
[1] C. Fowler, J. Entzminger, J. Vorum, “Report: Assessment of Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Technology”, OSD/DARPA Ultra-Wideband Radar Review Panel, R-6280, 1990.
[2] FCC, “Revision of Part 15 of the Commission’s Rules Regarding Ultra-Wideband Transmission Systems”, First Report and Order, ET Docket pp.98-153, February 2002.
[3] Gian Mario Maggio “An introduction to UWB”, CWC/UCSD & STMicroelectronics , December 2002.
[4] 顏楠源、蘇賜麟、蘇育德,”無線個人區域網路與及寬頻無線電”,2004。
Available: <http://www.cm.nctu.edu.tw/Chinese/seni/dm/nm4.htm>
[5] Moe Z. Win, R A. Scholtz “Impulse Radio: How It Works”, IEEE Communications letters, Vol. 2, No. 2, February 1998.
[6] S. Lee, Design and Analysis of Ultra-wide Bandwidth Impulse Radio Receiver, Ph.D. These, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, August 2002.
[7] G. Durisi, G. Romano “On the Validity of Gaussian Approximation to Characterize the Multiuser Capacity of UWB TH-PPM”, IEEE Conference Ultra Wideband Systems and Technologies, pp.157-161, May 2002.
[8] Dr. M. Saquib, “UWB Communication for Military Application”.
Available: http://search.globalspec.com/Industrial/pulser_/_receivers/frequency
[9] Matt Welborn, “XtremeSpectrum CFP Presentation (doc: IEEE 802.15-03/154r3),” IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs), July 2003.
Available: http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/15/pub/2003/Jul03/
[10] Bernard Sklar, Digital communications fundamentals and Applications, 2rd Ed., Prentice-Hall, pp.311-312, 2001.
[11] John G. Proakis, Digital Communication, 4rd Ed., McGraw-Hill, pp.262-263, 2000.
[12] McEliece, R. and R. Palanki, “Intersymbol Interference in Pulse-Amplitude Modulation Signaling Systems Satisfying a Spectral Mask Constraint”, pp.1-14, April-June 2002.
[13] Matt Welborn, “Merger#2 Proposal DS-CDMA (IEEE 802.15-03/334r3)” IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs), September 2003.
Available: http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/15/pub/2003/Jan03/
[14] Micheal Mc Laughlim “The ParthusCera Ultra Wideband PHY proposal (IEEE 802.15-3/123r6)”, IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs), May 2003.
Available: http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/15/pub/2003/Jul03/
[15] David R. McKinstry “Ultra-wideband Small Scale Channel Modeling and its Application to Receiver Design”, Master’s Thesis, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Tech, June 17 2003.
[16] V. Srinivasa Somayazulu, Intel Labs, “Multiple Access Performance in UWB Systems using Time Hopping vs. Direct Sequence Spreading”, WCNC 2002 - IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, No.1 pp.446-449, March 2002.
[17] Qinghua Li, Leslie A. Rusch, Intel Labs, “Multiuser detection for DS-CDMA UWB in the home environment”, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol.20, Issue.9, pp.1701—1711, December 2002.
[18] Carl R. Nassar, “Direct Sequence Spreading UWB System: Frequency Domain Processing for Enhanced Performance and Throughput”, IEEE 2003.
[19] Hyun-Jin Park “UWB Communication System for Home Entertainment Network”, IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics,Vol.49,No.2,May 2003
[20] L.B.Michael, M.Ghavami and R.Kohno, “Effect of Timing Jitter on Hermite Function Based Orthogonal Pulses for Ultra Wideband Communication”, 4th International Symposium on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications - Aalborg, Denmark, pp.9-12, September 2001.
[21] 劉嘉祺、林福林,”超寬頻脈波位置調變系統中時脈誤差對各種相關器的性能模擬與分析” 2003民生電子研討會,中華民國92年11月。(計畫編號:NSC 92-2213-E-218-032)
[22] 劉嘉祺、林福林,” UWB DS-CDMA 系統中所使用根餘弦瀘波器之Roll-off factor對於時脈誤差影響之模擬與分析” 2004數位生活與網際網路科技研討會,中華民國93年11月。(計畫編號:NSC 92-2213-E-218-032)
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