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研究生:徐惠菁
研究生(外文):Hui-Ching, Hsu
論文名稱:防衛國際代工夥伴關係下之專屬性投資-供應商觀點分析
論文名稱(外文):Safeguarding Specific Investments in International Subcontracting Relationship
指導教授:張國雄張國雄引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東海大學
系所名稱:管理碩士學程在職進修專班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:48
中文關鍵詞:專屬性投資國際代工防衛效果關係資本聯合決策準整合
外文關鍵詞:Specific InvestmentsInternational SubcontractingSafeguarding EffectRelational CapitalJoint Decision MakingQuasi Integration
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本研究主旨在以台灣代工供應商的角度,探討在國際代工夥伴關係下廠商專屬性投資的防衛效果. 尤其特別著重於探究廠商如何建構有效且適合的統治機制(governance mechanism),藉以規避買方的投機行為或增加與買方繼續合作的機會,最終達成防衛專屬性投資的目的.
從實證上,本研究以台灣代工廠商為問卷調查對象,回收118份問卷,回收率26.8%. 經由線性結構迴歸模型AMOS 4.0所得,賣方為買方投資專屬性資產,對於提升本研究中所架構的三個統治機制--關係資本(relational capital). 聯合決策(joint decision-making)及準整合(quasi integration)有顯著正面影響.
同時,此三個統治機制對於賣方專屬性投資具有降低認知風險(perceived risk)及提高買方依賴(buyer''s dependence)的防衛效果--
關係資本對降低賣方認知風險有顯著正向關係; 聯合決策及準整合則對
提高買方依賴有顯著正向關係.
換句話說,賣方在國際代工夥伴關係中為買方投入的專屬性投資,諸如有形資產,開發團隊,特殊性知識及流程..等,可有效將買賣雙方角色,從不對稱性的依賴關係轉換成緊密互賴的關係,並對雙方的關係資本.聯合決策及準整合具有正面效果. 本研究最後根據實證結果,提出管理意涵及對於未來研究的建議.
This study attempts to explore the safeguarding effects of trasaction-specific investments within the context of international subcontracting partnership from a supplier''s perspective. Specially, the study aims to answer how the suppliers deploy the appropriate control mechanism to inhibit opportunistic behavior or induce behaviors that promote the continuance of a relationship.
From the empirical examination, we have found that the potential value of committing trasaction-specific investments by the supplier could be realized through inducing three possible governance mechanisms -- Relational Capital, Joint Decision Making and Quasi-Integration. The governance mechanism can therefore render the effects of safeguarding the transaction-specific investments(TSIs) for the supplier. At the same time, we have observing the consequence exerted by the safeguarding control mechanism on the trasaction-specific investments. Respectively, "Relational Capital" can be used as the safeguard on TSIs to bring the consequence of diminishing the supplier''s perceived risk, whereas "Joint Decision-Making" and "Quasi Integration" can be regarding as the safeguard on TSIs to result the consequence of enhancing the buyer''s dependence.
In other words, the pledge of supplier commitment through specialized investments such as dedicated equipment, people, knowledge and processes effectively changes the buyer-supplier relationship from being asymmetric dependent to mutually dependent. We therefore suggest the suppliers can proactively set up transaction-specific investments with the buyers; such investments would not only signal the supplier''s commitments to maintain an enduring relationship, but also facilitate moer engagement of relational capital, joint decision-making and quasi integration with the buyers.
Table of Contents
Abstract
Chapter 1. Introduction
1.1 Research Motivation
1.2 Research Questions
1.3 Research Objectives
Chapter 2. Conceptual Framework and Hypothesis
2.1 Transaction-Specific Investments
2.2 Governance Mechanism on safeguarding TSIs
2.2.1 Relational Capital and TSIs
2.2.2 Joint Decision Making and TSIs
2.2.3 Quasi Integration and TSIs
2.3 The Consequence of Governance Mechanism
2.3.1 Supplier''s Perceived Risk
2.3.2 Buyer''s Dependence
Chapter 3. Research Method
3.1 Research Setting
3.2 Data Collection
3.3 Construct Measures
Chapter 4. Results
Chapter 5. Discussion and Conclusions
5.1 Conclusion
5.2 Managerial Implications
5.3 Limitations of the Current Research
5.4 Direction for Future Research
References
Appendix: Designed Questionnaire
Anderson. E., Weitz. B. A. 1992. The use of pledges to build and sustain commitment in distrubution channel. Journal of Marketing Research, 29: 18-34.
Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. 1988. Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3)
: 411-423.
Arbuckle, J & Wothke, W (1999), AMOS Use’s Guide, SmallWaters Corporation, Chicago.
Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. 1988. On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Sciences, 16(1): 74-94.
Blois, K. J. 1972. Vertical quasi integration. Journal of Industrial Economics, 20: 253-272.
Bentler PM, Chou CP. 1988. Practical issues in structural modeling. In Common Problems/Proper Solutions: Avoiding Error in Quantitative Research Long JS. (ed.). Safe: Newbury Park, CA; 161-192
Celly, K. S., Spekman, R. E., & Kamauff, J. W. 1999. Technological uncertainty, buyer preferences and supplier assurances: an examination of Pacific Rim purchasing arrangements. Journal of International Business Studies, 30:297-316
Conner, K. 1991. A historical comparison of resource-based theory and five schools of thought within industrial organization economics: Do we have a new theory of the firm? Journal of Management, 17: 121-154.
Dussauge, P., Garette, B., & Mitchell, W. 2000. Learning from competing partners: Outcomes and duration of scale and link alliances in Europe, North America, and Asia. Strategic Management Journal, 21: 99-126.
Dwyer, Robert F. and Sejo Oh. 1998. A trasaction-cost perspective on vertical contractual structure and inter-channel competitive strategies. Journal of Marketing, 51 (April), 11-27.
Dyer, J. H. 1996. Does governance matter? Keiretsu alliances and asset specificity as sources of Japanese competitive advantage. Organization Science, 7: 649-666.
Dyer, J. H. 1996. Specialized supplier networks as a source of competitive advantage: Evidence from the auto industry. Strategic Management Journal, 17: 217-292.
Dyer, J. H., & Chu, W. 2000. The determinants of trust in supplier-automaker relationships in the U.S., Japan, and Korea. Journal of International Business
Studies, 31(2): 259-285.
Dyer, J. H. & Singh, H. 1998. The relational view: Cooperative strategy and sources of inter-organizational competitive advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23:660-679.
Gibbs, Jack P. 1981. Norms, deviance, and social control: Conceptual matters. New York: Elsevier.
Hamel, G. 1991. Competition for competence and inter-partner learning within international strategic alliances. Strategic Management Journal, 12: 83-103.
Heide, Jan B. and George John. 1990. Alliances in industrial purchasing: the determinants of joint action in buyer-supplier relationships. Journal of Marketing, 27(Feb.), 24-36.
Heide, J. B. & John, G. 1988. The role of dependence-balancing in safeguarding transaction-specific assets in conventional channels. Journal of Marketing, 52: 20-35.
Heide, J. B. & John, G. 1990. Alliances in industrial purchasing: Determinants of joint action in buyer-seller relationships. Journal of Marketing Research, 27(1): 24-36.
Hemmert, M. 1999. Intermediate organization’ revisited: A framework for the vertical division of labor in manufacturing and the case of Japanese assembly industries. Industrial and Corporate Change, 8(3): 487-517.
Hitt, M. A., Keats, B. W., & DeMarie, S. M. 1999. Navigating in the new competitive landscape: Building strategic flexibility and competitive advantages in the 21st century. Academy of Management Executive, 12(4): 22-42.
Hui-Mei Wang 2000. Does relation-specific investment contribute to competence building? A supplier’s perspective. Taiwan Management Journal 1(1): 55-75.
John, G. and B. Weitz (1988). “Forward integration into distribution: An empirical test of transaction cost analysis”. Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, 4, pp. 337-355.
Joshi, A. W., & Stump, R. L. 1999. The contingent effect of specific asset investments on joint action in manufacturer-supplier relationships: An empirical test of the moderating role of reciprocal asset investments, uncertainty, and trust. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 27(3): 291-305.
Joskow, P. L. 1988. Asset specificity and the structure of vertical relationships: Empirical evidence. Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, 4: 95-117.
Kale, P., Singh, H., & Perlmutter, H., 2000. Learning and protection of proprietary assets in strategic alliances: Building relational capital. Strategic Management Journal, 21: 217-237.
Kim, K. 1999. On determinants of joint action in industrial distributor-supplier relationships: Beyond economic efficiency. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 16:217-236.
Kraut, R., Steinfield, C., Chan, A.P., Butler, B., & Hoag, A. 1999. Coordination and virtualization: The role of electronic networks and personal relationships. Organization Science, 10(6): 722-740.
Macneil, lan R. 19880. The new social contract: an inquiry into modern contractual relations. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
Madhok, A. 2000. Inter-firm collaboration: Contractual and capabilities-based perspectives. In Foss nicolai and Mahnke Volker (eds) Competence, Governance and Entrepreneurship─Advances in Economic Strategy Research. London, UK: Oxford University Press.
Madhok, A., & Tallman, S. B. 1998. Resources, transactions and rents: Managing value through inter-firm collaborative relationships. Organization Science, 9:326-339.
Mani R. Subramani & N. Vernkatraman. 2003. Safeguarding investments in asymmetric inter-organizational relationships: theory and evidence. Academy of Management Journal. Vol.46, No.1: 46-62.
Milgrom, P., & Roberts, J. 1986. Relying on the information of interested parties. Rand Journal of Economics., 17: 18-32.
Morgan, R. M., & Hunt, S. D. 1994. The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58: 20-38.
Noordwier, T. G., John, G., & Nevin, J. 1990. Performance outcomes of purchasing arrangements in industrial buyer-vendor relationships. Journal of Marketing, 54(4): 80-94.
Penrose, E. T. 1959. The Theory of the Growth of the Firm. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Pfeffer, J., & Salancik, G. R. 1978. The external control of organizations. New York: Harper & Row.
Rindfleisch, A., & Heide, J. B. 1997. Transaction cost analysis: Past, present and future applications. Journal of Marketing, 61(4): 30-54.
Sandy D. Jap & Shankar Ganesan. 2000. Control Mechanisms and the relationship life cycle: implications for safeguarding specific investments and developing commitment. Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. XXXVII: 227-245.
Stump, R. L., & Heide, J. B. 1996. Controlling supplier opportunism in industrial relationships. Journal of Marketing Research, 33: 431-441.
Williamson, O. 1991. Comparative economic organization: The analysis of discrete structural alternatives. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36: 269-296.
Williamson, O. E. 1995. Transaction cost economics and organization theory. In O. E. Williamson (Ed.). Organization theory: From Chester Barnard to the present and beyond: 207-256. New York: Oxford University Press.
Young-Ybarra, C., & Wiersema, M. 1999. Strategic flexibility in information technology alliances: The influence of trasaction cost economics and social exchange theory. Organization Science, 10(4): 439-459.
Zaheer, A., & Venkatraman, N. 1994. Determinants of electronic integration in the insurance industry: An empirical test. Management Science, 40: 549-566.
Zaheer, A., Mcevily, B., & Perrone, V. 1998. Does trust matter? Exploring the effects of inter-organizational and interpersonal trust on performance. Organization Science, 9(2): 141-159.
Zajac, E. J., & Olsen, C. P. 1993. From transactional cost to transactional value analysis: Implications for the study of inter-organizational strategies. Journal of Management Studies, 30: 131-145.
commitment in distrubution channel. Journal of Marketing Research, 29: 18-34.
Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. 1988. Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3)
: 411-423.
Arbuckle, J & Wothke, W (1999), AMOS Use’s Guide, SmallWaters Corporation, Chicago.
Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. 1988. On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Sciences, 16(1): 74-94.
Blois, K. J. 1972. Vertical quasi integration. Journal of Industrial Economics, 20: 253-272.
Bentler PM, Chou CP. 1988. Practical issues in structural modeling. In Common Problems/Proper Solutions: Avoiding Error in Quantitative Research Long JS. (ed.). Safe: Newbury Park, CA; 161-192
Celly, K. S., Spekman, R. E., & Kamauff, J. W. 1999. Technological uncertainty, buyer preferences and supplier assurances: an examination of Pacific Rim purchasing arrangements. Journal of International Business Studies, 30:297-316
Conner, K. 1991. A historical comparison of resource-based theory and five schools of thought within industrial organization economics: Do we have a new theory of the firm? Journal of Management, 17: 121-154.
Dussauge, P., Garette, B., & Mitchell, W. 2000. Learning from competing partners: Outcomes and duration of scale and link alliances in Europe, North America, and Asia. Strategic Management Journal, 21: 99-126.
Dwyer, Robert F. and Sejo Oh. 1998. A trasaction-cost perspective on vertical contractual structure and inter-channel competitive strategies. Journal of Marketing, 51 (April), 11-27.
Dyer, J. H. 1996. Does governance matter? Keiretsu alliances and asset specificity as sources of Japanese competitive advantage. Organization Science, 7: 649-666.
Dyer, J. H. 1996. Specialized supplier networks as a source of competitive advantage: Evidence from the auto industry. Strategic Management Journal, 17: 217-292.
Dyer, J. H., & Chu, W. 2000. The determinants of trust in supplier-automaker relationships in the U.S., Japan, and Korea. Journal of International Business
Studies, 31(2): 259-285.
Dyer, J. H. & Singh, H. 1998. The relational view: Cooperative strategy and sources of inter-organizational competitive advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23:660-679.
Gibbs, Jack P. 1981. Norms, deviance, and social control: Conceptual matters. New York: Elsevier.
Hamel, G. 1991. Competition for competence and inter-partner learning within international strategic alliances. Strategic Management Journal, 12: 83-103.
Heide, Jan B. and George John. 1990. Alliances in industrial purchasing: the determinants of joint action in buyer-supplier relationships. Journal of Marketing, 27(Feb.), 24-36.
Heide, J. B. & John, G. 1988. The role of dependence-balancing in safeguarding transaction-specific assets in conventional channels. Journal of Marketing, 52: 20-35.
Heide, J. B. & John, G. 1990. Alliances in industrial purchasing: Determinants of joint action in buyer-seller relationships. Journal of Marketing Research, 27(1): 24-36.
Hemmert, M. 1999. Intermediate organization’ revisited: A framework for the vertical division of labor in manufacturing and the case of Japanese assembly industries. Industrial and Corporate Change, 8(3): 487-517.
Hitt, M. A., Keats, B. W., & DeMarie, S. M. 1999. Navigating in the new competitive landscape: Building strategic flexibility and competitive advantages in the 21st century. Academy of Management Executive, 12(4): 22-42.
Hui-Mei Wang 2000. Does relation-specific investment contribute to competence building? A supplier’s perspective. Taiwan Management Journal 1(1): 55-75.
John, G. and B. Weitz (1988). “Forward integration into distribution: An empirical test of transaction cost analysis”. Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, 4, pp. 337-355.
Joshi, A. W., & Stump, R. L. 1999. The contingent effect of specific asset investments on joint action in manufacturer-supplier relationships: An empirical test of the moderating role of reciprocal asset investments, uncertainty, and trust. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 27(3): 291-305.
Joskow, P. L. 1988. Asset specificity and the structure of vertical relationships: Empirical evidence. Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, 4: 95-117.
Kale, P., Singh, H., & Perlmutter, H., 2000. Learning and protection of proprietary assets in strategic alliances: Building relational capital. Strategic Management Journal, 21: 217-237.
Kim, K. 1999. On determinants of joint action in industrial distributor-supplier relationships: Beyond economic efficiency. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 16:217-236.
Kraut, R., Steinfield, C., Chan, A.P., Butler, B., & Hoag, A. 1999. Coordination and virtualization: The role of electronic networks and personal relationships. Organization Science, 10(6): 722-740.
Macneil, lan R. 19880. The new social contract: an inquiry into modern contractual relations. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
Madhok, A. 2000. Inter-firm collaboration: Contractual and capabilities-based perspectives. In Foss nicolai and Mahnke Volker (eds) Competence, Governance and Entrepreneurship─Advances in Economic Strategy Research. London, UK: Oxford University Press.
Madhok, A., & Tallman, S. B. 1998. Resources, transactions and rents: Managing value through inter-firm collaborative relationships. Organization Science, 9:326-339.
Mani R. Subramani & N. Vernkatraman. 2003. Safeguarding investments in asymmetric inter-organizational relationships: theory and evidence. Academy of Management Journal. Vol.46, No.1: 46-62.
Milgrom, P., & Roberts, J. 1986. Relying on the information of interested parties. Rand Journal of Economics., 17: 18-32.
Morgan, R. M., & Hunt, S. D. 1994. The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58: 20-38.
Noordwier, T. G., John, G., & Nevin, J. 1990. Performance outcomes of purchasing arrangements in industrial buyer-vendor relationships. Journal of Marketing, 54(4): 80-94.
Penrose, E. T. 1959. The Theory of the Growth of the Firm. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Pfeffer, J., & Salancik, G. R. 1978. The external control of organizations. New York: Harper & Row.
Rindfleisch, A., & Heide, J. B. 1997. Transaction cost analysis: Past, present and future applications. Journal of Marketing, 61(4): 30-54.
Sandy D. Jap & Shankar Ganesan. 2000. Control Mechanisms and the relationship life cycle: implications for safeguarding specific investments and developing commitment. Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. XXXVII: 227-245.
Stump, R. L., & Heide, J. B. 1996. Controlling supplier opportunism in industrial relationships. Journal of Marketing Research, 33: 431-441.
Williamson, O. 1991. Comparative economic organization: The analysis of discrete structural alternatives. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36: 269-296.
Williamson, O. E. 1995. Transaction cost economics and organization theory. In O. E. Williamson (Ed.). Organization theory: From Chester Barnard to the present and beyond: 207-256. New York: Oxford University Press.
Young-Ybarra, C., & Wiersema, M. 1999. Strategic flexibility in information technology alliances: The influence of trasaction cost economics and social exchange theory. Organization Science, 10(4): 439-459.
Zaheer, A., & Venkatraman, N. 1994. Determinants of electronic integration in the insurance industry: An empirical test. Management Science, 40: 549-566.
Zaheer, A., Mcevily, B., & Perrone, V. 1998. Does trust matter? Exploring the effects of inter-organizational and interpersonal trust on performance. Organization Science, 9(2): 141-159.
Zajac, E. J., & Olsen, C. P. 1993. From transactional cost to transactional value analysis: Implications for the study of inter-organizational strategies. Journal of Management Studies, 30: 131-145.
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