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研究生:葉蕙萍
研究生(外文):HUI -PING,YEH
論文名稱:暴雨期間淨水場廢污特性與操作管理之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Waste Characteristics and Management in Water Treatment Plants during Hurricane Period
指導教授:張添晉張添晉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tien-Chin,Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:環境規劃與管理研究所
學門:環境保護學門
學類:其他環境保護學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:151
中文關鍵詞:高濁度廢污管理反沖洗廢水合理放流水標準
外文關鍵詞:High TurbidityWaste ManagementBackwash WastewaterReasonable Effluent Standard
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本研究以北部長興淨水場、直潭淨水場、板新淨水場,中部豐原淨水場、南部小坪淨水場為研究對象,針對代表性淨水場之反沖洗廢水及淨水污泥進行反沖洗廢水沉降試驗、污泥濃縮試驗及層沉降試驗並進行分析探討,配合電腦模擬廢污排放量及合理放流水標準之理論等方面結合,以建立暴雨期間淨水場廢污操作與管理策略。
以豐原淨水場為例,分析反沖洗廢水沉降試驗結果顯示,添加polymer(PC325)於反沖洗廢水其沉降效果相當良好(反沖洗時間2~4分鐘,80 ﹪以上之SS去除率),顯示添加高分子助凝劑可改善其沈降性;分段反沖洗廢水分析結果顯示,當長興、直潭、板新、小坪淨水場反沖洗時間分別至2、10、5及14分鐘後,其反沖洗廢水濁度及SS低於50 NTU及50 mg/L,另反沖洗廢水及稀釋污泥濁度與SS線性關係良好,方程式分別為,反沖洗廢水y=1.14x+5.26,R2=0.84、稀釋污泥y=1.0324x-0.4642,R2=0.93,依濃縮試驗決定其濃縮池面積,直潭、板新及小坪淨水場之濃縮池目前尚符合現況,原水高濁度期間其污泥量暴增為平日5倍以上(直潭淨水場以電腦模擬高濁度期間廢污量)現有濃縮池則不敷使用。
依電腦模擬高濁度期間淨水場廢污量。模擬結果顯示淨水場平時濃縮槽於合理設計基準下,可正常操作,然而高濁度之廢污量為平日之20倍,此時若以直潭淨水場停留時間0.5小時(30min),現有八池濃縮槽於高濁度期間有不足之現象。研究中亦針對場內擴建、正確操作策略及建立合理放流水標準提出因應策略。合理放流水標準方面,透過反沖洗廢水與沈澱污泥特性之單元實驗操作分析,初步建議放流水SS之濃度限值可分為三階段管制(1)原水濁度<500 NTU,放流水標準SS為50 mg/L、(2)原水濁度500~2000 NTU,高濁度期間反沖洗,廢水池溢流率成增加1~2倍,建議放寬放流水標準SS為200 mg/L、(3)原水濁度2000 NTU以上,超過濃縮池能力之操作將無法達到脫水機最低污泥濃度(約2%),故超過濃縮槽負荷之過量污泥得以繞流排放不以放流水標準之管制限值管制。
The study focuses on Changhsin and Chihtan and Panhsin water treatment plants which located in the north of Taiwan, and Fongyuan water treatment plant which located in the middle of Taiwan, and Xiaoping water treatment plant which located in the south of Taiwan. Discussing sludge concentration and zone settling experiments of those plants. Using Computer models to simulate effluents of waste and combine the theory of reasonable effluent standards to establish waste characteristics and managements in water treatment plants during hurricane.
The backwash wastewater settling experiments in the Fongyuan water treatment plant reveal that settling effects of backwash wastewater is quite effective while adding polymer(PC325), backwash time is 2~4 minutes, suspended solids removal efficiency is 80%, adding Polyacrylamide(PAM) can improve settling efficiency.
Basing on the results of backwash wastewater, the turbidity and suspended solids of backwash wastewater are 50NTU and 50 mg/L while backwash time are 2, 5, 10 ,14 minutes in the Changhsin, Chihtan, Panhsin, Xiaoping water treatment plants, and the linear relation between backwash wastewater and dilution sludge and suspended solids are excellent. The equation of backwash wastewater is y=1.14x+5.26, R2=0.84, and The equation of dilution sludge is y=1.0324x-0.4642, R2=0.93. The sludge concentration ponds of Chihtan, Panhsin, Xiaoping are sufficient for current usage, but sludge will become five times more than usually during high turbidity raw water period, and sludge concentration ponds are insufficient. According to the results of computer simulating models for sludge concentration ponds during hurricane reveal that 8 ponds are insufficient in the Chihtan water treatment plant, and the study also focus on the extended of plants and correct operation strategies for establishing reasonable effluent standards.
For establishing reasonable effluent standards, Analysis backwash wastewater and settling sludge units will figure out 3 levels control for limitation of suspended solids. First, effluent standard of suspended solids is 50mg/L while raw water turbidity is less than 500NTU. Second, overflow rate of backwash water increased 1~2 times during hurricane, therefore effluent standard of suspended solids is 200mg/L while raw water turbidity is 500~2000NTU. Third, when raw water turbidity is more than 2000NTU, and operation of sludge concentration ponds will not reach lowest sludge concentration (2%) by dehydration machines, and beyond sludge could not control by the limitions.
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 iii
致謝 v
目錄 vi
表目錄 ix
圖目錄 xi
第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究緣起 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 研究方法及流程 3
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2.1 國外相關法規研究及廢污處理 5
2.1.1 美國 5
2.1.2 日本 10
2.1.3 歐洲 15
2.2 國內淨水場現況分析說明 17
2.2.1 長興淨水場 17
2.2.2 直潭淨水場 18
2.2.3 板新淨水場 18
2.2.4 豐原淨水場 19
2.2.5 小坪淨水場 20
2.2.6 淨水處理現況 21
2.3 國內淨水場廢污處理 27
2.3.1 廢污來源 29
2.3.2 廢污性質 31
2.3.3 廢污減量技術 34
2.4 水源現況分析 37
2.4.1 水源概述 37
2.4.2 原水特性評析 38
2.5 高濁度期間之衝擊及應變措施 53
2.5.1 高濁度原水之處理 54
2.5.2 高濁度之應變措施 56
第三章 實驗設計與流程 58
3.1 研究方法與流程 58
3.2 實驗設計 60
3.3 實驗設備與操作 62
3.3.1 沉降試驗及其原理 62
3.3.2 濃縮試驗及其原理 64
3.3.3 層沉降試驗及其原理 65
3.4 高濁度管理之探討 67
3.4.1 高濁度期間合理放流水標準之意涵 67
第四章 實驗結果與討論 73
4.1 實驗分析與探討 75
4.1.1 反沖洗廢水-分批式沉降試驗 75
4.1.2 反沖洗廢水分段試驗 82
4.1.3 污泥分析 84
4.1.3.1 濃縮試驗 84
4.1.3.2 層沉降試驗 87
4.1.3.3 稀釋污泥分析 96
4.1.4 總固體物與揮發性固體物 98
4.1.5 小結 99
4.2 淨水場廢污量推估及放流水質之分析 101
4.2.1 高濁度廢污量估計 101
4.2.2 合理放流水水質探討 107
4.2.2.1 反沖洗廢水池 107
4.2.2.2 沉澱污泥濃縮池 108
4.3 暴雨期間廢污排放影響之推估 113
4.4 暴雨期間淨水場之操作與管理策略 127
4.4.1 暴雨期間放流水標準之檢討 127
4.4.2 暴雨期間淨水場之操作與管理策略 130
第五章結論與建議 135
5.1 結論 135
5.2 建議 137
參考文獻 138
附錄
A 原水水質資料暨採樣照片 142
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