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研究生:蘇儀品
研究生(外文):Yi-Pin Su
論文名稱:對中國大陸直接投資與台灣工資差異
論文名稱(外文):Foreign direct investment and wage differentials in Taiwan
指導教授:江莉莉江莉莉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lily Jiang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:產業經濟學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:經濟學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:51
中文關鍵詞:對外直接投資工資差異
外文關鍵詞:FDIwage differentials
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:12
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  • 下載下載:70
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
本文主要探討對外直接投資對國內技術性與非技術勞動需求以及相對工資的影響,其中特別針對對中國大陸的投資。截至目前為止,有關對外投資對勞動需求與工資影響的文獻並沒有得到一致的結論。有鑑於此,本研究應用三種實證方法,檢定與評估包括對外投資在內的勞動需求面因素對相對工資的影響。此外,在估計對外投資的效果時,本研究也考慮對外投資透過技術的提升,間接對勞動需求與相對工資的影響。首先,本文採用Feenstra and Hanson (1996)的對外投資理論模型,得到重要的命題。高技術國家對低技術國家進行投資,勢必引發兩國生產型態的改變,進而造成對不同素質勞動的需求變動與相對工資的改變,此外對外投資也會經由技術提升間接影響勞動需求與相對工資。總括之,高技術國家對低技術國家投資,促使兩國對技術性勞動的需求增加且相對工資提高。
其次,針對理論模型得到的論點,本研究利用台灣1980-2001年共22年、15個製造業二分位產業資料,進行實證分析。利用Katz and Murphy (1992)的勞動市場均衡分析法獲知工資變動主要由勞動市場的需求改變導致。進一步由Berman, Bound and Griliches (1994)的分解法證實,對技術性勞動的就業增加與非技術性勞動的就業減少主要來自於對中國大陸投資、對其它地區投資與技術提升等因素所造成的產業內需求擴張。
最後利用台灣1991-1999共9年、15個製造業二分位產業資料,進行工資與技術聯立方程式的迴歸分析,結果證實對中國大陸投資的確對國內技術性勞動工資的提高有顯著影響。但是,對外投資經由技術提升間接影響工資的論點,在迴歸分析中並沒有得到驗證。
The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the effects of foreign direct investment (FDI),especially in China, on demand for skilled, unskilled workers and the change of relative wage. Until now, conclusions about this question in the literature are inconsistent. Accordingly, this thesis applies three methodologies to examine and to assess the effects of FDI on the relative demand for skilled labor and relative wages as well. Besides, the indirect effect induced by foreign investment through advanced technology is considered. Following the theoretical model of Feenstra and Hanson (1996), we get the hypothesis that with a capital flow from high-technology country to low-technology country, the relative demand for skilled worker and the relative wage in both countries increase.
Next, to test the hypothesis above, we adopt the empirical method of Katz and Murphy (1992) firstly and use the data of 15 two-digit industries of manufacture for the period 1980-2001. We find that the demand shift was an important component of the change in relative wage. Further, by adopting the method of Berman et al.(1994), we show that the within-industry effect of direct investment in China and in other areas and promotion in technology are the main factors leading to the rising demand for more skilled workers.
In order to identify the influence of each demand-side factor in detail, we estimate the simultaneous regression equations of relative wage and technology, using the data of 15 two-digit industries for the period 1991-1999. The results confirm the hypothesis that investment in China indeed has raised the relative wage in Taiwan. However, the proposition of FDI affecting the relative demand for skilled labor and relative wage indirectly through technology promotion is not supported by empirical studies.
目錄
第一章 緒論 --------------------------------------------------1
第一節 研究動機與目的---------------------------------------1
第二節 研究方法 --------------------------------------------3
第三節 研究架構 --------------------------------------------4
第二章 文獻回顧 ----------------------------------------------9
第一節 對外投資的動機 --------------------------------------9
第二節 對外投資對國內經濟的影響 ---------------------------13
第三章 理論模型----------------------------------------------19
第一節 模型的基本架構 -------------------------------------19
第二節 資本移動對勞動市場與生產技術的影響 -----------------21
第四章 實證模型與結果 ---------------------------------------25
第一節 勞動市場的供需模型與分析 ---------------------------25
第二節 工資與技術的迴歸分析 -------------------------------31
第五章 結論與建議 -------------------------------------------40
第一節 主要結論 -------------------------------------------40
第二節 建議與未來研究方向 ---------------------------------42
參考文獻 ----------------------------------------------------44
附錄 --------------------------------------------------------47
中文部分
趙文璋 (1993) 「對外直接投資理論淺介」,今日經濟,315,民
82.11,6-10。
鄒孟文、劉錦添 (1999) 「先進技術與工資報酬:台灣電子業之實
證」,經濟論文叢刊,27:3 (1999),285-309。
陳忠榮、楊志海 (1999) 「台灣對外直接投資的決定因素 ─ 擴張型與
防禦型的比較」,經濟論文叢刊,27:2,民88.06,215-240。
胡名雯,陳明園,江雅玲 (2000) 「台灣中小企業赴大陸投資傾向之比
較與分析」,2000年兩岸管理科學學術研討會論文集,242-256。
鄭惠安 (2001) 「台灣地區教育別薪資報酬之研究」,國立中央大學產
業經濟研究所碩士論文。
顧瑩華 (2002) 「對外投資對台灣就業的影響」, 經濟前瞻,82,63-
66。
劉碧珍、陳添枝、翁永和 (2003) 「國際貿易導論」,雙業書廊出版,
220-221。
英文部分
Berman Eli, John Bound, and Zvi Griliches (1994) 〝Changes in
the Demand for Skilled Labor within U.S. Manufacturing :
Evidence from the Annual Survey of Manufactures〞 The
Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol 109, Issue 2, pp367-397.
Blomstrom M. , Gunnar Fors, and Robert E. Lipsey (1997)
〝Foreign Direct Investment and Employment : Home Country
Experience in the United States and Sweden〞 The Economic
Journal, Vol 107, Issue 445, pp1787-1797.
Brainard S.L. and David A. Riker (1997) 〝Are U.S.
Multinationals Exporting U.S. Jobs?〞 National Bureau of
Economic Research Working Paper #5958.
Chen, Tain-Jy (1992) 〝Determinants of Taiwan’s direct foreign
investment : The case of a newly industrializing country〞
Journal of Development Economics 39, pp397-407.
Caves, Richard E. (1997) 〝International Corporations : The
Industrial Economics of Foreign Investment〞 Economica
Vol.38 , No.149.
Chen, Been-Lon and Mei Hsu (2001) 〝Time-Series Wage
Differential in Taiwan:The Role of International Trade〞
Review of Development Economics, 5(2), pp336-354.
Feenstra, R.C. and G.H. Hanson (1996) 〝Foreign investment,
outsourcing and relative wages〞G..M. Grossman and D.A.
Irwin, eds. Political economy of trade policy : essays in
honor of Jagdish Bhagwati (MIT Press, Cambridge), pp89-127.
Feenstra, R.C. and Gordon H. Hanson (1997) 〝Foreign direct
investment and relative wages : Evidence from Mexico’s
maquiladoras〞 Journal of International Economics , 42,
pp371-393.
Kojima, Kiyoshi (1973)〝A Macroeconomic Approach to Foreign
Direct Investment〞 Hototsubashi Journal of Economics, June
1973, 14(1), pp1-21.
Katz, L F. and K M. Murphy (1992) 〝Changes in Relative Wages,
1963-1987 : Supply and Demand Factors〞 The Quarterly
Journal of Economics, Vol. 107, No.1 (Feb.,1992), pp35-78.
Lipsey, Robert E. (1994) 〝Outward Direct Investment and the
U.S. Economy〞National Bureau of Economic Research Working
Paper #4691.
Lin, Chu-Chia S. (1995) 〝Production Function, Factor
Substitution, and Direct Foreign Investment : A Case Study
in Taiwan〞Asian Economic Journal 1995, Vol.9 , No.21 ,
pp193-203.
Lin, CH A. and Peter F. Orazem (2003) 〝Wage Inequality and
Returns to Skill in Taiwan, 1978-96〞 The Journal of
Development Studies, Vol 39, No.5, June 2003, pp89-108.
Mariotti S., Marco Mutinelli and Lucia Piscitello (2003) 〝Home
country employment and foreign direct investment : evidence
from the Italian case〞 Cambridge Journal of Economics 2003,
27, pp419-431.
Ng. L. F. and Chyau Tuan (1997) 〝Evolving Outward Investment,
Industrial Concentration, and Technology Change :
Implications for Post-1997 Hong Kong〞 Journal of Asian
Economics, Vol 8, No.2, pp315-332.
Tain-Jy Chen and Yin-Hua Ku (2003)〝The Effects of Overseas
Investment on Domestic Employment〞 National Bureau of
Economic Research Working Paper #10156
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