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研究生:張嘉麟
研究生(外文):Jia-Lin Chang
論文名稱:虛擬實境技術在網路教學上的應用
論文名稱(外文):VR-based Distance Education Technologies
指導教授:葛煥昭葛煥昭引用關係黃俊堯黃俊堯引用關係
指導教授(外文):Huan-Chao KehJiung-Yao Huang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:121
中文關鍵詞:網路教學遠距教學遠距學習三度空間網路虛擬實境情境式學習課後練習
外文關鍵詞:Internet-based EducationDistance EducationDistance Learning3D Networked Virtual RealitySituated LearningPost-class Practice
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在實際的教學環境中,教學者除了課堂上進行知識教學外,常設計各種課後練習活動,幫助學生複習且驗證上課的內容,以提高學習者學習的效果。語言教學的課後實習內容包括角色扮演的對話練習、話劇演出、戶外實地練習等等,這些課後練習無非希望創造一個模擬情境來達到練習的目的。
本篇論文透過McLellan (1996)所提出情境學習理論的八個組成要素,來分析「語言課後實習環境」所需的各項學習功能,提出如下的看法:(1)利用3D的環境來模擬逼真的“故事(stories)”情節,(2)根據3D劇情變化自動更新網頁訊息,降低經驗的錯誤直覺,提供更多“省思(reflection)”的機會,(3)提供適當的鷹架(scaffolding)來達成學習的目標,更有許多特殊的介面引導學習者的認知技能,並且透過不同的角色模擬,而達到自我認知能力,以期達到“認知學徒制(cognitive apprenticeship)”的目標,(4)透過交談的機制可以與其他實習者交換意見,並且透過角色的扮演與3D多人互動模擬環境來達成“合作學習(collaboration)”的目的,(5)每個故事情節中都有一個特殊的角色來引導學習者的學習方向,並且會記錄學習者在實習過程中的所有對話與互動訊息,以提供教學者事後指正學習者重要的依據,來達到“教導(coaching)”的目的,(6)重複練習是一件相當容易感到厭倦的工作,透過電腦科技的幫助,不但可方便的提供學習者不斷重複練習的機會,透過3D擬真環境與更多的互動介面機制,來提高學習者主動學習的意願與興趣,以期達到“多重練習(multiple practice)”的要求,(7)故事情節發展可以依據學習者不同程度做不同的練習時間調整,這樣有著非制式化的練習環境,來達到“漸進式學習(articulation of learning skill)”的目標,(8)全球資訊網的實習環境,除了配合傳統網頁呈現之外,更運用3D的互動環境,且結合各項網頁互動與網路互動的多項“技術(technology)”,讓學習者有更多特殊的操控與回應的機制,提高學習者主動學習的意願。
本論文經過探討上述的分項探討之後,並且分析目前的技術與環境,提出3D networked virtual reality已經可以適用在目前的遠距教學系統上,並且真實的利用3D環境來設計出一個語言課後實習架構,最後並利用此架構實做出一個學習法語的課後實習課程。
In the actual teaching environment, beside the knowledge taught during class, teachers often design all kinds of post-class practice activities to help the students repeat and practice the course content, thus improve the learning efficiency. The post-class practice content of the language teaching includes role-play conversion practice, drama, actual life practice…etc; all these activities are aimed to create a simulated situation to achieve the aim of practice.
This thesis will analyze the each learning functions of the “Post-class language practice” environment through the eight essential point of situated learning theory suggested by McLellan (1996), and we suggests the following view points: (1) using the 3D environment to simulate realistic “stories”, (2) based on the 3D stories change to automatically renew webpage information to decrease the wrong instinct of experience and supply more “reflection” chances. (3) Provide a suitable scaffolding to achieve the learning objectives, with many specialized interfaces to guide the learner’s recognition skills and via the different role play to achieve self understanding thus achieve the goal of “cognitive apprenticeship”. (4) Through chatting operation to exchange opinion with other learners, via the role play and 3D multi-user interactive virtual environment to achieve the aim of “collaboration”. (5) In every story there is a special role to guide the learning directions. And record each learner’s conversion and interactive message in the practice session, this will provide the teacher with basis to correct the students after the practice thus achieve the aim of “coaching”. (6) Repeated practice can be a very tiring work, via the technological help of computer; this will provide learners with convenient access to repeat practices and through the 3D virtual environment and more operative interface to improve the learners’ motivation and interest thus achieves the requirement of “multiple practice”. (7) The story development can be changed and altered according to the level of learner’s ability for different practices, with such a flexible practice environment to achieve the goal of “articulation of learning skill”. (8) The World Wide Web practice environment include the traditional webpage also use the 3D interactive environment and combining the interactive webpages and interactive internet “technology” to allow the learners more specialized control and response operation and thus elevates the learning motivation of the learners.
After the above categorized discussion and the analysis of the present technology and environment, this thesis suggest that the 3D networked virtual reality is suitable and can be used on the distant education system, one an realistically build a “post-class language practice” structure by using the 3D environment and finally using this structure to build post-class practice course of French learning.
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 What’s Distance Education? 1
1.2 History of Distance Education 3
1.3 Computers in Distance Education 4
1.4 Two Types of Distance Education 5
1.5 Classification of Distance Education Interaction Type 6
1.6 Motivation of this Dissertation 8
1.7 Organization of this Dissertation 9
Chapter 2 Internet-Based Education’s current analysis 10
2.1 Internet-Based Education’s content 10
2.2 Domestic distance education system 13
2.2.1 National Taiwan University (NTU) 13
2.2.2 National Sun Yat-sen University (NSYSU) 16
2.2.3 National Chun Cheng University (NCCU) 20
2.2.4 National Chi Nan University (NCNU) 23
2.2.5 Nation Central University (NCU) - EduCities 24
2.2.6 Tamkang University (TKU) 25
2.2.7 Domestic distance education system website functions 28
2.3 Overseas distance education system 29
2.3.1 University of Washington (UW) 29
2.3.2 University of Oregon (UO) 31
2.3.3 University of Kansas (UK) 34
2.3.4 University of Wisconsin-Extension (UW-E) 36
2.3.5 Overseas distance education system website functions 39
2.4 Internet-Based Education’s Interaction 40
Chapter 3 Situated Learning 45
3.1 The Situated Learning Model 46
3.1.1 Stories 46
3.1.2 Reflection 47
3.1.3 Cognitive Apprenticeship 47
3.1.4 Collaboration 48
3.1.5 Coaching 48
3.1.6 Multiple Practice 48
3.1.7 Articulation of Learning Skills 49
3.1.8 Technology 49
3.2 3D assist Situated Learning 49
3.3 Current status of 3D Network Virtual Reality 51
3.3.1 ActiveWorlds 52
3.3.2 blaxxun 54
3.3.3 3D Networked Virtual Reality joining Distance Education 58
3.4 Current status of Internet-based language learning 60
3.4.1 Multi-media Internet linguistics language educational at National Chi Nan University 61
3.4.2 English education resource of Taipei City Primary School 62
3.4.3 English Learning & Teaching Site at The National Central University 63
3.4.4 Guide to Grammar and Writing 64
3.4.5 The American English Institute (AEI) at the University of Oregon 65
3.4.6 Oxford University Language Center 66
3.4.7 The University of Kansas Writing Center 67
3.4.8 East Asian Languages and Cultures at University of Southern California 68
3.4.9 Virtual Language Center at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University 69
3.4.10 Dans un Quartier de Paris 70
3.4.11 Comparison 71
3.5 Summary 72
Chapter 4 Situated Language Learning 73
4.1 Post-class language practice environment 74
4.1.1 Post-class language practice requirement 77
4.1.2 Post-class language practice functions 80
4.1.3 User Interfaces 85
4.2 Experimentation 86
4.2.1 Testing tool 87
4.2.2 Testing target 88
4.2.3 Testing Method 88
4.2.4 Calculating test results 88
4.2.5 Presumption and analysis 89
4.3 Summary 91
Chapter 5 3D Situated Practice Classroom 92
5.1 Multilingual Scenic Learning Environment ─ Using French as an example project introduction 92
5.1.1 Project Content 94
5.1.2 Course Content 96
5.2 Building 3D situated practice classroom 100
5.3 Working Practice 104
5.4 Software and Hardware Requirements 111
5.5 Summary 111
Chapter 6 Conclusion 112
Bibliography 114
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