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研究生:蘇正儀
研究生(外文):Cheng-Yi, Su
論文名稱:線上反向競標的採購機制對台灣電子資訊業供應商夥伴關係之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Buyer-Supplier Partnership through Online Reverse Auctions: An Empirical Study of Taiwan''s IT Industry
指導教授:陳建甫陳建甫引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chien-Fu, Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:國際商學碩士在職專班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:貿易學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:73
中文關鍵詞:策略性採購電子採購線上競標反向競標策略伙伴關係分析層級過程法
外文關鍵詞:Strategic Sourcinge-Procuremente-AuctionReverse AuctionStrategic PartnershipAnalytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)
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近幾年線上反向競標的採購機制已成為策略採購中最熱門的話題,因為此一採購機制經常為企業節省下一大筆可觀的採購費用。隨著電子商務(e-Commerce)的日趨成熟,電子採購軟體與及企業間網路社群的發展,已將所謂的策略性採購流程由傳統的面對面議價桌轉變為線上議價。所謂線上反向競標,就是賣方提供產品,價格是隨著時間不斷被有意願出更高價格的買方抬高。供應商競相壓低價格以求贏取訂單的線上反向競標,就成為多國企業全球策略性採購下,一個功不可没且最具効益的採購工具。 而以往一對一的特定買賣關係也變成無遠弗屆的一對多的不特定關係。儘管近代,顧客與供應商的關係趨向於緊密的合作夥伴關係 (Matthyssens, P. and Bulte, C. Van den, 1994),但為了獲取市場上最具競爭的採購價格,有愈來愈多的企業轉向求助於電子化的策略採購服務。 這種改變傳統一對一的報價議價方式及自動談判代理人的應用,若顧客只著眼於採購價格的下降而非整體採購成本的降低,供應商所謂的合理利潤將會不斷被擠壓,這對長久以來強調供應商互信合作關係供應鏈的建立將背道而馳。有鑑於顧客反向競標的線上採購機制勢必對未來供應商夥伴關係帶來相當大的衝擊及改變。本研究將就此線上反向競標對台灣電子資訊供應商與多國企業間夥伴關係影響之因素做分析,經由與買賣雙方面對面個案問卷訪談,以了解雙方參與線上反向競標的六個決策指標,建立一分析層級程序法(Analytic Hierarchy Process, AHP)的決策分析架構,並使用AHP的決策軟體Expert Choice,找出多國企業採用線上反向競標機制對買賣雙方所產生的潛在利益及其對供應商關係的影響。研究中我們發現線上反向競標的採購機制確實可以為買賣雙方提供一個具競爭力的採購價格、及時的市場資訊、公平、公開的交易平台和新的商機,尤其是為買方提供了一個更具競爭力的採購程序。但對供應商關係的影響,本研究得知顧客採用線上反向競標決策因素的優先次序為:增加供應商間的競爭環境、降低採購成本、增加採購流程透明度、掌握市場最新資訊、增加採購來源、增加採購流程的生產力。而供應商支持線上反向競標的意願決策因素的優先次序則為:對銷售利潤的改變、新供應商關係的產生、增加商機、提供透明公平的採購平台、提高對顧客採購流程的效率、獲得市場競爭資訊。 其衍生的問題主要影響因素的起因是,買方的採購人員在運用此一採購機制時,太強調競標價格的呈現而忽略其總體採購成本所應予於考量的因素,及競標前後是否有對供應商做充分的溝通。最後本研究認為線上反向競標不應該成為破壞供應商關係的殺價武器而應該是以改善多國企業全球採購流程效率的一個工具。本研究並就事先準備及充分溝通對雙方提出參與線上反向競標所應遵循的成功原則。
Online reverse auctions have been a popular topic over the past several years because they often result in tremendous savings for buyer. In a dynamic global economy, effectively managing the procurement process to help cut costs is critical to long-term success for more and more MNCs.
Within B2B sector, e-Commerce has greatest potential for growth and that encourages continually on application of electronic procurement and development of electronic trading communities. Online reverse auction is one of the most highly promoted forms of B2B e-commerce. Suppliers compete for the right to the contract by bidding reducing prices, until a final price—the lowest—brings the auction to an end, is one of the best ways of using free market techniques to obtain the most competitive prices by negotiation with suppliers automatically from buyer side. The process on price negotiation is exactly the reverse of a traditional strategic sourcing, particularly face-to-face negotiations, in favor of software and web-based services provide by some companies online. An uncertain multi-relationship has taken the place of one on one specified relationship of transaction in the past.
Despite the move in recent years towards closer and nicer partnership in the supply chain (Matthyssens, P. and Bulte, C. Van den, 1994), buyer has turned to an electronic strategic sourcing service to find rock-bottom prices for certain purchases on many production parts and materials. The changing by an automatic negotiation agent would squeeze supplier’s profit margin if the buyer just focus on price, not on their total procurement cost. And it would diverge from the buyer-supplier partnerships in supply chain which have been enhanced for long-term.
This study examines the impact of online reverse auctions on buyer-supplier relationships of Taiwan’s IT industry through case studies, analyzing primarily the buyer and supplier perspective through participant interviews. An Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used by the Expert Choice to identify some real tangible benefits and conflicts on buyer and supplier by compared with six criteria, such as business opportunities, competitive information, transactional platform, purchasing productivity, profit and buyer-supplier partnership at the same time.
Then we found online reverse auction that can offer tendering and transactional cost and platform advantages, such as competitive purchase prices, prompt market information, transparent competition and penetrating new markets for both parties. Especially for the buyer, it does offer a competitive procurement process than before. But the reverse auction process is "contradictory to the long-term benefits associated with collaborative/cooperative buyer-supplier alliances". Concerning the impact of buyer-supplier partnership, this study found the decision priority for buyer using online reverse auctions are increasing supplier competitiveness, reducing procurement cost, offering a transparent transactional platform, getting prompt market information, increasing sourcing resources, increasing purchasing productivity. And restructuring sales profit, generating new partnership, increasing business opportunities, getting a transparent transactional platform, increasing purchasing productivity, getting prompt competitive information are the priority for supplier to supporting online reverse auction. This perceived conflict, the study found, "is primarily caused by the tool''s emphasis on awarding business based on aggressive price competition instead of long-term total cost of ownership considerations" and " if a fully communication done with participated suppliers before and after auction ".
Finally, with a win-win strategy, we do not think the online reverse auction should be employed as a price weapon to ruin a long-term buyer-supplier’s partnership instead as a procurement process improvement tool by MNCs. How Taiwanese IT suppliers can survive under a new partnership agreement, which has generated already by buyer and supplier? Well preparation and fully communication are two keys to a successful auction event. This study summarizes the promises or reasons that buyers and suppliers use reverse auctions and the risks they might face accordance. And a successful guideline and conditions for using online reverse auction appropriately are also provided for further reference.
CONTENTS
Page
Title Page ……………………………………………………...………………... II
Committee Approval Form …………………………….……….……...………. III
Acknowledgments ……………………………………………………………… IV
Abstract in Chinese …………………………………………….………………. V
Abstract in English …………………...………………………………………… VII
Contents ………………………………………………………………………… X
List of Tables …………………………………………………………………… XII
List of Graphs and Pictures …………………………………………………… XIII
Chapter
1. Introduction
1.1 Research Background …………………………………………………… 1
1.2 Research Questions ……………………………………………………… 4
1.3 Research Purpose ………………………………………………………... 5
2. Literature Review
2.1 Auction …………………………………………………………………... 6
2.2 Online Reverse Auctions ………………………………………………… 8
2.3 The Typical RFQ vs. Online Reverse Auctions Process ………………… 9
2.4 Relational and Transactional Exchanges ………………………………… 11
3. Research Design and Methodology
3.1 Flow Path and Procedure ………………………………………………... 14
3.2 The Analytic Hierarchy Process …………………………………………. 16
3.3 Principles and Pillars of the Analytic Hierarchy Process ………………... 17
3.4 The Steps of AHP ………………………………………………………... 20
3.5 Research Framework ……………………………………………………. 26
3.6 Questionnaire Design ……………………………………………………. 28
3.7 Research Scope and Limitation. ………………………………………… 30
4. Analysis and Results
4.1 Sample Profile …………………………………………………………… 32
4.2 Empirical Analysis. ……………………………………………………… 38
4.3 Observations and Discussions …………………………………………… 41
5. Conclusions and Suggestions
5.1 Conclusions ……………………………………………………………… 49
5.2 Suggestions ……………………………………………………………… 50
5.3 Future Research ………………………………………………………….. 55
APPENDIX
1. Survey Questionnaire for Buyer ……………………………………………... 57
2. Survey Questionnaire for Seller ……………………………………………... 63
Reference ……………………………………………………………………… 69
LIST OF TABLES
Table 2-1 Four Types of Category of Auction ……………………………………… 8
Table 3-1 Define of AHP Evaluation Scales and Explains. ………………………… 22
Table 3-2 Random Index. …………………………………………………………... 25
Table 3-3 Questionnaire for Buyer and Seller …….………………………………... 28
Table 4-1 Profile of Buyer. …………………….…………………………………… 33
Table 4-2 Profile of Seller. ………………………………..………………………… 34
Table 4-3 Pair-wise Comparison Matrix and Priority Vectors of Using Online Reverse Auctions ………………………………………………………… 39
Table 4-4 Pair-wise Comparison Matrix and Priority Vectors of Supporting Online Reverse Auctions ………………………………………………………… 40
Table 5-1 Reasons for Using Reverse Auctions and Risks Involved. ……………… 51
Table 5-2 Appropriate Conditions for Reverse Auctions to Buyer ………………… 52
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2. 吉岡克哉、田中彰夫,2002。B2B net business seizure,遠擎管理顧問。第.35-42頁。
3. 李浩正, 2001。「線上拍賣競標」B2B電子市集營運模式的新發展趨勢,工業自動化電,第四期,第25-27頁。
4. 李碧芬,1997。國際採購策略成功因素之探討-以在台外商為例。
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6. 陳麗珠、吳政穎,1999。「層級分析法(AHP)應用於國民教育:補助政策公平效困評估之研究」,國立政治大學。
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