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研究生:江貞怡
研究生(外文):Jhen-yi Jiang
論文名稱:後方人數與等候時間和等候方式對消費者心情的影響—以銀行業為例
論文名稱(外文):THE IMPACT OF THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE BEHIND,WAITING TIME,AND WAITING-AREA LAYOUT ON THE MOOD STATES OF THE CONSUMER—WITH BANKING INDUSTRY
指導教授:潘明全潘明全引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ming-chuan Pan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:大同大學
系所名稱:事業經營學系(所)
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:120
中文關鍵詞:銀行業後方人數
外文關鍵詞:banking industrynumber of people behind
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
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  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
等候是日常生活中到處存在的現象。服務是一種程序,經常在服務公司的場所產生、傳送和消耗。服務無法儲存且需求可能難以預測,所以在接受服務前等候是一種普遍存在的經驗。消費者常擁有幾家銀行帳戶,一旦他到銀行去存款,則他離開等候的可能性就降低了,除非他同時帶了其他銀行的存摺出門且未必要將錢存入此銀行。消費者在等候服務時,有時候會因為較其他人早到一會兒而覺得開心或幸運,特別當等候的時間長且隨後到達的人很多時,此情況更為顯著。
本篇研究採用2×3×2的實驗設計方式,共分成三次前測和一次正式實驗。本篇研究主要欲探索在面對不同後方的人數,不同的等候時間情境和不同的等候方式下,對消費者在銀行等候存款時的心情的影響為何。實證研究得到的下列結論:
1.本研究發現消費者後方的人數對消費者心情的狀態有顯著的影響,消費者心情的狀態會因為消費者後方的人數多寡的不同產生較正面或較負面的心情。消費者後方的人數較多,消費者會覺得有較正面的心情。
2.本研究發現不同的等候時間情境對消費者心情的狀態有顯著的影響,消費者在等候時間短時會較等候時間長時擁有較好的心情;此外在長時間等候的情況下,給予補償金較未給予補償金,消費者會有較正面的心情。
3.等候方式這個干擾變數對消費者正面的心情有顯著的影響,在面對排隊等候的情況下,消費者後方人數的不同,對消費者正面的心情有顯著的影響;但在拿號碼牌等候時,此影響未達顯著水準。
4.不同的等候時間情境對消費者心情的狀態有顯著的影響;但是等候方式這個干擾變數和等候時間情境交互作用對消費者心情狀態的影響未達顯著水準。
5.在不考慮干擾變數─等候方式,不同的等候時間情境和消費者後方人數的交互作用對消費者正面的心情有顯著的影響。感到等候的不愉快時,看到許多人在自己後面等待會帶來一些寬慰效果。
6.檢定結果顯示,當干擾變數─等候方式加入時,對於原本自變數消費者後方的人數和不同的等候時間情境對應變數消費者心情的狀態的影響並不顯著。
Queues are a ubiquitous phenomenon in our daily life. Services are processes, often produced, delivered and consumed during a single encounter occurring within the service firm’s facility. Services cannot be inventoried and demand may be hard to predict, so waiting before receiving a service is a common experience. Consumers often have some deposit accounts but once he or she goes to one bank and deposit money, the possibility of reneging is unlikely to occur unless he or she brings other deposit accounts at the same time and don’t have to deposit the money in this bank. People waiting for service would sometimes feel happy or lucky for coming a little early than others, especially, when the waiting time is long and many people come after themselves.
This study employs a 2(Number of People behind the Consumer: a few or many) ×3(Waiting Time Situations: short waiting time, long waiting time without compensation, and long waiting time with compensation) ×2(Waiting-area Layout: line-up system or take-a –number system) factorial design, including three pretests and one experiment. This research tried to explore the testees under different number of people behind, different waiting time situations, and facing different waiting-area layout how the mood states of the consumer when waiting for bank deposit service. After this experimental research, this study gets conclusions as follows:
1.This study finds that the number of people behind the consumer has a significant influence on the mood states of the consumer. The mood states of the consumer will become significantly more positive or more negative because of many or a few number of people behind him. That is, many people behind the consumer were more favorable than a few people behind the consumer.
2.The results reveal that different waiting time situations have a significant influence on the mood states of the consumer. Short waiting time was more favorable than long waiting time. Additionally, long waiting time with compensation, the consumer will feel better than without compensation.
3.This study finds that moderator waiting-area layout (a line-up system and a take-a-number system) truly significantly affects the positive mood states of the consumer. The positive mood state under line-up system has significant differences when the consumer faces different number of people behind him, but the take-a-number system doesn’t make significant differences.
4.According to this experiment, it reveals that there is significant difference between waiting time situations and mood states of the consumer. However, the moderator variable— waiting-area layout— does not have obvious interactions between waiting time situations and mood states of the consumer.
5.Regardless of the moderator—waiting-area layout, the interactions between waiting-time situations and number of people behind the consumer have significant influences to the positive mood state of the consumer. While waiting is unpleasant, seeing many people behind is somewhat of a comfort since there are people worse off than me.
6.After the moderator— waiting-area layout—introduced into this framework, there is not any significant influences to the mood states of the consumer of the independent variables— waiting time situations and the number of people behind.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHINESE ABSTRACT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .i
ENGLISH ABSTRACT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . …. .vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vii
LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x
LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. xii
CHAPTER
1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Research Background and Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Research Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.3 Research Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. LITERATURE REVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.1 The Psychology of Queuing and The Effect of Number of People
Behind the Consumer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.2 Waiting Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.3 Compensation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.4 Waiting-Area Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.5 Mood States of The Consumer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3.1 Conceptual Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3.2 Research Hypotheses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
3.3 Operational Definitions and Measurement of Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3.3.1 Independent Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3.3.2 Moderating Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
3.3.3 Dependent Variable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
3.4 Pretest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.4.1 Pretest 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.4.2 Pretest 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.4.3 Pretest 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.5 Main Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
4. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
4.1 Pretest Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.1.1 The Number of People Behind the Consumer . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .35
4.1.2 Short and Long Waiting Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
4.1.3 Long Waiting Time with Compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 37
4.2 Reliability Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
4.3 Homogeneity of Variable Analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
4.4 Hypothesis Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
4.4.1 Number of People Behind The Consumer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4.4.2 Waiting Time Situations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
4.4.3 Findings from Moderating Variable—Waiting-area Layout— Between Number of People Behind the Consumer and Mood States. . . .. . . . .42
4.4.4 Findings from Moderating Variable Between—Waiting-area Layout—Between Waiting Time Situations and Mood States of the Consumer . . . . . ………………………………………………... .. . 45
4.4.5 Findings from the Number of People behind the Consumer and
Waiting Time Situations on Mood States of the Consumer. . . . . . . . 46
4.4.6 Three-way Interaction Test………………………………………... ..50
4.5 Summary of Hypothesis Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . 51
5. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
5.1 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
5.2 Managerial Implications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
5.3 Limitations and Future Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
BIBLIORAGPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
APPENDIXⅠ— PRETEST QUEATIONNAIRE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64
APPENDIX Ⅱ— FORMAL QUEATIONNAIRE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
APPENDIX Ⅲ— CHINESE ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
VITA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105
















LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1 Expermiment Situations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Table 4.1 T-test Results of Number of People Behind—Pretest 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
Table 4.2 T-test Results of Short and Long Waiting Time—Pretest 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
Table 4.3 Levene’s Test of Equality of Error Variance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
Table 4.4 Effect of Mood States With Number of People Behind The Consumer. . . . . . . . .39
Table 4.5 Mood States With Number of People Behind The Consumer. . . . . . . . . . . 40
Table 4.6 Effect of Mood States With Waiting Time Situations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Table 4.7 Mood States With Waiting Time Situations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
Table 4.8 The Effect of Mood States Under Waiting-Area Layout and Number of
People Behind The Consumer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
Table 4.9 The Effect of The Number of People Behind on Consumer’s Positive
Mood State (ANOVA)—Line-up System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Table 4.10 Positive Mood Under The Number of People Behind The Consumer. . . .43
Table 4.11 The Effect of The Number of People Behind on Consumer’s Positive
Mood State (ANOVA)—Take-A-Number System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
Table 4.12 Positive Mood Under The Number of People Behind The Consumer . . .44

Table 4.13 The Effect of Mood States Under Waiting-Area Layout and Waiting
Time Situations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Table 4.14 The Effect of Mood States With Waiting Time Situations and Number of
People Behind The Consumer Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Table 4.15 The Effect of The Number of People Behind on Consumer’s Positive
Mood State (ANOVA)—Short Waiting Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Table 4.16 Positive Mood Under The Number of People Behind The Consumer . . . 48
Table 4.17 The Effect of The Number of People Behind on Consumer’s Positive
Mood State (ANOVA)—Long Waiting Time Without Compensation . . 48
Table 4.18 Positive Mood Under The Number of People Behind The Consumer . . . 49
Table 4.19 The Effect of The Number of People Behind on Consumer’s Positive
Mood State (ANOVA)—Long Waiting Time With Compensation . . . . . 49
Table 4.20 Positive Mood Under The Number of People Behind The Consumer . . . 49
Table 4.21 Three-Way ANOVA Interaction Test—Positive Mood State . . . . . . . . . .50
Table 4.22 Three-Way ANOVA Interaction Test—Negative Mood State . . . . . . . . . 51
Table 4.23 Summary of Research Hypothesis Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52







LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1 Research Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Figure 3.1 Conceptual Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
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