( 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/24 17:09
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::


研究生(外文):Chia-Chyuan Liu
論文名稱(外文):Effects of ETA receptor antagonist and hydroxyethyl starch on experimental heatstroke
指導教授(外文):Mao-Tsun Lin
外文關鍵詞:heatstrokeendothelin-1ETAR antagonisthydroxyethyl starchvolume expansiontumor necrosis factor-alpha
  • 被引用被引用:2
  • 點閱點閱:105
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:9
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
臨床發現,中風、腦缺血或是腦創傷患者體內血漿和腦脊髓液中,可觀察到內皮素-1濃度明顯比正常人來得高。另一方面,羥乙基澱粉在許多腦部缺血實驗模式中也被認為具有良好的效用。本論文主要的目的在於觀察內皮素受體拮抗劑的前處理或羥乙基澱粉的處理是否可減輕在實驗熱中風中所致動脈壓低落和腦部缺血的情形。現今研究,是將成年大白鼠麻醉後,置於42 ℃環境溫度下誘發熱中風的生成。隨熱中風誘發過程,當動物體動脈血壓從高點突然呈現不可恢復性低落的瞬間,此一時間點稱為熱中風生成點。而當動物體持續置於42 ℃環境溫度下約80分鐘後,會表現出有高體溫、動脈低血壓、低心輸出量(由於心搏量和總周邊阻力皆表現低落所致)、與高血中內皮素-1濃度和腫瘤壞死因子-阿爾法、和高腦缺血及腦損傷標記濃度的情形。事先於熱中風加熱起始點前60分鐘,給予處理甲型內皮素受體拮抗劑BQ-610 (0.5 mg/kg, i.v.),而非乙型內皮素受體拮抗劑BQ-788 (0.5 mg/kg, i.v.),明顯觀察到可改善動物體高體溫、動脈血壓低落、心輸出量降低與血中高濃度腫瘤壞死因子-阿爾法和高濃度腦缺血及損傷標記的情形。此外,於熱中風生成點立即給予羥乙基澱粉11 ml/kg處理後,經由增加體積擴張效用,可使熱中風所致動脈血壓低落、心搏量和總周邊阻力低落、血液酸化和動脈氧分壓低落、腦氧分壓低落和增加腦缺血及損傷標記濃度的情形亦獲得改善。因此,實驗結果指出,於實驗熱中風中,甲型內皮素受體拮抗劑的前處理具有預防效用,而羥乙基澱粉則具有治療的效用。
In clinical situation, the patients with stroke, cerebral ischemia and trauma showed higher levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1) than normal subjects in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. On the other hand, hydroxyethyl starch (HES) had beneficial effects in several cerebral ischemic models. The aim of the present study was to assess whether endothelin receptor antagonists pretreatment or HES treatment is able to attenuate both the arterial hypertension and cerebral ischemia exhibited during experimental heatstroke. In the present study, heatstroke was induced by putting the anesthetized adult rats to an ambient temperature of 42 ℃. The moment in which the mean arterial pressure dropped irreversibly from the peak was taken as the onset of heatstroke. When exposed animals to 42 ℃ for 80 min, hyperthermia, arterial hypotension, decrement of cardiac output (CO) (due to decreased stroke volume and decreased total peripheral resistance), increment of plasma ET-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and increment of cerebral ischemia and injury makers were manifested. Prior antagonism of endothelin tape A receptor (ETAR) with BQ-610 (0.5 mg/kg, i.v.), but not endothelin tape B receptor with BQ-788 (0.5 mg/kg, i.v.) 60 min before the initiation of heat exposure, appreciably alleviated hyperthermia, arterial hypotension, decreased CO, increment of tumor necrosis factor, and increment of cerebral ischemia and injury makers exhibited during heatstroke. In addition, the heatstroke-induced arterial hypotension, decreased stroke volume and total peripheral resistance, decreased blood pH and PaO2, decreased brain PO2, and increased levels of cerebral ischemia and injury markers were all attenuated significantly by increasing the volume expansion with 11 ml/kg of HES administered immediately at the onset of heatstroke. The data indicated that ETAR antagonist had a preventive effect, whereas HES therapy had a therapeutic effect during heatstroke.
Aichner, F. T., Fazekas, F., Brainin, M., Polz, W., Mamoli, B., & Zeiler, K. (1998). Hypervolemic hemodilution in acute ischemic stroke: the Multicenter Austrian Hemodilution Stroke Trial (MAHST). Stroke 29, 743-749.
Alkan, T., Kahveci, N., Buyukuysal, L., Korfali, E., & Ozluk, K. (2001). Neuroprotective effects of MK 801 and hypothermia used alone and in combination in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats. Arch. Physiol. Biochem. 109, 135-144.
Ang, C. & Dawes, J. (1994). The effects of hyperthermia on human endothelial monolayers: modulation of thrombotic potential and permeability. Blood Coagul. Fibrinolysis 5, 193-199.
Anggard, E., Galton, S., Rae, G., Thomas, R., McLoughlin, L., de Nucci, G., & Vane, J. R. (1989). The fate of radioiodinated endothelin-1 and endothelin-3 in the rat. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 13 Suppl 5, S46-S49.
Austin, M. G. & Berry, J. W. (1956). Observations on one hundred cases of heatstroke. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 161, 1525-1529.
Banasik, J. L., Hosick, H., Wright, J. W., & Harding, J. W. (1991). Endothelin binding in brain of normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 257, 302-306.
Baron, J. F. (1992). Pharmacology of low molecular weight hydroxyethyl starch. Ann. Fr. Anesth. Reanim. 11, 509-515.
Barone, F. C., Ohlstein, E. H., Hunter, A. J., Campbell, C. A., Hadingham, S. H., Parsons, A. A., Yang, Y., & Shohami, E. (2000). Selective antagonism of endothelin-A-receptors improves outcome in both head trauma and focal stroke in rat. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 36, S357-S361.
Battistini, B., D''Orleans-Juste, P., & Sirois, P. (1993). Endothelins: circulating plasma levels and presence in other biologic fluids. Lab. Invest. 68, 600-628.
Beal, A. L. & Cerra, F. B. (1994). Multiple organ failure syndrome in the 1990s. Systemic inflammatory response and organ dysfunction. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 271, 226-233.
Beard, M. E. & Hickton, C. M. (1982). Haemostasis in heat stroke. Br. J. Haematol. 52, 269-274.
Bogaert, L., Scheller, D., Moonen, J., Sarre, S., Smolders, I., Ebinger, G., & Michotte, Y. (2000). Neurochemical changes and laser Doppler flowmetry in the endothelin-1 rat model for focal cerebral ischemia. Brain Res. 887, 266-275.
Boldt, J., Mueller, M., Menges, T., Papsdorf, M., & Hempelmann, G. (1996). Influence of different volume therapy regimens on regulators of the circulation in the critically ill. Br. J. Anaesth. 77, 480-487.
Bouchama, A., al Sedairy, S., Siddiqui, S., Shail, E., & Rezeig, M. (1993). Elevated pyrogenic cytokines in heatstroke. Chest 104, 1498-1502.
Bouchama, A., Bridey, F., Hammami, M. M., Lacombe, C., al Shail, E., al Ohali, Y., Combe, F., al Sedairy, S., & de Prost, D. (1996a). Activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis in heatstroke. Thromb. Haemost. 76, 909-915.
Bouchama, A. & Hammami, M. M. (1995). Endothelin-1 in heatstroke. J. Appl. Physiol. 79, 1391.
Bouchama, A., Hammami, M. M., Haq, A., Jackson, J., & al Sedairy, S. (1996b). Evidence for endothelial cell activation/injury in heatstroke. Crit. Care Med. 24, 1173-1178.
Bouchama, A. & Knochel, J. P. (2002). Heat stroke. N. Engl. J. Med. 346, 1978-1988.
Bouchama, A., Parhar, R. S., el Yazigi, A., Sheth, K., & al Sedairy, S. (1991). Endotoxemia and release of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1 alpha in acute heatstroke. J. Appl. Physiol. 70, 2640-2644.
Boura, C., Caron, A., Longrois, D., Mertes, P. M., Labrude, P., & Menu, P. (2003). Volume expansion with modified hemoglobin solution, colloids, or crystalloid after hemorrhagic shock in rabbits: effects in skeletal muscle oxygen pressure and use versus arterial blood velocity and resistance. Shock 19, 176-182.
Breder, C. D., Dinarello, C. A., & Saper, C. B. (1988). Interleukin-1 immunoreactive innervation of the human hypothalamus. Science 240, 321-324.
Busbridge, N. J., Dascombe, M. J., Tilders, F. J., van Oers, J. W., Linton, E. A., & Rothwell, N. J. (1989). Central activation of thermogenesis and fever by interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-1 alpha involves different mechanisms. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 162, 591-596.
Caldwell, M., O''Neill, M., Earley, B., & Leonard, B. (1994). NG-Nitro-L-arginine protects against ischaemia-induced increases in nitric oxide and hippocampal neuro-degeneration in the gerbil. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 260, 191-200.
Cardell, L. O., Uddman, R., & Edvinsson, L. (1994). Endothelins: a role in cerebrovascular disease? Cephalalgia 14, 259-265.
Cernacek, P. & Stewart, D. J. (1989). Immunoreactive endothelin in human plasma: marked elevations in patients in cardiogenic shock. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 161, 562-567.
Chang, C. K., Chien, C. H., Chou, H. L., & Lin, M. T. (2001). The protective effect of hypervolemic hemodilution in experimental heatstroke. Shock 16, 153-158.
Chang, C. K., Chueh, F. Y., Hsieh, M. T., & Lin, M. T. (1999). The neuroprotective effect of DL-tetrahydropalmatine in rat heatstroke. Neurosci. Lett. 267, 109-112.
Chao, T. C., Sinniah, R., & Pakiam, J. E. (1981). Acute heat stroke deaths. Pathology 13, 145-156.
Chen, P., Shibata, M., Zidovetzki, R., Fisher, M., Zlokovic, B. V., & Hofman, F. M. (2001). Endothelin-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 modulation in ischemia and human brain-derived endothelial cell cultures. J. Neuroimmunol. 116, 62-73.
Chi, O. Z., Liu, X., & Weiss, H. R. (2001). Effects of endothelin-1 on blood-brain barrier permeability during focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Experimental Brain Research. 141, 1-5.
Chiang, C. H., Wu, C. P., Perng, W. C., Yan, H. C., & Yu, C. P. (2000). Dexamethasone and pentastarch produce additive attenuation of ischaemia/reperfusion lung injury. Clin. Sci. (Lond) 99, 413-419.
Chorny, I., Bsorai, R., Artru, A. A., Talmor, D., Benkoviz, V., Roytblat, L., & Shapira, Y. (1999). Albumin or hetastarch improves neurological outcome and decreases volume of brain tissue necrosis but not brain edema following closed-head trauma in rats. J. Neurosurg. Anesthesiol. 11, 273-281.
Chou, Y. T., Lai, S. T., Lee, C. C., & Lin, M. T. (2003). Hypothermia attenuates circulatory shock and cerebral ischemia in experimental heatstroke. Shock 19, 388-393.
Cole, D. J., Drummond, J. C., Ruta, T. S., & Peckham, N. H. (1990). Hemodilution and hypertension effects on cerebral hemorrhage in cerebral ischemia in rats. Stroke 21, 1333-1339.
Cole, D. J., Drummond, J. C., Shapiro, H. M., Hertzog, R. E., & Brauer, F. S. (1989). The effect of hypervolemic hemodilution with and without hypertension on cerebral blood flow following middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats anesthetized with isoflurane. Anesthesiology 71, 580-585.
Croll, S. D. & Wiegand, S. J. (2001). Vascular growth factors in cerebral ischemia. Mol. Neurobiol. 23, 121-135.
Cruz, J., Jaggi, J. L., & Hoffstad, O. J. (1993). Cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption in acute brain injury with acute anemia: an alternative for the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption? Crit. Care Med. 21, 1218-1224.
Cruz, J., Nakayama, P., Imamura, J. H., Rosenfeld, K. G., de Souza, H. S., & Giorgetti, G. V. (2002). Cerebral extraction of oxygen and intracranial hypertension in severe, acute, pediatric brain trauma: preliminary novel management strategies. Neurosurgery 50, 774-779.
Currie, R. W., Ross, B. M., & Davis, T. A. (1990). Induction of the heat shock response in rats modulates heart rate, creatine kinase and protein synthesis after a subsequent hyperthermic treatment. Cardiovasc. Res. 24, 87-93.
Dawson, D. A., Sugano, H., McCarron, R. M., Hallenbeck, J. M., & Spatz, M. (1999). Endothelin receptor antagonist preserves microvascular perfusion and reduces ischemic brain damage following permanent focal ischemia. Neurochem. Res. 24, 1499-1505.
Delaney, K. A. (1992). Heatstroke. Underlying processes and lifesaving management. Postgrad. Med. 91, 379-388.
Dijk, S. N., Krop-van Gastel, W., Obrenovitch, T. P., & Korf, J. (1994). Food deprivation protects the rat striatum against hypoxia-ischemia despite high extracellular glutamate. J. Neurochem. 62, 1847-1851.
Dinarello, C. A., Cannon, J. G., & Wolff, S. M. (1988). New concepts on the pathogenesis of fever. Rev. Infect. Dis. 10, 168-189.
Edwards, R. M., Stack, E. J., Pullen, M., & Nambi, P. (1993). Endothelin inhibits vasopressin action in rat inner medullary collecting duct via the ETB receptor. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 267, 1028-1033.
Ehrenreich, H., Lange, M., Near, K. A., Anneser, F., Schoeller, L. A., Schmid, R., Winkler, P. A., Kehrl, J. H., Schmiedek, P., & Goebel, F. D. (1992). Long term monitoring of immunoreactive endothelin-1 and endothelin-3 in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid, plasma, and 24-h urine of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Res. Exp. Med. (Berl) 192, 257-268.
Fassbender, K., Hodapp, B., Rossol, S., Bertsch, T., Schmeck, J., Schutt, S., Fritzinger, M., Horn, P., Vajkoczy, P., Wendel-Wellner, M., Ragoschke, A., Kuehl, S., Brunner, J., Schurer, L., Schmiedeck, P., & Hennerici, M. (2000). Endothelin-1 in subarachnoid hemorrhage: An acute-phase reactant produced by cerebrospinal fluid leukocytes. Stroke 31, 2971-2975.
Feuerstein, G., Gu, J. L., Ohlstein, E. H., Barone, F. C., & Yue, T. L. (1994). Peptidic endothelin-1 receptor antagonist, BQ-123, and neuroprotection. Peptides 15, 467-469.
Feustel, P. J., Ingvar, M. C., & Severinghaus, J. W. (1981). Cerebral oxygen availability and blood flow during middle cerebral artery occlusion: effects of pentobarbital. Stroke 12, 858-863.
Franceschini, R., Tenconi, G. L., Zoppoli, F., & Barreca, T. (2001). Endocrine abnormalities and outcome of ischaemic stroke. [Review] [96 refs]. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 55, 458-465.
Fujimori, A., Yanagisawa, M., Saito, A., Goto, K., Masaki, T., Mima, T., Takakura, K., & Shigeno, T. (1990). Endothelin in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage. Lancet 336, 633.
Gader, A. M., al Mashhadani, S. A., & al Harthy, S. S. (1990). Direct activation of platelets by heat is the possible trigger of the coagulopathy of heat stroke. Br. J. Haematol. 74, 86-92.
Gathiram, P., Wells, M. T., Brock-Utne, J. G., & Gaffin, S. L. (1987). Antilipopolysaccharide improves survival in primates subjected to heat stroke. Circ. Shock 23, 157-164.
Globus, M. Y., Ginsberg, M. D., Harik, S. I., Busto, R., & Dietrich, W. D. (1987). Role of dopamine in ischemic striatal injury: metabolic evidence. Neurology 37, 1712-1719.
Graham, D. G., Tiffany, S. M., Bell, W. R., Jr., & Gutknecht, W. F. (1978). Autoxidation versus covalent binding of quinones as the mechanism of toxicity of dopamine, 6-hydroxydopamine, and related compounds toward C1300 neuroblastoma cells in vitro. Mol. Pharmacol. 14, 644-653.
Grotta, J. C. (1987). Current status of hemodilution in acute cerebral ischemia. Stroke 18, 689-690.
Gulati, A. & Rebello, S. (1992). Characteristics of endothelin receptors in the central nervous system of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Neuropharmacology 31, 243-250.
Hall, D. M., Buettner, G. R., Oberley, L. W., Xu, L., Matthes, R. D., & Gisolfi, C. V. (2001). Mechanisms of circulatory and intestinal barrier dysfunction during whole body hyperthermia. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 280, H509-H521.
Hammami, M. M., Bouchama, A., Al Sedairy, S., Shail, E., AlOhaly, Y., & Mohamed, G. E. (1997). Concentrations of soluble tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 receptors in heatstroke and heatstress. Crit. Care Med. 25, 1314-1319.
Hancock, P. A. (1981). Heat stress impairment of mental performance: a revision of tolerance limits. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 52, 177-180.
Hankeln, K., Radel, C., Beez, M., Laniewski, P., & Bohmert, F. (1989). Comparison of hydroxyethyl starch and lactated Ringer''s solution on hemodynamics and oxygen transport of critically ill patients in prospective crossover studies. Crit. Care Med. 17, 133-135.
Harland, S. P., Kuc, R. E., Pickard, J. D., & Davenport, A. P. (1995). Characterization of endothelin receptors in human brain cortex, gliomas, and meningiomas. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 26 Suppl 3, S408-S411.
Hart, G. R., Anderson, R. J., Crumpler, C. P., Shulkin, A., Reed, G., & Knochel, J. P. (1982). Epidemic classical heat stroke: clinical characteristics and course of 28 patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 61, 189-197.
Hartmann, A., Tsuda, Y., & Lagreze, H. (1987). Effect of hypervolaemic haemodilution of regional cerebral blood flow in patients with acute ischaemic stroke: a controlled study with hydroxyethylstarch. J. Neurol. 235, 34-38.
Heimann, A., Takeshima, T., Alessandri, B., Noppens, R., & Kempski, O. (2003). Effects of hypertonic/hyperoncotic treatment after rat cortical vein occlusion. Crit. Care Med. 31, 2495-2501.
Henshall, D. C., Butcher, S. P., & Sharkey, J. (1999). A rat model of endothelin-3-induced middle cerebral artery occlusion with controlled reperfusion. Brain Res. 843, 105-111.
Hocher, B., Schwarz, A., Fagan, K. A., Thone-Reineke, C., El Hag, K., Kusserow, H., Elitok, S., Bauer, C., Neumayer, H. H., Rodman, D. M., & Theuring, F. (2000). Pulmonary fibrosis and chronic lung inflammation in ET-1 transgenic mice. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 23, 19-26.
Hohlfeld, T., Klemm, P., Thiemermann, C., Warner, T. D., Schror, K., & Vane, J. R. (1995). The contribution of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and endothelin-1 to the increase of coronary resistance in hearts from rats treated with endotoxin. Br. J. Pharmacol. 116, 3309-3315.
Hulse, J. D. & Yacobi, A. (1983). Hetastarch: an overview of the colloid and its metabolism. Drug Intell. Clin. Pharm. 17, 334-341.
Ishii, H., Stanimirovic, D. B., Chang, C. J., Mrsulja, B. B., & Spatz, M. (1993). Dopamine metabolism and free-radical related mitochondrial injury during transient brain ischemia in gerbils. Neurochem. Res. 18, 1193-1201.
Jarcho, S. (1967).A Roman experience with heat stroke in 24 B.C. Bull. N. Y. Acad. Med. 43, 767-768.
Jones, T. S., Liang, A. P., Kilbourne, E. M., Griffin, M. R., Patriarca, P. A., Wassilak, S. G., Mullan, R. J., Herrick, R. F., Donnell, H. D., Jr., Choi, K., & Thacker, S. B. (1982). Morbidity and mortality associated with the July 1980 heat wave in St Louis and Kansas City, Mo. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 247, 3327-3331.
Juvela, S. (2000). Plasma endothelin concentrations after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. J. Neurosurg. 92, 390-400.
Kao, T. Y. & Lin, M. T. (1996). Brain serotonin depletion attenuates heatstroke-induced cerebral ischemia and cell death in rats. J. of Applied Physiol. 80, 680-684.
Karnaukh, N. G., Koval’chuk, T. A. and Levina, E. V. (1992). Temporary work incapacity in the workers of the heat-treatment shops of the metallurgical industry due to diseases of the digestive system. Gigiena Truda i-professionalyne Zabolevaniia 11: 15-16.
Karne, S., Jayawickreme, C. K., & Lerner, M. R. (1993). Cloning and characterization of an endothelin-3 specific receptor (ETC receptor) from Xenopus laevis dermal melanophores. J. Biol. Chem. 268, 19126-19133.
Kedzierski, R. M. & Yanagisawa, M. (2001). Endothelin system: the double-edged sword in health and disease. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 41, 851-876.
Kettelhut, I. C., Fiers, W., & Goldberg, A. L. (1987). The toxic effects of tumor necrosis factor in vivo and their prevention by cyclooxygenase inhibitors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 84, 4273-4277.
Khogali, M. & Weiner, J. S. (1980). Heat stroke: report on 18 cases. Lancet 2, 276-278.
Kiesewetter, H., Blume, J., Jung, F., Spitzer, S., & Wenzel, E. (1990). Haemodilution with medium molecular weight hydroxyethyl starch in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease stage IIb. J. Intern. Med. 227, 107-114.
Kluger, M. J. (1991). Fever: role of pyrogens and cryogens. Physiol. Rev. 71, 93-127.
Knichel, J. P. (1974). Environmental heat illness. Arch. Intern. Med. 133: 841-864,
Knochel, J. P. (1974). Environmental heat illness. An eclectic review. Arch. Intern. Med. 133, 841-864.
Knollema, S., Aukema, W., Hom, H., Korf, J., & ter Horst, G. J. (1995). L-deprenyl reduces brain damage in rats exposed to transient hypoxia- ischemia. Stroke 26, 1883-1887.
Kohzuki, M., Onodera, H., Yasujima, M., Itoyama, Y., Kanazawa, M., Sato, T., & Abe, K. (1995). Endothelin receptors in ischemic rat brain and Alzheimer brain. J. cardiovasc. pharmacol. 26 Suppl 3, S329-S331.
Kraus, G. E., Bucholz, R. D., Yoon, K. W., Knuepfer, M. M., & Smith, K. R., Jr. (1991). Cerebrospinal fluid endothelin-1 and endothelin-3 levels in normal and neurosurgical patients: a clinical study and literature review. Surg. Neurol. 35, 20-29.
Kuitunen, A. H., Hynynen, M. J., Vahtera, E., & Salmenpera, M. T. (2004). Hydroxyethyl starch as a priming solution for cardiopulmonary bypass impairs hemostasis after cardiac surgery. Anesth. Analg. 98, 291-7, table.
Kumar, P., Rastogi, S. K., Gupta, B. N., & Husain, T. (1991). Psychological responses to thermal stress in a glass bangle factory. J. Soc. Occup. Med. 41, 157-160.
Kuo, J. R., Lin, C. L., Chio, C. C., Wang, J. J., & Lin, M. T. (2003). Effects of hypertonic (3%) saline in rats with circulatory shock and cerebral ischemia after heatstroke. Intensive Care Med. 29, 1567-1573.
Kuroiwa, T., Bonnekoh, P., & Hossmann, K. A. (1992). Laser doppler flowmetry in CA1 sector of hippocampus and cortex after transient forebrain ischemia in gerbils. Stroke 23, 1349-1354.
Kuwaki, T., Cao, W. H., & Kumada, M. (1994). Endothelin in the brain and its effect on central control of the circulation and other functions. Jpn. J. Physiol. 44, 1-18.
Lamke, L. O. & Liljedahl, S. O. (1976). Plasma volume changes after infusion of various plasma expanders. Resuscitation 5, 93-102.
Landauer, B. & Kramer, G. (1976). New aspects of shock therapy with volume expanders (author''s transl). MMW. Munch. Med. Wochenschr. 118, 553-558.
Lecci, A., Giuliani, S., Santicioli, P., Rovero, P., Maggi, C. A., & Giachetti, A. (1991). Intracerebroventricular administration of endothelins: effects on the supraspinal micturition reflex and blood pressure in the anaesthetized rat. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 199, 201-207.
Lechan, R. M., Toni, R., Clark, B. D., Cannon, J. G., Shaw, A. R., Dinarello, C. A., & Reichlin, S. (1990). Immunoreactive interleukin-1 beta localization in the rat forebrain. Brain Res. 514, 135-140.
Leunig, A., Szeimies, R. M., Wilmes, E., Gutmann, R., Stolz, W., & Feyh, J. (1995). Clinical and electron microscopy study of sudden deafness treatment with the 10% HES 200/0.5 and pentoxifylline combination. Laryngorhinootologie 74, 135-140.
Lin, M. T. (1997). Heatstroke-induced cerebral ischemia and neuronal damage. Involvement of cytokines and monoamines. [Review] [54 refs]. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 813, 572-580.
Lin, M. T., Kao, T. Y., Chio, C. C., & Jin, Y. T. (1995a). Dopamine depletion protects striatal neurons from heatstroke-induced ischemia and cell death in rats. Am. j. physiol. 269, H487-H490.
Lin, M. T., Kao, T. Y., Jin, Y. T., & Chen, C. F. (1995b). Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist attenuates the heat stroke-induced neuronal damage by reducing the cerebral ischemia in rats. Brain res. bull. 37, 595-598.
Lin, M. T., Kao, T. Y., Su, C. F., & Hsu, S. S. (1994). Interleukin-1 beta production during the onset of heat stroke in rabbits. Neurosci. Lett. 174, 17-20.
Lin, M. T. & Lin, S. Z. (1992). Cerebral ischemia is the main cause for the onset of heat stroke syndrome in rabbits. Experientia 48, 225-227.
Lin, M. T., Liu, H. H., & Yang, Y. L. (1997). Involvement of interleukin-1 receptor mechanisms in development of arterial hypotension in rat heatstroke. Am. J. Physiol. 273, H2072-H2077.
Liu, C. C., Chien, C. H., & Lin, M. T. (2000). Glucocorticoids reduce interleukin-1 concentration and result in neuroprotective effects in rat heatstroke. J. Physiol. 527 Pt 2, 333-343.
London, M. J., Franks, M., Verrier, E. D., Merrick, S. H., Levin, J., & Mangano, D. T. (1992). The safety and efficacy of ten percent pentastarch as a cardiopulmonary bypass priming solution. A randomized clinical trial. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 104, 284-296.
Loo, L. S., Ng, Y. K., Zhu, Y. Z., Lee, H. S., & Wong, P. T. (2002). Cortical expression of endothelin receptor subtypes A and B following middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Neuroscience 112, 993-1000.
Luscher, T. F. & Tanner, F. C. (1993). Endothelial regulation of vascular tone and growth. Am. J. Hypertens. 6, 283S-293S.
Maker, H. S., Weiss, C., & Brannan, T. S. (1986). Amine-mediated toxicity. The effects of dopamine, norepinephrine, 5- hydroxytryptamine, 6-hydroxydopamine, ascorbate, glutathione and peroxide on the in vitro activities of creatine and adenylate kinases in the brain of the rat. Neuropharmacology 25, 25-32.
Makino, S., Hashimoto, K., Hirasawa, R., Hattori, T., Kageyama, J., & Ota, Z. (1990). Central interaction between endothelin and brain natriuretic peptide on pressor and hormonal responses. Brain Res. 534, 117-121.
Masaoka, H., Suzuki, R., Hirata, Y., Emori, T., Marumo, F., & Hirakawa, K. (1989). Raised plasma endothelin in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Lancet 2, 1402.
Matsuo, Y., Mihara, S., Ninomiya, M., & Fujimoto, M. (2001). Protective effect of endothelin type A receptor antagonist on brain edema and injury after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Stroke 32, 2143-2148.
Mcardle, w. d., Katch, F. I. and Katch, V. L. (1991). Exercise Physiology. ( 3rd ed. ) Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, USA pp 547-555.
Messmer, K. (1975). Hemodilution. Surg. Clin. North Am. 55, 659-678.
Messmer, K., Kreimeier, U., & Intaglietta, M. (1986). Present state of intentional hemodilution. Eur. Surg. Res. 18, 254-263.
Molet, S., Furukawa, K., Maghazechi, A., Hamid, Q., & Giaid, A. (2000). Chemokine- and cytokine-induced expression of endothelin 1 and endothelin-converting enzyme 1 in endothelial cells. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 105, 333-338.
Mori, K., Arai, H., Nakajima, K., Tajima, A., & Maeda, M. (1995). Hemorheological and hemodynamic analysis of hypervolemic hemodilution therapy for cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke 26, 1620-1626.
Muller, D. N., Mervaala, E. M., Schmidt, F., Park, J. K., Dechend, R., Genersch, E., Breu, V., Loffler, B. M., Ganten, D., Schneider, W., Haller, H., & Luft, F. C. (2000). Effect of bosentan on NF-kappaB, inflammation, and tissue factor in angiotensin II-induced end-organ damage. Hypertension 36, 282-290.
Nakamura, T., Suzuki, S., Ushiyama, C., Shimada, N., & Koide, H. (2002). Effect of phosphodiesterase III inhibitor on plasma concentrations of endothelin-1 and tumour necrosis factor in patients with acute heart failure. Acta Cardiol. 57, 19-21.
Nambi, P., Pullen, M., & Feuerstein, G. (1990). Identification of endothelin receptors in various regions of rat brain. Neuropeptides 16, 195-199.
Nicoletti, A. & Michel, J. B. (1999). Cardiac fibrosis and inflammation: interaction with hemodynamic and hormonal factors. Cardiovasc. Res. 41, 532-543.
Niu, K. C., Lin, K. C., Yang, C. Y., & Lin, M. T. (2003). Protective effects of alpha-tocopherol and mannitol in both circulatory shock and cerebral ischaemia injury in rat heatstroke. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. 30, 745-751.
Obata, T. (1997). Use of microdialysis for in-vivo monitoring of hydroxyl free-radical generation in the rat. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 49, 724-730.
Oelschlager, B. K., Caragnano, C., Carpenter, J., & Baker, C. C. (1994). Effect of resuscitation with hydroxyethyl starch and lactated Ringers on macrophage activity after hemorrhagic shock and sepsis. Shock 2, 141-144.
Ogura, K., Shibuya, M., Kanamori, M., Suzuki, Y., Ikegaki, I., Harada, T., Okasa, T., Tanoi, C., & Kageyama, N. (1988). Changes in monoamine neurotransmitter metabolism in brain ischemia measured by in vivo voltammetry. No To Shinkei 40, 87-93.
Ohlsson, K., Bjork, P., Bergenfeldt, M., Hageman, R., & Thompson, R. C. (1990). Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist reduces mortality from endotoxin shock. Nature 348, 550-552.
Opp, M. R. & Krueger, J. M. (1991). Interleukin 1-receptor antagonist blocks interleukin 1-induced sleep and fever. Am. J. Physiol. 260, R453-R457.
Origitano, T. C., Wascher, T. M., Reichman, O. H., & Anderson, D. E. (1990). Sustained increased cerebral blood flow with prophylactic hypertensive hypervolemic hemodilution ("triple-H" therapy) after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurosurgery 27, 729-739.
Paes-da-Silva, F., Gonzalez, A. P., & Tibirica, E. (2003). Effects of fluid resuscitation on mesenteric microvascular blood flow and lymphatic activity after severe hemorrhagic shock in rats. Shock 19, 55-60.
Patel, T. R., Galbraith, S., Graham, D. I., Hallak, H., Doherty, A. M., & McCulloch, J. (1996). Endothelin receptor antagonist increases cerebral perfusion and reduces ischaemic damage in feline focal cerebral ischaemia. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 16, 950-958.
Pavlova, T. V. & Plotkin, V. I. (1991). Effect of a single overheating on kidney ultrastructure. Arkh. Patol. 53, 52-56.
Paxinos, G. & Watson, C. (1982). The rat brain in stereotaxic coordinates Academic press, New York.
Perchick, J. S., Winkelstein, A., & Shadduck, R. K. (1975). Disseminated intravascular coagulation in heat stroke. Response to heparin therapy. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 231, 480-483.
Perez-Trepichio, A. D., Furlan, A. J., Little, J. R., & Jones, S. C. (1992). Hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.5 reduces infarct volume after embolic stroke in rats. Stroke 23, 1782-1790.
Pulsinelli, W. A., Brierley, J. B., & Plum, F. (1982). Temporal profile of neuronal damage in a model of transient forebrain ischemia. Ann. Neurol. 11, 491-498.
Rebello, S., Roy, S., Saxena, P. R., & Gulati, A. (1995). Systemic hemodynamic and regional circulatory effects of centrally administered endothelin-1 are mediated through ETA receptors. Brain Res. 676, 141-150.
Rothwell, N. J. (1990). Mechanisms of the pyrogenic actions of cytokines. Eur. Cytokine Netw. 1, 211-213.
Rubanyi, G. M. & Polokoff, M. A. (1994). Endothelins: molecular biology, biochemistry, pharmacology, physiology, and pathophysiology. Pharmacol. Rev. 46, 325-415.
Rudolf, J. (2002). Hydroxyethyl starch for hypervolemic hemodilution in patients with acute ischemic stroke: a randomized, placebo-controlled phase II safety study. Cerebrovasc. Dis. 14, 33-41.
Russell, F. D. & Molenaar, P. (2000). The human heart endothelin system: ET-1 synthesis, storage, release and effect. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 21, 353-359.
Sakai, S., Miyauchi, T., Kobayashi, M., Yamaguchi, I., Goto, K., & Sugishita, Y. (1996). Inhibition of myocardial endothelin pathway improves long-term survival in heart failure. Nature 384, 353-355.
Salmon, J. B. & Mythen, M. G. (1993). Pharmacology and physiology of colloids. Blood Rev. 7, 114-120.
Sasaki, Y., Takimoto, M., Oda, K., Fruh, T., Takai, M., Okada, T., & Hori, S. (1997). Endothelin evokes efflux of glutamate in cultures of rat astrocytes. J. Neurochem. 68, 2194-2200.
Schell, R. M., Cole, D. J., Schultz, R. L., & Osborne, T. N. (1992). Temporary cerebral ischemia. Effects of pentastarch or albumin on reperfusion injury. Anesthesiology 77, 86-92.
Schiffrin, E. L. (2001). Role of endothelin-1 in hypertension and vascular disease. Am. J. Hypertens. 14, 83S-89S.
Schirmer, W. J., Schirmer, J. M., & Fry, D. E. (1989). Recombinant human tumor necrosis factor produces hemodynamic changes characteristic of sepsis and endotoxemia. Arch. Surg. 124, 445-448.
Semennikov, T. K., Likhacheva, E. I., Filatova, R. I., & Kolmogortseva, V. M. (1992). [The clinical manifestations of chronic exposure to a heating microclimate in metal and forge workers]. Gig. Tr. Prof. Zabol. 23-26.
Shih, C. J., Lin, M. T., & Tsai, S. H. (1984). Experimental study on the pathogenesis of heat stroke. J. Neurosurg. 60, 1246-1252.
Shihara, M., Hirooka, Y., Hori, N., Matsuo, I., Tagawa, T., Suzuki, S., Akaike, N., & Takeshita, A. (1998). Endothelin-1 increases the neuronal activity and augments the responses to glutamate in the NTS. Am. J. Physiol 275, R658-R665.
Shuaib, A. & Kanthan, R. (1997). Amplification of inhibitory mechanisms in cerebral ischemia: an alternative approach to neuronal protection. Histol. Histopathol. 12, 185-194.
Simon, H. B. (1993). Hyperthermia. N. Engl. J. Med. 329, 483-487.
Simonson, M. S. (1993). Endothelins: multifunctional renal peptides. Physiol. Rev. 73, 375-411.
Simonson, M. S. & Dunn, M. J. (1990). Cellular signaling by peptides of the endothelin gene family. FASEB J. 4, 2989-3000.
Smiley, L. E. (1992). The use of hetastarch for plasma expansion. Probl. Vet. Med. 4, 652-667.
Sohal, R. S., Sun, S. C., Colcolough, H. L., & Burch, G. E. (1968). Heat stroke. An electron microscopic study of endothelial cell damage and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Arch. Intern. Med. 122, 43-47.
Sokolovsky, M. (1995a). Endothelin receptor heterogeneity, G-proteins, and signaling via cAMP and cGMP cascades. Cell Mol. Neurobiol. 15, 561-571.
Sokolovsky, M. (1995b). Endothelin receptor subtypes and their role in transmembrane signaling mechanisms. Pharmacol. Ther. 68, 435-471.
Strasser, A., Yasuma, Y., McCarron, R. M., Ishii, H., Stanimirovic, D., & Spatz, M. (1994). Effect of nitro-L-arginine on cerebral blood flow and monoamine metabolism during ischemia/reperfusion in the mongolian gerbil. Brain Res. 664, 197-201.
Stumpf, C., Lehner, C., Yilmaz, A., Daniel, W. G., & Garlichs, C. D. (2003). Decrease of serum levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 in patients with advanced chronic heart failure. Clin. Sci. (Lond) 105, 45-50.
Stutzmann, J. M., Mary, V., Wahl, F., Grosjean-Piot, O., Uzan, A., & Pratt, J. (2002). Neuroprotective profile of enoxaparin, a low molecular weight heparin, in in vivo models of cerebral ischemia or traumatic brain injury in rats: a review. CNS. Drug Rev. 8, 1-30.
Suzuki, R., Masaoka, H., Hirata, Y., Marumo, F., Isotani, E., & Hirakawa, K. (1992). The role of endothelin-1 in the origin of cerebral vasospasm in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. J. Neurosurg. 77, 96-100.
Szalay, L., Boros, M., Baranyi, L., Okada, H., & Nagy, S. (1997). Endothelin-1-induced circulatory response in the rat: the role of ETA and ETB receptors. Acta Chir. Hung. 36, 340-342.
Tabrizchi, R. (2001). The influence of tumour necrosis factor-alpha on the cardiovascular system of anaesthetized rats. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 363, 307-321.
Toyota, S., Graf, R., Valentino, M., Yoshimine, T., & Heiss, W. D. (2002). Malignant infarction in cats after prolonged middle cerebral artery occlusion: glutamate elevation related to decrease of cerebral perfusion pressure. Stroke 33, 1383-1391.
Tracey, K. J., Beutler, B., Lowry, S. F., Merryweather, J., Wolpe, S., Milsark, I. W., Hariri, R. J., Fahey, T. J., III, Zentella, A., Albert, J. D., & . (1986). Shock and tissue injury induced by recombinant human cachectin. Science 234, 470-474.
Tsuda, Y., Hartmann, A., Weiand, J., & Solymosi, L. (1987). Comparison of the effects of infusion with hydroxyethyl starch and low molecular weight dextran on cerebral blood flow and hemorheology in normal baboons. J. Neurol. Sci. 82, 171-180.
Ullman, J. S. & Bederson, J. B. (1996). Hypertensive, hypervolemic, hemodilutional therapy for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Is it efficacious? Yes. Crit. Care Clin. 12, 697-707.
van der Sande, F. M., Kooman, J. P., Barendregt, J. N., Nieman, F. H., & Leunissen, K. M. (1999). Effect of intravenous saline, albumin, or hydroxyethylstarch on blood volume during combined ultrafiltration and hemodialysis. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 10, 1303-1308.
Vincent, J. L. (1991). Plugging the leaks? New insights into synthetic colloids. Crit. Care Med. 19, 316-318.
Welch, W. J. & Suhan, J. P. (1985). Morphological study of the mammalian stress response: characterization of changes in cytoplasmic organelles, cytoskeleton, and nucleoli, and appearance of intranuclear actin filaments in rat fibroblasts after heat-shock treatment. J. Cell Biol. 101, 1198-1211.
Willette, R. N., Ohlstein, E. H., Pullen, M., Sauermelch, C. F., Cohen, A., & Nambi, P. (1993). Transient forebrain ischemia alters acutely endothelin receptor density and immunoreactivity in gerbil brain. Life Sci. 52, 35-40.
Wisselink, W., Patetsios, P., Panetta, T. F., Ramirez, J. A., Rodino, W., Kirwin, J. D., & Zikria, B. A. (1998). Medium molecular weight pentastarch reduces reperfusion injury by decreasing capillary leak in an animal model of spinal cord ischemia. J. Vasc. Surg. 27, 109-116.
Wood, J. H., Simeone, F. A., Fink, E. A., & Golden, M. A. (1983). Hypervolemic hemodilution in experimental focal cerebral ischemia. Elevation of cardiac output, regional cortical blood flow, and ICP after intravascular volume expansion with low molecular weight dextran. J. Neurosurg. 59, 500-509.
Xuan, Y. T., Whorton, A. R., Shearer-Poor, E., Boyd, J., & Watkins, W. D. (1989). Determination of immunoreactive endothelin in medium from cultured endothelial cells and human plasma. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 164, 326-332.
Yanagisawa, M., Inoue, A., Ishikawa, T., Kasuya, Y., Kimura, S., Kumagaye, S., Nakajima, K., Watanabe, T. X., Sakakibara, S., Goto, K., & . (1988a). Primary structure, synthesis, and biological activity of rat endothelin, an endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor peptide. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 85, 6964-6967.
Yanagisawa, M., Kurihara, H., Kimura, S., Tomobe, Y., Kobayashi, M., Mitsui, Y., Yazaki, Y., Goto, K., & Masaki, T. (1988b). A novel potent vasoconstrictor peptide produced by vascular endothelial cells. Nature 332, 411-415.
Yang, C. Y. & Lin, M. T. (2002). Oxidative stress in rats with heatstroke-induced cerebral ischemia. Stroke. 33, 790-794.
Yang, Y. L. & Lin, M. T. (1999). Heat shock protein expression protects against cerebral ischemia and monoamine overload in rat heatstroke. Am. J. Physiol. 276, H1961-H1967.
Yang, Y. L., Pan, W. H., Chiu, T. H., & Lin, M. T. (1998). Striatal glutamate release is important for development of ischemic damage to striatal neurons during rat heatstroke. Brain res. 795, 121-127.
Yaqub, B. A., Al Harthi, S. S., Al Orainey, I. O., Laajam, M. A., & Obeid, M. T. (1986). Heat stroke at the Mekkah pilgrimage: clinical characteristics and course of 30 patients. Q. J. Med. 59, 523-530.
Yokokawa, K., Tahara, H., Kohno, M., Murakawa, K., Yasunari, K., Nakagawa, K., Hamada, T., Otani, S., Yanagisawa, M., & Takeda, T. (1991). Hypertension associated with endothelin-secreting malignant hemangioendothelioma. Ann. Intern. Med. 114, 213-215.
Zikria, B. A., King, T. C., Stanford, J., & Freeman, H. P. (1989). A biophysical approach to capillary permeability. Surgery 105, 625-631.
Zimmermann, M. & Seifert, V. (1998). Endothelin and subarachnoid hemorrhage: an overview. Neurosurgery 43, 863-875.
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top