跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.236.84.188) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/01 19:27
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:林瑞龍
研究生(外文):Ruei-Lung Lin
論文名稱:Anandamide引發大白鼠肺C纖維感覺神經敏感化的機轉
論文名稱(外文):Hypersensitivity of Pulmonary C-fiber Afferents Induced by Anandamide in Rats
指導教授:高毓儒
指導教授(外文):Yu-Ru Kou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立陽明大學
系所名稱:生理學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:84
中文關鍵詞:肺C-纖維Anandamide敏感化香草第一類受器
外文關鍵詞:Pulmonary C fiberAnandamideHypersensitivityVR1
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:207
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:9
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
肺迷走C-纖維感覺神經廣泛分布於呼吸系統。刺激此類感覺神經會引發多種的呼吸反射,例如:咳嗽、氣道收縮及黏液分泌等。於肺發炎時所釋放的部分介質會明顯提昇此類C-纖維感覺神經的興奮性。因此,被敏感化的肺C-纖維被認為可能參與肺發炎疾病的形成,例如:氣道過度反應。目前已知,香草第一類受器 (Vanilloid Type 1 Receptors, VR1) 在皮膚發炎時所產生的痛覺敏感中扮演極重要的角色,也就是香草第一類受器可能與痛覺感受器 (Nociceptors, 是種C-纖維感覺神經) 的敏感化有關。然而,體內能與香草第一類受器作用的配體 (Endogenous Ligand) 為何,至今仍不清楚。Anandamide是種不安定的花生四烯酸衍生物,在組織發炎時 (包括肺發炎) 會大量釋放。最初,Anandamide被認定是大麻鹼受器 (Cannabinoid Receptor, CB) 的內生性配位體。直至最近,才被發現竟可作用在香草第一類受器。綜合以上,本實驗假說是:Anandamide可能是種能敏感化肺C-纖維感覺神經的內生性活化物。為測試此假說,我們利用單根纖維紀錄法去探討:(1) 是否Anandamide能增強刺激肺C-纖維引發感覺神經放電反應。如果是,將進而評估 (2) Anandamide引發的此敏感化肺C-纖維反應中,香草第一類和大麻鹼受器的參與的重要性。以麻醉、開胸、以呼吸器維持呼吸的大白鼠為動物模式,本實驗共記錄了來自70根肺C-纖維感覺神經。實驗初,注射少量的辣椒素(Capsaicin, C-纖維專一性刺激物,0.5~1.0 mg/kg) 進入肺循環,引發了輕微的C-纖維放電反應。然而,在經靜脈灌流 (1 mg/kg/min 2分鐘) 給予Anandamide後,百分之五十六的肺C-纖維感覺神經的基礎放電明顯地增加。同時,相同劑量Capsaicin刺激C-纖維的放電,卻大量增加。在停止灌流後20分鐘,Anandamide的作用則完全消失。在別組動物的測試中,同樣地,Anandamide也能增強肺C-纖維受其他的化學性刺激 (腺苷酸, 0.2~0.6 mg/kg) 和機械刺激 (肺充氣刺激 30 cmH2O 持續10秒)。另外,Anandamide敏感化肺C-纖維的作用,在前處理香草第一類受器的選擇性拮抗劑 (Capsazepine, 3 mg/kg) 後,完全地消除。若前處理香草第一類受器拮抗劑的溶劑或大麻鹼第一類受器選擇性拮抗劑,則此敏感化作用不受影響。根據以上結果,我們的結論是:(1) Anandamide會增強肺C-纖維感覺神經對化學和機械性刺激的敏感程度,(2) 此反應敏感化作用是經由香草第一類受器而來。
Bronchopulmonary vagal C-fiber afferents innervate all levels of the respiratory tract. Stimulation of these afferents elicits diffuse and pronounced pulmonary reflex responses such as cough, bronchoconstriction, and mucus secretion. The excitability of these afferents can be markedly elevated by certain mediators released under pulmonary inflammation, which in turn may contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary inflammatory diseases such as airway hyperreactivity. It has been shown that the vanilloid type 1 (VR1) receptor plays a vital role in the inflammation-induced cutaneous hyperalgesia, which suggests the contribution of VR1 receptors to the sensitization of nociceptors, the counterpart of pulmonary C fibers in the peripheral tissues. However, the endogenous ligand of VR1 receptors remains to be identified. Anandamide, an unstable arachidonate derivative, is released largely during inflammatory reaction. Originally, this mediator is identified as an endogenous ligand of cannabinoid receptor (CB) and is very recently suggested to act as an activator of VR1 receptors. Our experimental hypothesis is that anandamide might be the endogenous activator that sensitizes pulmonary C-fiber afferents, which consequently exaggerates the pulmonary reflexes elicited by activation of pulmonary C fibers. To test this hypothesis, using the single-fiber recording technique, the present study was carried out (1) to exam whether anandamide enhances the afferent responses of pulmonary C fibers; if so, (2) to evaluate the relative contribution of VR1 and CB1 receptors to this anandamide-induced sensitization. A total of 70 pulmonary C fibers were studied in anesthetized, open-chest, artificially ventilated rats. During control, right atrial injection of a low dose of capsaicin (0.5~1.0 mg/kg) evoked a mild activation of pulmonary C-fiber afferents. During intravenous infusion of anandamide (1 mg/kg/min for 2 min), the baseline activity in 56 % of C-fiber afferents was significantly elevated. Meanwhile, the stimulatory effect of the same dose of capsaicin on all the afferents was markedly enhanced. The anandamide-induced effects returned to control 20 min after termination of infusion. Similarly, these effects of anandamide were found on the afferent responses of pulmonary C fibers to another chemical stimulant (adenosine: 0.2~0.6 mg/kg) and mechanical stimulant (lung hyperinflation: 30 cmH2O for 10 sec). Furthermore, the anandamide-induced hypersensitivity of pulmonary C fibers to adenosine and lung hyperinflation was totally abolished by the pretreatment with capsazepine (a selective antagonist of VR1 receptors), yet was not affected by pretreatment with its vehicle, or with AM281 (a selective antagonist of CB1 receptors). In conclusion, the sensitivity of pulmonary C-fiber afferents to both chemical and mechanical stimulants is enhanced by anandamide, and this effect appears to be mediated through VR1 receptors.
Agostini, E., J. E. Chinnock, M. S. Daly, and J. G. Murray. Functional and histological studies of the vagus nerve and its branches to the heart, lungs and abdominal viscera in the cat. J. Physiol. 135: 182-205, 1957.
Aley, K. O., A. Martin, T. McMahon, J. Mok, J. D. Levine, and R. O. Messing. Nociceptor sensitization by extracellular signal-regulated kinases. J. Neurosci. 21: 6933-6939, 2001.
Armstrong, D. J., and J. C. Luck. A comparative study of irritant and type J receptors in the cat. Respir. Physiol. 21: 47-60, 1974.
Barnes, N. C., and J. F. Costello. Airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Br. Med. Bull. 43: 445-459, 1987.
Barnes, P. J. New aspects of asthma. J. Intern. Med. 231: 453-461, 1992.
Barnes, P. J. New concepts in the pathogenesis of bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Agents Actions Suppl. 21: 225-237, 1987.
Barnes, P. J. New concepts in the pathogenesis of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 83: 1013-1026, 1989.
Basbaum, A. I. Distinct neurochemical features of acute and persistent pain. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 96: 7739-7743, 1999.
Bridges, D., A. S. Rice, M. Egertova, M. R. Elphick, J. Winter, and G. J. Michael. Localisation of cannabinoid receptor 1 in rat dorsal root ganglion using in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry. Neuroscience. 119: 803-812, 2003.
Carr, M. J., and J. L. Ellis. The study of airway primary afferent neuron excitability. Curr. Opin. Pharmacol. 2: 216-219, 2002.
Caterina, M. J., A. Leffler, A. B. Malmberg, W. J. Martin, J. Trafton, K. R. Petersen-Zeitz, M. Koltzenburg, A. I. Basbaum, and D. Julius. Impaired nociception and pain sensation in mice lacking the capsaicin receptor. Science. 288: 306-313, 2000.
Coleridge, H. M., J. C. Coleridge, and J. C. Luck. Pulmonary afferent fibres of small diameter stimulated by capsaicin and by hyperinflation of the lungs. J. Physiol. 179: 248-262, 1965.
Coleridge, H. M., J. C. Coleridge, J. C. Luck, and J. Norman. The effect of four volatile anaesthetic agents on the impulse activity of two types of pulmonary receptor. Br. J. Anaesth. 40: 484-492, 1968.
Coleridge, H. M., J. C. Coleridge, K. H. Ginzel, D. G. Baker, R. B. Banzett, and M. A. Morrison. Stimulation of ''irritant'' receptors and afferent C-fibres in the lungs by prostaglandins. Nature. 264: 451-453, 1976.
Coleridge, H. M., J. C. G. Coleridge, and C. Kidd. Role of the pulmonary arterial baroreceptors in the effects produced by capsaicin in the dog. J. Physiol. (London) 170: 272-285, 1964.
Coleridge, J. C. G., and H. M. Coleridge. Afferent C-fibers and cardiorespiratory chemoreflexes. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 115: 251-260, 1977b.
Coleridge, J. C. G., and H. M. Coleridge. Impulse activity in afferent vagal C-fibres with endings in the intrapulmonary airways of dogs. Respir. Physiol. 29: 125-142, 1977a.
Coleridge, J. C., and H. M. Coleridge. Afferent vagal C fibre innervation of the lungs and airways and its functional significance. Rev. Physiol. Biochem. Pharmacol. 99: 1-110, 1984.
Das, S. K., B. C. Paria, I. Chakraborty, and S. K. Dey. Cannabinoid ligand-receptor signaling in the mouse uterus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 92: 4332-4336, 1995.
Davis, J. B., J. Gray, M. J. Gunthorpe, J. P. Hatcher, P. T. Davey, P. Overend, M. H. Harries, J. Latcham, C. Clapham, K. Atkinson, S. A. Hughes, K. Rance, E. Grau, A. J. Harper, P. L. Pugh, D. C. Rogers, S. Bingham, A. Randall, and S. A. Sheardown. Vanilloid receptor-1 is essential for inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia. Nature 405: 183-187, 2000.
De Jonge, F., L. Van Nassauw, D. Adriaensen, F. Van Meir, H. R. Miller, E. Van Marck, and J. P. Timmermans. Effect of intestinal inflammation on capsaicin-sensitive afferents in the ileum of Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice. Histochem. Cell Biol. 119: 477-84, 2003.
Deutsch, D. G., M. S. Goligorsky, P. C. Schmid, R. J. Krebsbach, H. H. Schmid, S. K. Das, S. K. Dey, G. Arreaza, C. Thorup, G. Stefano, and L. C. Moore. Production and physiological actions of anandamide in the vasculature of the rat kidney. J. Clin. Invest. 100: 1538-1546, 1997.
Devane, W. A., L. Hanus, A. Breuer, R. G. Pertwee, L. A. Stevenson, G. Griffin, D. Gibson, A. Mandelbaum, A. Etinger, and R. Mechoulam. Isolation and structure of a brain constituent that binds to the cannabinoid receptor. Science 258: 1946-1949, 1992.
Di Marzo, V., A. Fontana, H. Cadas, S. Schinelli, G. Cimino, J.-C. Schwartz, and D. Piomelli. Formation and inactivation of endogenous cannabinoid anandamide in central neurons. Nature 372: 686-691, 1994.
Di Marzo, V., L. De Petrocellis, N. Sepe, and A. Buono. Biosynthesis of anandamide and related acylethanolamides in mouse J774 macrophages and N18 neuroblastoma cells. Biochem. J. 316: 977-984, 1996.
Di Marzo, V., P. M. Blumberg, and A. Szallasi. Endovanilloid signaling in pain. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 12: 372-379, 2002.
Feldman, S., N. Conforti, A. Itzik, and J. Weidenfeld. Differential effect of amygdaloid lesions on CRF-41, ACTH and corticosterone responses following neural stimuli. Brain Res. 658: 21-26, 1994.
Fishman, N. H., E. A. Phillipson, and J. A. Nadel. Effect of differential vagal cold blockade on breathing pattern in conscious dogs. J. Appl. Physiol. 34: 754-758, 1973.
Fowler, C. J., A. Stenstrom, and G. Tiger. Ibuprofen inhibits the metabolism of the endogenous cannabimimetic agent anandamide. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 80: 103-107, 1997.
Fride, E., and R. Mechoulam. Pharmacological activity of the cannabinoid receptor agonist, anandamide, a brain constituent. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 231: 313-314, 1993.
Garcia-Martinez, C., M. Humet, R. Planells-Cases, A. Gomis, M. Caprini, F. Viana, E. De La Pena, F. Sanchez-Baeza, T. Carbonell, C. De Felipe, E. Perez-Paya, C. Belmonte, A. Messeguer, and A. Ferrer-Montiel. Attenuation of thermal nociception and hyperalgesia by VR1 blockers. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 99: 2374-2379, 2002.
Giuffrida, A., M. Beltramo, and D. Piomelli. Mechanisms of endocannabinoid inactivation: biochemistry and pharmacology. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 290: 7-14, 2001.
Gold, M. S. Inflammatory mediator-induced modulation of TTX-R INa: an underlying mechanism of inflammatory hyperalgesia. Proc. West Pharmacol. Soc. 42: 111-112, 1999.
Gu, Q., T. Ruan, J. L. Hong, N. Burki, and L.-Y. Lee. Hypersensitivity of pulmonary C fibers induced by adenosine in anesthetized rats. J Appl Physiol. 95: 1315-1324, 2003.
Henderson, W. R. Jr. Eicosanoids and platelet-activating factor in allergic respiratory diseases. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 143: S86-90, 1991.
Ho, C.-Y., Q. Gu, J. L. Hong, and L.-Y. Lee. Prostaglandin E2 enhances chemical and mechanical sensitivities of pulmonary C fibers in the rat. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 162: 528-533, 2000.
Holgate, S. T., M. Peters-Golden, R. A. Panettieri, and W. R. Henderson. Roles of cysteinyl leukotrienes in airway inflammation, smooth muscle function, and remodeling. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 111: S18-S34, 2003.
Hong, J. L., C. Y. Ho, K. Kwong, and L.-Y. Lee. Activation of pulmonary C fibres by adenosine in anaesthetized rats: role of adenosine A1 receptors. J. Physiol. 508: 109-118, 1998.
Hwang, S. W., and U. Oh. Hot channels in airways: pharmacology of the vanilloid receptor. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2: 235-242, 2002.
Lee, L.-Y., J. M. Lundberg. Capsazepine abolishes pulmonary chemoreflexes induced by capsaicin in anesthetized rats. J. Appl. Physiol. 76: 1848-1855, 1994.
Hwang, S. W., H. Cho, J. Kwak, S. Y. Lee, C. J. Kang, J. Jung, S. Cho, K. H. Min, Y. G. Suh, D. Kim, and U. Oh. Direct activation of capsaicin receptors by products of lipoxygenases: endogenous capsaicin-like substances. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 97: 6155-6160, 2000.
Ji, R. R., H. Baba, G. J. Brenner, and C. J. Woolf. Nociceptive-specific activation of ERK in spinal neurons contributes to pain hypersensitivity. Nat. Neurosci. 2: 1114-1119, 1999.
Ji, R. R., K. Befort, G. J. Brenner, and C. J. Woolf. ERK MAP kinase activation in superficial spinal cord neurons induces prodynorphin and NK-1 upregulation and contributes to persistent inflammatory pain hypersensitivity. J. Neurosci. 22: 478-485, 2002.
Jia, Y., R. L. McLeod, X. Wang, L. E. Parra, R. W. Egan, and J. A. Hey. Anandamide induces cough in conscious guinea-pigs through VR1 receptors. Br. J. Pharmacol. 137: 831-836, 2002.
Kagaya, M., J. Lamb, J. Robbins, C. P. Page, and D. Spina. Characterization of the anandamide induced depolarization of guinea-pig isolated vagus nerve. Br. J. Pharmacol. 137: 39-48, 2002.
Karczewski, W., and J. G. Widdicombe. The role of the vagus nerves in the respiratory and circulatory responses to intravenous histamine and phenyl diguanide in rabbits. J. Physiol. 201: 271-91, 1969.
Karla, W., H. Shams, J. A. Orr, and P. Scheid. Effects of the thromboxane A2 mimetic, U46,619, on pulmonary vagal afferents in the cat. Respir. Physiol. 87: 383-396, 1992.
Kaufman, M. P., D. G. Baker, H. M. Coleridge, and J. C. Coleridge. Stimulation by bradykinin of afferent vagal C-fibers with chemosensitive endings in the heart and aorta of the dog. Circ. Res. 46: 476-484, 1980.
Khasar, S. G., M. S. Gold, and J. D. Levine. A tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium current mediates inflammatory pain in the rat. Neurosci. Lett. 256: 17-20, 1998.
Kidd, B. L., and L. A. Urban. Mechanisms of inflammatory pain. Br. J. Anaesth. 87: 3-11, 2001.
Koller, E. A., and P. Ferrer. Discharge patterns of the lung stretch receptors and activation of deflation fibers in anaphylactic bronchial asthma. Respir. Physiol. 17: 113-26, 1973.
Kou, Y. R., D. T. Frazier, and L.-Y. Lee. The stimulatory effect of nicotine on vagal pulmonary C-fibers in dogs. Respir. Physiol. 76: 347-356, 1989.
Kress, M., and H. U. Zeilhofer. Capsaicin, protons and heat: new excitement about nociceptors. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 20: 112-118, 1999.
Kwak, J. Y., J. Y. Jung, S. W. Hwang, W. T. Lee, and U. Oh. A capsaicin-receptor antagonist, capsazepine, reduces inflammation -induced hyperalgesic responses in the rat: evidence for an endogenous capsaicin-like substance. Neuroscience. 86: 619-626, 1998.
Kwong, K., and L.-Y. Lee. PGE2 sensitizes cultured pulmonary vagal sensory neurons to chemical and electrical stimuli. J. Appl. Physiol. 93: 1419-1428, 2002.
Lai, C. J., and Y. R. Kou. Stimulation of vagal pulmonary C fibers by inhaled wood smoke in rats. J. Appl. Physiol. 84: 30-63, 1998.
Lalloo, U. G., P. J. Barnes, and F. K. Chung. Pathophysiology and clinical presentations of cough. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 98: S91-96, 1996.
Lee, L.-Y., and J. G. Widdicombe. Modulation of airway sensitivity to inhaled irritants: role of inflammatory mediators. Environ. Health Perspect. 109: 585-589, 2001.
Lee, L.-Y., and R. F. Morton. Pulmonary chemoreflex sensitivity is enhanced by prostaglandin E2 in anesthetized rats. J. Appl. Physiol. 79: 1679-1686, 1995.
Lee, L.-Y., and R.F. Morton. Histamine enhances vagal pulmonary C-fiber responses to capsaicin and lung inflation. Respir. Physiol. 93: 83-96,1993.
Lee, L.-Y., and T. E. Pisarri. Afferent properties and reflex functions of bronchopulmonary C-fibers. Respir. Physiol. 125: 47-65, 2001.
Lee, L.-Y., E. R. Beck, R. F. Morton, Y. R. Kou, and D. T. Frazier. Role of bronchopulmonary C-fiber afferents in the apneic response to cigarette smoke. J. Appl. Physiol. 63: 1366-1373, 1987.
Lee, L.-Y., K. Kwong, Y. S. Lin, and Q. Gu. Hypersensitivity of bronchopulmonary C-fibers induced by airway mucosal inflammation: cellular mechanisms. Pulm. Pharmacol. Ther. 15: 199-204, 2002.
Lee, L.-Y., R. F. Morton, and J. M. Lundberg. Pulmonary chemoreflexes elicited by intravenous injection of lactic acid in anesthetized rats. J. Appl. Physiol. 81: 2349-2357, 1996.
Lee, L.-Y., R. F. Morton, and Y. R. Kou. Acute effects of cigarette smoke on breathing in rats: vagal and nonvagal mechanisms. J. Appl. Physiol. 68: 955-961, 1990.
Lee, L.-Y., Y. R. Kou, D. T. Frazier, E. R. Beck, T. E. Pisarri, H. M. Coleridge, and J. C. Coleridge. Stimulation of vagal pulmonary C-fibers by a single breath of cigarette smoke in dogs. J. Appl. Physiol. 66: 2032-2038, 1989.
Levy, D., and A. M. Strassman. Distinct sensitizing effects of the cAMP-PKA second messenger cascade on rat dural mechanonociceptors. J. Physiol. 538: 483-493, 2002.
Lin, Y. S., and L.-Y. Lee. Stimulation of pulmonary vagal C-fibres by anandamide in anaesthetized rats: role of vanilloid type 1 receptors. J. Physiol. (London) 539: 947-955, 2002.
Lin, Y. S., and Y. R. Kou. Acute neurogenic airway plasma exudation and edema induced by inhaled wood smoke in guinea pigs: role of tachykinins and hydroxyl radical. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 394: 139-148, 2000.
Lin, Y. S., C.-Y. Ho, G.-J. Tang, and Y. R. Kou. Alleviation of wood smoke-induced lung injury by tachykinin receptor antagonist and hydroxyl radical scavenger in guinea pigs. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 425: 141-148, 2001.
Lin, Y. S., Q. Gu, and L.-Y. Lee. Activation of dopamine D2-like receptors attenuates pulmonary C-fiber hypersensitivity in rats. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167: 1096-1101, 2003.
Magerl, W., P. N. Fuchs, R. A. Meyer, and R. D. Treede. Roles of capsaicin-insensitive nociceptors in cutaneous pain and secondary hyperalgesia. Brain. 124: 1754-1764, 2001.
Minoguchi, H., K. Minoguchi, A. Tanaka, H. Matsuo, N. Kihara, and M. Adachi. Cough receptor sensitivity to capsaicin does not change after allergen bronchoprovocation in allergic asthma. Thorax 58: 19-22, 2003.
Mitchell, J. A., and T. W. Evans. Cyclooxygenase-2 as a therapeutic target. Inflamm. Res. 47: S88-92, 1998.
Omote, K., K. Hazama, T. Kawamata, M. Kawamata, Y. Nakayaka, M. Toriyabe, and A. Namiki. Peripheral nitric oxide in carrageenan-induced inflammation. Brain Res. 912: 171-175, 2001.
Paintal, A. S. Mechanism of stimulation of type J pulmonary receptors. J. Physiol. 203: 511-532, 1969.
Paintal, A. S. Vagal sensory receptors and their reflex effects. Physiol. Rev. 53: 159-227, 1973.
Paintal, B. A. Impulses in vagal afferent fibres from specific pulmonary deflation receptors: the response of these receptors to phenyl diguanide, potato starch, 5-hydroxytryptamine and nicotine, and their role in respiratory and cardiovascular reflexes. Q. J. Exp. Physiol. Cogn. Med. Sci. 40: 89-111, 1955.
Pestonjamasp, V. K., and S. H. Burstein. Anandamide synthesis is induced by arachidonate mobilizing agonists in cells of the immune system. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1394: 249-260, 1998.
Raes, A., Z. Wang, R. J. van den Berg, M. Goethals, G. Van de Vijver, and P. P. van Bogaert. Effect of cAMP and ATP on the hyperpolarization- activated current in mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons. Pflugers Arch. 434: 543-550, 1997.
Ralevic, V., D. A. Kendall, M. D. Randall, and D. Smart. Cannabinoid modulation of sensory neurotransmission via cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors: roles in regulation of cardiovascular function. Life Sci. 71: 2577-2594, 2002.
Reeh, P. W., and G. Petho. Nociceptor excitation by thermal sensitization-a hypothesis. Prog. Brain Res. 129: 39-50, 2000.
Riccio, M. M., T. Matsumoto, J. J. Adcock, G. J. Douglas, D. Spina, and C. P. Page. The effect of 15-HPETE on airway responsiveness and pulmonary cell recruitment in rabbits. Br J Pharmacol. 122: 249-256, 1997.
Richardson J. D., S. Kilo, and K. M. Hargreaves. Cannabinoids reduce hyperalgesia and inflammation via interaction with peripheral CB1 receptors. Pain 75: 111-119, 1998.
Riedel, W., and G. Neeck. Nociception, pain, and antinociception: current concepts. Z. Rheumatol. 60: 404-415, 2001.
Russell, J. A., and S. J. Lai-Fook. Reflex bronchoconstriction induced by capsaicin in the dog. J. Appl. Physiol. 47: 961-967, 1979.
Shin, J., H. Cho, S. W. Hwang, J. Jung, C. Y. Shin, S. Y. Lee, S. H. Kim, M. G. Lee, Y. H. Choi, J. Kim, N. A. Haber, D. B. Reichling, S. Khasar, J. D. Levine, and U. Oh. Bradykinin-12-lipoxygenase-VR1 signaling pathway for inflammatory hyperalgesia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 99: 10150-10155, 2002.
Smart, D., and J. C. Jerman. Anandamide: an endogenous activator of the vanilloid receptor. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 21: 134, 2000.
Smart, D., M. J. Gunthorpe, J. C. Jerman, S. Nasir, J. Gray, A. I. Muir, J. K. Chambers, A. D. Randall, and J. B. Davis. The endogenous lipid anandamide is a full agonist at the human vanilloid receptor (hVR1). Bri. J. Pharmacol. 129: 227-230, 2000.
Smith, P. J., and D. S. McQueen. Anandamide induces cardiovascular and respiratory reflexes via vasosensory nerves in the anaesthetized rat. Br. J. Pharmacol. 134: 655-663, 2001.
Solway, J., and A. R. Leff. Sensory neuropeptides and airway function. J. Appl. Physiol. 71: 2077-2087, 1991.
Spector R.G. Content of lactic acid and adenosine mono-, di- and tri-phosphates in anoxic-ischaemic rat brain. J Patho.l Bacteriol. 90: 533-541, 1965.
Szallasi, A. Autoradiographic visualization and pharmacological characterization of vanilloid (capsaicin) receptors in several species, including man. Acta. Physiol. Scand. 629: 1-68, 1995.
Szallasi, A. Vanilloid (capsaicin) receptors in health and disease. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 118: 110-121, 2002.
Tashkin, D. P. The role of small airway inflammation in asthma. Allergy Asthma Proc. 23: 233-242, 2002.
Tatar, M., S. E. Webber, and J. G. Widdicombe. Lung C-fibre receptor activation and defensive reflexes in anaesthetized cats. J. Physiol. 402: 411-420, 1988.
Tognetto, M., S. Amadesi, S. Harrison, C. Creminon, M. Trevisani, M. Carreras, M. Matera, P. Geppetti, and A. Bianchi. Anandamide excites central terminals of dorsal root ganglion neurons via vanilloid receptor-1 activation. J. Neurosci. 21: 1104-1109, 2001.
Trenchard, D., N. J. Russell, and H. E. Raybould. Non-myelinated vagal lung receptors and their reflex effects on respiration in rabbits. Respir. Physiol. 55: 63-79, 1984.
Tucker, R. C., M. Kagaya, C. P. Page, and D. Spina. The endogenous cannabinoid agonist, anandamide stimulates sensory nerves in guinea-pig airways. Br. J. Pharmacol. 132: 1127-1135, 2001.
Varga, K., J. A. Wagner, D. T. Bridgen, and G. Kunos. Platelet- and macrophage-derived endogenous cannabinoids are involved in endotoxin-induced hypotension. FASEB J. 12: 1035-1044, 1998.
Vargas, G., and M. T. Lucero. Modulation by PKA of the hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih) in cultured rat olfactory receptor neurons. J. Membr. Biol. 188: 115-125, 2002.
Vellani, V., S. Mapplebeck, A. Moriondo, J. B. Davis, and P. A. McNaughton. Protein kinase C activation potentiates gating of the vanilloid receptor VR1 by capsaicin, protons, heat and anandamide. J. Physiol. 534: 813-825, 2001.
Veronesi, B., M. Oortgiesen, J. Roy, J. D. Carter, S. A. Simon, and S. H. Gavett. Vanilloid (capsaicin) receptors influence inflammatory sensitivity in response to particulate matter. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 169: 66-76, 2000.
Veronesi, B., M. Oortgiesen, J. Roy, J. D. Carter, S. A. Simon, and S. H. Gavett. Vanilloid (capsaicin) receptors influence inflammatory sensitivity in response to particulate matter. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 169: 66-76, 2000.
Wardlaw, A. J., C. E. Brightling, R. Green, G. Woltmann, P. Bradding, and I. D. Pavord. New insights into the relationship between airway inflammation and asthma. Clin. Sci. (Lond) 103: 201-211, 2002.
Widdicombe, J. G. Nervous receptors in the respiratory tract and lungs. In: Lung Biology in Health and Disease. Regulation of Breathing, edited by T. Hornbein. New York: Dekker, 1981, vol. 17, pt. 1, p. 429-472.
Willis, W. D. Role of neurotransmitters in sensitization of pain responses. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 933: 142-156, 2001.
Yu, M., D. Ives, and C. S. Ramesha. Synthesis of prostaglandin E2 ethanolamide from anandamide by cyclooxygenase-2. J. Biol. Chem. 272: 21181-21186, 1997.
Zhou, Y., Z. S. Zhou, and Z. Q. Zhao. PKC regulates capsaicin-induced currents of dorsal root ganglion neurons in rats. Neuropharmacology. 41: 601-608, 2001.
Zygmunt, P. M., J. Petersson, D. A. Andersson, H. Chuang, M. Sorgard, V. Di Marzo, D. Julius, and E. D. Hogestatt. Vanilloid receptors on sensory nerves mediate the vasodilator action of anandamide. Nature. 400: 452-457, 1999.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關論文