跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.95.131.146) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/29 00:14
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:張瓊文
研究生(外文):Chiung-Wen Chang
論文名稱:發育時期哺乳類前腦紋狀體內高度表現新穎基因Nolz-1的分子生物研究
論文名稱(外文):Characterization of a Developmentally Regulated Striatum-Enriched Novel Gene, Nolz-1, in the Mammalian Brain
指導教授:劉福清劉福清引用關係
指導教授(外文):Fu-Chin Liu
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立陽明大學
系所名稱:神經科學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:125
中文關鍵詞:紋狀體神經發育轉錄因子芽肢
外文關鍵詞:striatumneural developmentlimb bud formationtranscription factor
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:183
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
幾年前,我們在囓齒動物胚胎腦部紋狀體中,找到一個果蠅nocA相似的鋅指基因 (nocA-like zinc-ferher protein-1),Nolz-1基因。 這個新穎C2H2型鋅指基因,是nocA/elB/tlp-1家族的一員。 FLAG標定的Nolz-1蛋白質在HEK293T細胞核或小鼠前腦細胞核中表現的現象,暗示此基因的功能可能是一個轉錄調控因子。 Nolz-1基因在二到三個體節(somite)的發育時期就開始表現在胚胎中,尤其在最前端的頭部褶層(headfold)處表現最高。 在體節及原腸胚形成時期有很多組織構造,包括體節(somites)、嗅球鼻板前趨組織(the olfactory/nasal primodium)、耳板(otic placode)、眼板(lens placode)、鰓弓(branchial arches)、上下肢芽(limb buds)以及神經管構造,都可以偵測到Nolz-1基因的表現。 在腦部區域,Nolz-1表現在將發育為前腦、中腦以及後腦的組織中。 值得注意的是,早期肢芽發育時,Nolz-1特異表現在肢芽後端的zone of polarizing activity (ZPA)構造中。 這種偏好表現在後端的情形同樣發生在第一及第二對鰓弓。 分析懷孕二十天的大白鼠胚胎發現:Nolz-1廣泛的表現在除了肝臟外的不同組織器官中,尤其以大腦、肺臟以及腎臟表現量最高。 在發育中的端腦(telencephalon)中,Nolz-1特異且高量的表現在lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE)/紋狀體的前趨構造,而不表現在另外兩個鄰近的medial ganglionic eminence (MGE)/蒼白球或大腦皮層的前趨構造中。 Nolz-1基因的表現在懷孕十三天的胚胎大白鼠,腦部LGE構造開始形成時就被偵測到。 在發育紋狀體中,Nolz-1高量表現在subventricular zone,中度在mantal zone,但不表現在最靠側腦室的ventricular zone。 Nolz-1與Tuj-1、Isl-1或DARPP32蛋白質同時表現在許多紋狀體細胞的情形顯示,Nolz-1應可做為發育時期紋狀體前趨母細胞的標幟基因。 北方雜交法的分析發現,Nolz-1的表現量在出生後會隨著時間而逐漸降低。 在發育過程中,偵測到三種不同長度的Nolz-1轉錄體(transcripts),隨著時間先後表現在紋狀體組織中。 Nolz-1在時間及空間上動態的表現情形,暗示它可能參與在調控紋狀體神經細胞的特異性發育。 為了進一步研究Nolz-1在胚胎發育過程中的生理功能,過去一年,我們開始著手進行建立Nolz-1基因剔除與加強型綠螢光(eGFP)報告基因嵌入的Nolz-1eGFP雙功能基因剔除小鼠。 同時進行兩種構築Nolz-1基因剔除標地載體(Nolz-1eGFP targeting vectors)的策略。 一種是直接嵌入報告基因以製造Nolz-1-eGFP融合蛋白質; 另一種是嵌入IRES-eGFP,利用IRES序列調控報告基因的轉譯,以順利的表現加強型綠螢光蛋白質。 將這些構築好的標地載體轉染到HEK293T以及P19細胞株中,都成功的偵測到加強型綠螢光基因的表現,證明它們確實能如預期的啟動此報告基因的表現。 這些構築製備好的標地載體,將會進一步送到胚胎幹細胞中以得到具性腺傳承(germ-line transmission)能力的基因剔除小鼠。 Nolz-1eGFP基因剔除小鼠品系的建構,不但能幫助我們了解建立功能性紋狀體的分子機制,更有助於早期神經系統與胚胎組織器官,包括眼板、鰓弓、上下肢芽軸系等構造,發育機制上的相關研究。
Recently, we have identified a novel murine gene, nocA like zinc-finger gene-1 (Nolz-1), a C2H2 zinc-finger gene belonging to the nocA/elB/tlp-1 family. The nuclear localization of FLAG-tagged Nolz-1 suggests that it may function as a transcription regulator. Nolz-1 mRNA is expressed as early as 2~3 somite stage of mouse embryos with higher levels in the headfold structure. During somitogenesis and gastrulation stages, Nolz-1 mRNA is detected in many structures including somites, olfactory/nasal primodium, otic and lens placodes, branchial arches (BAs), limb buds, as well as the neural tube. In the developing brain regions, Nolz-1 is expressed in the prosencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon, the presumptive forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain, respectively. Notably, at early stage of limb buds formation, expression of Nolz-1 is preferentially in the posterior mesenchyme, which is the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA). This polarized expression pattern is also observed in the first and second BAs. In the E20 rat embryos, expression of Nolz-1 is widely distributed in different tissues with high levels in the brain, lung and kidney, but not in the liver. In the telencephalon, Nolz-1 is preferentially highly expressed in the developing lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE, the primordium of striatum), as early as the striatal anlage begin to form at E13 of rat, but not in the adjacent structures of the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE, the primordium of globus pallidus) and the cortical primordium. Moreover, Nolz-1 is highly expressed in the subventricular zone and moderately in the mantle zone, but is absent in the ventricular zone. The co-localization with Tuj-1, Isl-1 and DARPP32 suggest that Nolz-1 is a developmental marker for differentiating striatal progenitors. A time course study showed that there are three different Nolz-1 transcript isoforms dynamic expressing in developing striatum, and expression of Nolz-1 is down-regulated postnatally. The preferential and dynamic expression patterns suggest that Nolz-1 may be involved in specification of neuronal development in the striatum. To further elucidate the physiological functions of Nolz-1, we are currently in the process of generating eGFP knock-in/Nolz-1 knock-out mice. Two strategies for Nolz-1eGFP targeting vectors construction were performed to generate the IRES-eGFP and Nolz-1-eGFP fusion constructs. Overexpression studies of these constructed Nolz-1eGFP targeting vectors in HEK293T and P19 cells demonstrate that all of these constructs can express the reporter eGFP, successfully, in the transfected cells. These targeting vectors are now ready for introducing into the ES cells and germ-line transmission. The generation of Nolz-1eGFP mutant mice should help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying building up the functional striatum and other tissues organs, i.e. eyes, BAs, limbs and hindbrain patterning in early developmental stages of embryo.
Alexandre C and Vincent JP. 2003. Requirements for transcriptional repression and activation by Engrailed in Drosophila embryos. Development 130:729-739.
Alifragis P, Liapi A and Parnavelas JG. 2004. Lhx6 regulates the migration of cortical interneurons from the ventral telencephalon but does not specify their GABA phenotype. J Neurosci 24:5643-5648.
Anderson KD and Reiner A. 1991. Immunohistochemical localization of DARPP-32 in striatal projection neurons and striatal interneurons: Implications for the localization of D1-R like dopamine receptors on different types of striatal neurons. Brain Res 568:235-243.
Anderson SA, Qiu M, Bulfone A, Eisenstat DD, Meneses J, Pedersen R. and Rubenstein JLR. 1997a. Mutations of the homeobox genes Dlx-1 and Dlx-2 disrupt the striatal subventricular zone and differentiation of late born striatal neurons. Neuron 19: 27-37.
Anderson SA, Eisenstat DD, Shi L and Rubenstein JL. 1997b. Interneuron migration from basal forebrain to neocortex: dependence on Dlx genes. Science 278:474-476.
Anderson SA, Marin O, Horn C, Jennings K. and Rubenstein JL. 2001. Distinct cortical migrations from the medial and lateral ganglionic eminences. Development 128: 353-363.
Andreazzoli M, Broccoli V and Dawid IB. 2001. Cloning and expression of noz1, a zebrafish zinc finger gene related to Drosophila nocA. Mech Dev 104:117-120.
Ashurst JL and Collins JE. 2003. Gene annotation: prediction and testing. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 4:69-88.
Bain G, Ray WJ, Yao M and Gottlieb DI. 1994. From embryonic carcinoma cells to neurons: the P19 pathway. BioEssays 16:343-348.
Bayer SA. 1984. Neurogenesis in the rat neostriatum. Int J Neurosci 2:163-175.
Begemann G and Meyer A. 2001. Hindbrain patterning revisited: timing and effects of retinoic acid signaling. BioEssays 23:981-986.
Blomhoff R, Green MH, Green JB, Berg T and Norum KR. 1991. Vitamin A metabolism: new perspectives on absorption, transport, and storage. Physiol Rev 71:951-990.
Blumberg B, Bolado JJ, Moreno TA, Kintner C, Evans RM and Papalopulu N. 1997. An essential role for retinoid signaling in anteroposterior neural patterning. Development 124:373-379.
Briscoe J and Ericson J. 2001. Specification of neuronal fates in the ventral neural tube. Curr Opin Neurobiol 11:43-49.
Campbell K. 2003. Dorsal-ventral patterning in the mammalian telencephalon. Curr Opin Neurobio 13:50-56.
Capdevila J and Belmonte JCI. 2001. Patterning mechanisms controlling vertebrate limb development. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 17:87–132.
Casarosa S, Fode C and Guillemot F. 1999. Mash1 regulates neurogenesis in the ventral telencephalon. Development 126:525-534.
Cheah PY, Meng YB, Yang X, Kimbrell D, Ashburner M and Chia W. 1994. The Drosophila l(2)35Ba/nocA gene encodes a putative Zn finger protein involved in the development of the embryonic brain and the adult ocellar structures. Mol Cell Biol 14:1487-1499.
Chi AL, Lim S, and Wang TC. 2004. Characterization of a CCAAT-enhancer element of trefoil factor family 2 (TFF2) promoter in MCF-7 cells. Peptides 25:839-847.
Dalvin S, Komatsuzaki K, Anselmo MA, Kling DE, Schnitzer JJ and Kinane TB. 2004. Retinoic acid decreases fetal lung mesenchymal cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Dev Growth Differ 46:275-282.
Depew MJ, Lufkin T and Rubenstein JL. 2002. Specification of jaw subdivisions by Dlx genes. Science 298:381-385.
Dobi A, Palkovits M, Ring MA, Eitel A, Palkovits CG, Lim F. and Agoston DV. 1997. Sample and probe: a novel approach for identifying development-specific cis-elements of the enkephalin gene. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 52:98-111.
Dorfman R, Glazer L, Weihe U, Wernet MF and Shilo BZ. 2002. Elbow and Noc define a family of zinc finger proteins controlling morphogenesis of specific tracheal branches. Development 129:3585-3596.
Eisenstat DD, Liu JK, Mione M, Zhong W, Yu G, Anderson SA, Ghattas I, Puelles L, Rubenstein JL. 1999. DLX-1, DLX-2, and DLX-5 expression define distinct stages of basal forebrain differentiation. J Comp Neurol 414:217-237.
Ericson J, Thor S, Edlund T, Jessell TM and Yamada T. 1992. Early stages of motor neuron differentiation revealed by expression of homeobox gene Islet-1. Science 256:1555-1560.
Fanarraga ML, Avila J and Zabala JC. 1999. Expression of unphosphorylated class III beta-tubulin isotype in neuroepithelial cells demonstrates neuroblast commitment and differentiation. Eur J Neurosci 11:516-527.
Ferland RJ, Cherry TJ, Preware PO, Morrisey EE, Walsh CA. 2003. Characterization of Foxp2 and Foxp1 mRNA and protein in the developing and mature brain. J Comp Neurol 460:266-79.
Fernandez AS, Pieau C, Reperant J, Boncinelli E and Wassef M. 1998. Expression of the Emx-1 and Dlx-1 homeobox genes define three molecularly distinct domains in the telencephalon of mouse, chick, turtle and frog embryos: implications for the evolution of telencephalic subdivisions in amniotes. Development 125:2099-2111.
Fernandez J, Yaman I, Sarnow P, Snider MD and Hatzoglou M. 2002. Regulation of internal ribosomal entry site-mediated translation by phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2 alpha. J Biol Chem 277:198-205.
Fisher SE, Lai CS and Monaco AP. 2003. Deciphering the genetic basis of speech and language. Annu Rev Neurosci 26:57-80.
Fode C, Ma Q, Casarosa S, Ang SL, Anderson DJ and Guillemot F. 2000. A role for neural determination genes in specifying the dorsoventral identity of telencephalic neurons. Genes Dev 14:67-80.
Furuta Y, Piston DW and Hogan BL. 1997. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) as regulators of dorsal forebrain development. Development 124:2203-2212.
Garel S, Marin F, Grosschedl R and Charnay P. 1999. Ebf1 controls early cell differentiation in the embryonic striatum. Development 126:5285-5294.
Gerfen CR. 1992. The neostriatal mosaic: multiple levels of compartmental organization in the basal ganglia. Annu Rev Neurosci 15:285-320.
Gibson TJ, Postma JPM, Brown R and Argos P. 1988. A model for the tertiary structure of the 28 residue DNA binding motif (zinc finger) common to many eukaryotic transcriptional regulatory proteins. Protein Eng 2:116-123.
Gillbert T. 2002. Vitamin A and kidney development. Nephrol Dial Transplant 17(Suppl 9):78-80.
Graybiel AM.1990. Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in the basal ganglia. TINS 7:244-254.
Graybiel AM.1995. Building action repertoires: memory and learning functions of the basal ganglia. Curr Opin Neurobiol 5:733-741.
Graybiel AM. 1997. The basal ganglia and cognitive pattern generators. Schizophr Bull 23:459-469.
Groenewegen HJ, van den Heuvel OA, Cath DC, Voorn P and Veltman DJ. 2003. Does an imbalance between the dorsal and ventral striatopallidal systems play a role in Tourette's syndrome? A neuronal circuit approach. Brain Suppl 1:S3-S14.
Grove EA, Tole S, Limon J, Yip L and Ragsdale CW. 1998. The hem of the embryonic cerebral cortex is defined by the expression of multiple Wnt genes and is compromised in Gli3-deficient mice. Development 125:2315-2325.
Guillemot F and Joyner A. 1993. Dynamic expression of the murine Achaete-Scute homologue Mash-1 in the developing nervous system. Mech Dev 42:171-185.
Gunhaga L, Jessell TM and Edlund T. 2000. Sonic hedgehog signaling at gastrula stages specifies ventral telencephalic cells in the chick embryo. Development 127:3283-3293.
Hallonet M, Hollemann T, Wehr R, Jenkins NA, Copeland NG, Pieler T and Gruss P. 1998. Vax1 is a novel homeobox-containing gene expressed in the developing anterior ventral forebrain. Development 125:2599-2610.
Hallonet M, Hollemann T, Pieler T and Gruss P. 1999. Vax1, a novel homeobox-containing gene, direct development of the basal forebrain and visual system. Gene & Development 13:3106-3114.
Hapgood JP, Riedemann J and Scherer SD. 2001. Regulation of gene expression by GC-rich DNA cis-elements. Cell Biology International 25:17–31
Hasson P, Muller B, Basler K and Paroush Z. 2001. Brinker requires to corepressors for maximal and versatile repression in Dpp signaling. EMBO J 20:5725-5736.
Hess MA and Douncan RF. 1996. Sequence and structure determinants of Drosophila Hsp70 mRNA translation: 5’-UTR secondary structure specifically inhibits heat shock protein mRNA translation. Nucleic Acid Res 24:2441-2449.
Hidalgo A. 1998. Growth and patterning from the engrailed interface. Int J Dev Biol 42:317-324.
Holcik M, Sonenberg N and Korneluk RG. 2000. Internal ribosome initiation of translation and the control of cell death. Trends Genet 16:469-473.
Hoyle J, Tang YP, Wiellette EL, Wardle FC and Sive. 2004. nlz gene family is required for hindbrain patterning in the Zebrafish. Dev Dyn 229:835-846.
Husson M, Enderlin V, Alfos S, Boucheron C, Pallet V and Higueret P. 2004. Expression of neurogranin and neuromodulin is affected in the striatum of vitamin A-deprived rats. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 123:7-17.
Jackson RJ, Howell MT, Kaminski A. 1990. The novel mechanism of initiation of picornavirus RNA translation. Trends Biochem Sci 15:477-483.
Jang SK, Pestova TV, Hellen CU, Witherell GW and Wimmer E. 1990. Cap-independent translation of picornavirus RNAs: structure and function of the internal ribosomal entry site. Enzyme 44:292-309.
Jessell TM. 2000. Neuronal specification in the spinal cord: inductive signals and transcriptional codes. Nat Rev Genet 1:20-29.
Jopling CL and Willis AE. 2001. N-myc translation is initiated via an internal ribosome entry segment that displays enhanced activity in neuronal cells. Oncogene 20:2664-2670.
Kawaguchi Y. 1993. Physiological, morphological, and histochemical characterization of three classes of interneurons in rat neostriatum. J Neurosci 13:4908-4923.
Kohtz JD, Lee HY, Gaiano N, Segal J, Ng E, Larson T, Baker DP, Garber EA, Williams KP and Fishell G. 2001. N-terminal fatty-acetylation of sonic hedgehog enhances the induction of rodent ventral forebrain neurons. Development 128:2351-2363.
Kolm PJ, Apekin V and Sive H. 1997. Xenopus hindbrain patterning requires retinoid signaling. Dev Biol 192:1-16.
Kuhn R and Schwenk F. 1997. Advances in gene targeting methods. Curr Opin Immunol 9:183-188.
Lai CS, Fisher SE, Hurst JA, Vargha-Khadem F and Monaco AP. 2001. A forhead-domain gene is mutated in severe speech and language disorder. Nature 413:519-523.
Lander ES et al. 2001. Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome. Nature 409:860-921.
Lee EC, Yu D, Martinez de Velasco J, Tessarollo L, Swing DA, Court DL, Jenkins NA and Copeland NG. 2001. A highly efficient Escherichia coli-bsaed chromosome engineering system adapted for recombinogenic targeting and subcloning of BAC DNA. Genomics 73:56-65.
Lee CJ and Irizarry K. 2003. Alternative splicing in the nervous system: an emerging source of diversity and regulation. Biol Psychiatry 54:771-776.
Leid M, Kastner P and Chambon P. 1992. Multiplicity generates diversity in the retinoic acid signaling pathways. TIBS 17:427-433.
Lewandoski M, Wassarman KM and Martin GR. 1997. Zp-3-Cre a transgenic mouse line for the activation or inactivation of loxP-flanked target genes specifically in the female germ line. Curr Biol 7:148-151.
Li, HY. And Sawchenko PE. 1998. Hypothalamic effector neurons and extended circuits activated in “neurogenic” stress: a comparison of footshock effects exerted acutely, chronically, and in animals with controlled glucocorticoid levels. J Comp Neurol 393:244-266.
Li H-C, Wanger E, McCaffery P, Smith D, Andreadis A and Drager U. 2000. A retinoic acid synthesizing enzyme in ventral retina and telencephalon of the embryonic mouse. Mech Dev 95:283-289.
Liao WL and Liu FC. 2000. Differential regulation of retinoid activity in different regions of the developing forebrain. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. Prog. #22.7.
Liao WL, Cammbon P and Liu FC. 2003. Retinoic acid receptor-mediated genetic control of pattern formation in the striatum of mammalian telencephalon. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. Prog. #560.3.
Linville A, Gumusaneli E, Chandraratna RA and Schilling TF. 2004. Independent roles for retinoic acid in segmentation and neuronal differentiation in the zebrafish hindbrain. Dev Biol 270:186-199.
Liu FC, Takahashi H, McKay RD and Graybiel AM. 1995. Dopaminergic regulation of transcription factor expression in organotypic cultures of developing striatum. J Neurosci 3:2367-2384.
Liu JK, Ghattas I, Liu S, Chen S and Rubenstein JL.1997. Dlx genes encode DNA-binding proteins that are expressed in an overlapping and sequential pattern during basal ganglia differentiation. Dev Dyn 210:498-512.
Lohnes D. 2003. The Cdx1 homeodomain protein: an integrator of posterior signaling in the miuse. BioEssay 25:971-980.
Lu HC, Revelli JP, Goering L, Thaller C and Eichele G. 1997. Retinoid signaling is required for the establishment of a ZPA and for the expression of Hoxb-8, a mediator of ZPA formation. Development 124:1643-1651.
Luo Q, Ma X, Wahl SM, Bieker JJ, Crossley M and Montaner LJ. 2004. Activation and repression of interleukin-12 p40 transcription by erythroid Kruppel-like factor in macrophages. J Biol Chem 279:18451-18456.
Lynch J and Desplan C. 2003. Evolution of development: beyond bicoid. Curr Biol 13:R557-559.
MacBury MW and Rogers BJ. 1982. Isolation of male embryonic carcinoma cells and their chromosome replication patterns. Dev Biol 89:503-508.
Magnuson DS, Morassutti DJ, McBurney MW and Marshall KC. 1995. Neurons derived from P19 embryonal carcinoma cells develop responses to excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Brain Res Dev Brain Res 90:141-150.
Majello B, De Luca P and Lania L. 1997. Sp3 is a bifunctional transcription regulator with modular independent activation and repression domains. J Biol Chem 272:4021-4026.
Marchand R and Lajoie L. 1986. Histogenesis of the striopallidal system in the rat. Neurogenesis of its neurons. Neuroscience 17:573-590.
Marill J, Idres N, Capron CC, Nguyen E and Chabot GG. 2003. Retinoic acid metabolism and mechanism of action: a review. Curr Drug Metab 4:1-10.
Marin M, Karis A, Visser P, Grosveld F and Philipsens S. 1997. Transcription factor Sp1 is essential for early embryonic development but dispensable for cell growth and differentiation. Cell 89:619–628.
Marin O, Anderson SA and Rubenstein JL. 2000. Origin and molecular specification of striatal interneurons. J Neurosci 20:6063-6076.
McCaffery P and Drager UC. 1994. High levels of a retinoic acid-generating dehydrogenase in the meso-telencepgalic dopamine system. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:7772-7776.
Meggio F and Pinna LA. 2003. One-thousand-and-one substrates of protein kinase CK2? FASEB J 17:349-368.
Meyer BI and Gruss P. 1993. Mouse Cdx-1 expression during gastrulation. Development 117:191-203
Mic FA, Molotkov A, Fan X, Cuenca AE and Duester G. 2000. RALDH3, a retinaldehyde dehydrogenase that generates retinoic acid, is expressed in the ventral retina, otic vesicle and olfactory pit during mouse development. Mech Dev 97:227-230.
Mollard R, Ghyselinck NB, Wendling O, Chambon P, Mark M. 2000a. Stage-dependent responses of the developing lung to retinoic acid signaling. Int J Dev Biol 44:457-462.
Mollard R, Viville S, Ward SJ, Decimo D, Chambon P and Dolle P. 2000b. Tissue-specific expression of retinoic acid receptor isoform transcripts in the mouse embryo. Mech Deve 94:223-232.
Monuki ES, Porter FD and Walsh CA. 2001. Patterning of the dorsal telencephalon and cerebral cortex by a roof plate-Lhx2 pathway. Neuron 32:591-604.
Morassutti DJ, Staines WA, Magnuson DS, Marshall KC and McBurney MW. 1994. Murine embryonal carcinoma-derived neurons survive and mature following transplantation into adult rat striatum. Neuroscience 58:753-763.
Mount S.M. 1982. A catalogue of splice junction sequence. Nucleic Acids Res 10:459-471.
Napoli JL. 1996. Retinoic acid biosythesis and metabolism. FASEB J 10:993-1001.
Niederreither K, Vermot J, Schuhbaur B, Chambon P and Dolle P. 2000. Retinoic acid synthesis and hindbrain patterning in the mouse embryo. Development 127:75-85.
Niswander L. 2003. Pattern formation: old models out on a limb. Nat Rev Genet 4:133-143.
Obeso JA, Rodriguez-Oroz MC, Rodriguez M, Arbizu J and Gimenez-Amaya JM. 2002. The basal ganglia and disorders of movement: pathophysiological mechanisms. News Physiol Sci 17:51-55.
O’Gorman S, Dagenais NA, Qian M and Marchuk Y. 1997. Protamine-Cre recombinase transgenes efficieftly recombine target sequence in the male germ line of mice, but not in embryonic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:14601-14608.
Ogura T, Alvarez IS, Vogel A, Rodriguez C, Evans RM and Izpisua Belmonte JC. 1996. Evidence that Shh cooperates with a retinoic acid inducible co-factor to establish ZPA-like activity. Development 122:537-542.
Olive MF and Messing RO. 2004. Protein kinase C isozymes and addiction. Mol Neurobiol 29:139-154.
Olsson M, Bjorklund A and Campbell K. 1998. Early specification of striatal projection neurons and interneuronal subtypes in the lateral and medial ganglionic eminence. Neuroscience 84:867-876.
O'Shea KS. 2002. Neural differentiation of embryonic stem cells. Methods Mol Biol 198:3-14.
Pfaff SL, Mendelsohn M, Stewart CL, Edlund T and Jessell TM. 1996. Requirement for LIM homeobox gene Isl1 in motor neuron generation reveals a motor neuron-dependent step in interneuron differentiation. Cell 84:309-320.
Riddle RD, Johnson RL, Laufer E and Tabin C. 1993. Sonic hedgehog mediates the polarizing activity of the ZPA. Cell 75:1401-1416.
Pierani A, Brenner-Morton S, Chiang C and Jessel TM. 1999. A sonic hedgehog-independent, retinoid-activation pathway of Neurogenesis in the ventral spinal cord. Cell 97:903-915.
Poh A, Karunaratne A, Kolle G, Huang N, Smith E, Starkey J, Wen D, Wilson I, Yamada T and Hargrave M. 2002. Patterning of the vertebrate ventral spinal cord. Int J Dev Biol 46:597-608.
Pyronnet S, Pradayrol L and Sonenberg N. 2000. A cell cycle-dependent internal ribosome entry site. Mol Cell 5:607-616.
Qiu M, Bulfone A, Martinez S, Meneses JJ, Shimamura K, Pedersen RA and Rubenstein JL. 1995. Null mutation of Dlx-2 results in abnormal morphogenesis of proximal first and second branchial arch derivatives and abnormal differentiation in the forebrain. Genes Dev 9:2523-2538.
Qiu M, Bulfone A, Ghattas I, Meneses JJ, Christensen L, Sharpe PT, Presley R, Pedersen RA and Rubenstein JL. 1997. Role of the Dlx homeobox genes in proximodistal patterning of the branchial arches: mutations of Dlx-1, Dlx-2, and Dlx-1 and -2 alter morphogenesis of proximal skeletal and soft tissue structures derived from the first and second arches. Dev Biol 185:165-184.
Rallu M, Machold R, Gaiano N, Corbin JG McMahon AP, and Fishell. 2002. Dorsalventral patterning is established in the telencephalon of mutanats lacking both Gli3 and hedgehog signaling. Development 129:4963-4974.
Rees S, Coote J, Stables J, Goodson S, Harris S and Lee MG. 1996. Bicistronic vector for the creation of stable mammalian cell lines that predisposes all antibiotic-resistant cells to express recombinant protein. Biotechniques 20:102-104, 106 and 108-110.
Reynolds JN, Prasad A, Gillespie LL and Paterno GD. 1996. Developmental expression of functional GABAA receptors containing the gamma 2 subunit in neurons derived from embryonal carcinoma (P19) cells. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 35:11-18.
Rijnbrand RCA, Abbink TEM and Haasnoot PCJ. 1996. The influence of AUG in the Hepatitis C virus 5’ nontranslated region on translation and mapping of the translation initiation window. Virology 226:47-56.
The RIKEN genome exploration research group phase II team and the FANTOM consortium. 2001. Functional annotation of a full-length mouse cDNA collection. Nature 409:685-690.
Roy NM and Sagerstrom CG. 2004. An early Fgf signal required for gene expression in the zebrafish hindbrain primordium. Brain Res Dev Brain Res 148:27-42.
Rubenstein JL and Beachy PA. 1998. Patterning of the embryonic forebrain. Curr Opin Neurobiol 8: 18-26.
Ruberte E, Friederich V, Chambon P and Morriss-Kay G. 1993. Retinoic acid receptors and cellular retinoid binding proteins. III. Their differential transcripts distribution during mouse nervous system development. Development 118: 267-282.
Rudinicki MA and McBurney MW. 1987. Cell culture methods and induction of differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cell lines. In Teratocarcinomas and Embryonic Stem Cells, a Practical Approach. pp.19-50. Oxford:IRL Press.
Runko AP and Sagerstrom CG. 2003. Nlz belong to a family of zinc-finger-containing repressors and controls a segmental gene expression in the zebrafish hindbrain. Dev Biol 262:254-267.
Runko AP and Sagerstrom CG. 2004. Isolation of nlz2 and characterization of essential domains in Nlz family proteins. J Neurosci 279:11917-11925.
Sagerstrom CG, Kao BA, Lane ME and Sive H. 2001. Isolation and characterization of posteriorly restricted genes in the zebrafish gastrula. Dev Dyn 220:402-408
Saito T and Nakatsuji N. 2001. Efficient gene transfer into the embryonic mouse brain using in vivo electroporation. Dev Biol 240:237-246.
Sauer B.1998. Inducible gene targeting in mice using the Cre/lox system. Method 14:381-392.
Saueressig H, Burrill J and Goulding M. 1999. Engrailed-1 and netrin-1 regulate axon pathfinding by association interneurons that project to motor neurons. Development 126:4201-4212.
Schambra UB, Duncan GE, Breese GR, Fornaretto MG, Fremeau RT. 1994. Ontogeny of D1A and D2 dopamine receptor subtypes in rat brain using in situ hybridization and receptor binding. Neuroscience 62:65-85.
Schneider RA, Hu D, Rubenstein JLR, Maden M and Helms JA. 2001. Local retinoid signaling coordinates forebrain and facial morphogenesis by mataining FGF8 and SHH. Development 128:2755-2767.
Schuurmans C and Guillemont F. 2002. Molecular mechanisms underlying cell fate specification in the developing telencephalon. Curr Opin Neurobiol 12:26-34.
Schambra UB, Duncan GE, Breese GR, Fornaretto MG, Fremeau RT. 1994. Ontogeny of D1A and D2 dopamine receptor subtypes in rat brain using in situ hybridization and receptor binding. Neuroscience 62:65-85.
Shimamura K, Hartigan DJ, Martinez S, Puelles L and Rubenstein JL.1995. Longitudinal organization of the anterior neural plate and neural tube. Development 121:3923-3933.
Shimamura K and Rubenstein JL. 1997. Inductive interactions direct early regionalization of the mouse forebrain. Development 124:2709-2718.
Smith D, Wagner E, Koul O, McCaffery P and Drager UC. 2001. Retinoic acid synthesis for the developing telencephalon. Cereb Cortex 11:894-905.
Stenman J, Toresson H and Campbell K. 2003. Identification of two distinct progenitor populations in the lateral ganglionic eminence: implication for striatal and olfactory bulb neurogenesis. J Neurosci 23:167-174.
Stoneley M, Subkhankulova T, Le Quesne JP, Coldwell MJ, Jopling CL, Belsham GJ and Willis AE. 2000. Analysis of the c-myc IRES; a potential role for cell-type specific trans-acting factors and the nuclear compartment. Nucleic Acids Res 28:687-694.
Stoneley M and Willis AE. 2004. Cellular internal ribosome entry segments: structures, trans-acting factors and regulation of gene expression. Oncogene 23:3200-3201.
Stoykova A, Treichel D, Hallonet M, Gruss P. 2000. Pax6 modulates the dorsoventral patterning of the mammalian telencephalon. J Neurosci 20:8042-8050.
Stunnenberg HG. 1993. Mechanisms of transactivation by retinoic acid receptors. BioEssays 15:309-315.
Sussel L, Marin O, Kimura S and Rubenstein JL. 1999. Loss of Nkx2.1 homeobox gene function results in a ventral to dorsal molecular respecification within the basal telencephalon: evidence for a transformation of the pallidum into the striatum. Development 126:3359-3370.
Svenningsson P, Nishi A, Fisone G, Girault JA, Nairn AC and Greengard P. 2004. DARPP-32: an integrator of neurotransmission. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 44:269-296.
Takahashi K, Liu FC, Hirokawa K and Takahashi H. 2003. Expression of Foxp2, a gene involved in speech and language, in the developing and adult striatum. J Neurosci Res 73:61-72.
Tamura S, Morikawa Y, Iwanishi H, Hisaoka T and Senba E. 2004. Foxp1 gene expression in projection neurons of the mouse striatum. Neuroscience 124:261-267.
Thiesen HJ and Bach C. 1993. DNA recognition of C2H2 zinc-finger proteins. Evidence for a zinc-finger-specific DNA recognition code. Ann N Y Acad Sci 684:246-249.
Tickle, C., Alberts, B., Wolpert, L. and Lee, J. 1982. Local application of retinoic acid to the limb bud mimics the action of the polarizing region. Nature 296:554-566.
Toresson H, Mata de Urquiza A, Fagerstrom C, Perlmann T and Campbell K. 1999. Retinoids are produced by glia in the lateral ganglionic eminence and regulate striatal neuron differentiation. Development 126:1317-1326.
Toresson H, Potter SS and Campbell K. 2000. Genetic control of dorsal-ventral identity in the telencephalon: opposing roles for Pax6 and Gsh2. Development 127:4361-4371.
Tsai T.F., Chen K.S., Weber J.S., Justice M.J and Beaudet A.L. 2002. Evidence for translational regulation of the imprinted Snurf-Snrpn locus in mice. Human Molecular Genetics 11:1659-1668.
Tseng AS and Hariharan IK. 2002. An overexpression screen in Drosophila for genes that restrict growth or cell-cycle progression in the developing eye. Genetics 162:229-243.
van der Wees J, Schilthuis JG, Koster CH, Diesveld-Schipper H, Folkers GE, et al., van der Saag PT, Dawson MI, Shudo K, van der Burg B and Durston AJ. 1998. Inhibition of retinoic acid receptor-mediated signaling alters positional identity in the developing hindbrain. Development 125:545-556.
Wall NA and Hogan BL. 1995. Expression of bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4), bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7), fibroblast growth factor-8 (FGF-8) and sonic hedgehog (SHH) during branchial arch development in the chick. Mech Dev 53:383-392.
Wang HF. 1999a. Coordinated regulation of striatum-enriched molecules by retinoic acid in the developing striatum. Master thesis.
Wang TW. 1999b. Developmental regulation of the striatum-enriched gene, DARPP-32, by retinoic acid in striatal cell culture. Master thesis.
Wang HF and Liu FC. 2001. Developmental restriction of the LIM homeodomain transcription factor Islet-1 expression to cholinergic neurons in the rat striatum. Neuroscience 103:999-1016.
Wichterle H, Garcia-Verdugo JM, Herrera DG and Alvarez-Buylla A. 1999. Young neurons from medial ganglionic eminence disperse in adult and embryonic brain. Nat Neurosci 2:461-466.
Wichterle H, Turnbull DH, Nery S, Fishell G and Alvarez-Buylla A. 2001. In utero fate mapping reveals distinct migratory pathways and fates of neurons born in the mammalian basal forebrain. Development 128:3759-3771.
Wilson SW and Rubenstein JL. 2000. Induction and dorsalventral patterning of the telencephalon. Neuron 28:641-651.
Woolf E, Xiao C, Fainaru O, Lotem J, Rosen D, Negreanu V, Bernstein Y, Goldenberg D, Brenner O, Berke G, Levanon D and Groner Y. 2003. Runx3 and Runx1 are required for CD8 T cell development during thymopoiesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:7731-7736.
Yan YT, Stein SM, Ding J, Shen MM and Abate-Shen C. 2000. A novel PF/PN motif inhibits nuclear localization and DNA binding activity of the ESX1 homeoprotein. Mol Cell Biol 20:661-671.
Yau HJ, Wang HF, Lai C and Liu FC. 2003. Neural development of the neuregulin receptor ErbB4 in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus: preferential expression by interneurons tangentially migrating from the ganglionic eminences. Cereb Cortex 13:252-264.
Yoda H, Momoi A, Esguerra CV, Meyer D, Driever W, Kondoh H and Furutani-Seiki M. 2003. An expression pattern screen for genes involved in the induction of the posterior nervous system of zebrafish. Differentiation 71:152-162.
Yoshida M, Suda Y, Matsuo I, Miyamoto N, Takeda N, Kuratani S and Aizawa S. 1997. Emx1 and Emx2 functions in development of dorsal telencephalon. Development 124:101-111.
Yun K, Potter S and Rubenstein JLR. 2001. Gsh2 and Pax6 play complementary roles in dorsaventral patterning of the mammalian telencephalon. Deveolpment 128:193-205.
Yun K, Garel S, Fischman S, Rubenstein JL. 2003. Patterning of the lateral ganglionic eminence by the Gsh1 and Gsh2 homeobox genes regulates striatal and olfactory bulb histogenesis and the growth of axons through the basal ganglia. J Comp Neurol 461:151-165.
Zetterstrom RH, Lindqvist E, Mata de Urquiza A, Tomac A, Eriksson U, Perlmann T, Olson L. 1999. Role of retinoids in the CNS: differential expression of retinoid binding proteins and receptors and evidence for presence of retinoic acid. Eur J Neurosci 11:407-416.
Zhang H, Levine M and Ashe HL. 2001. Brinker is a sequence-specific transcriptional repressor in the Drosophila embryo. Gene Dev 15:261-266.
Zhang F, Nakanishi G, Kurebayashi S, Yoshino K, Perantoni A, Kim YS and Jetten AM. 2002. Characterization of Glis2, a novel gene encoding a Gli-related, Kruppel-like transcription factor with transactivation and repressor functions. Roles in kidney development and neurogenesis. J Biol Chem 77:10139-10149.
Zhao X, Yang Y, Fitch DHA and Herman MA. 2002. TLP-1 is an saymmetric cell fate determinant that responds to Wnt signals and controls male tail tip morphogenesis in C. elegans. Development 129:1497-1508.
Zhao Y, Marin O, Hermesz E, Powell A, Flames N, Palkovits M, Rubenstein JL and Westphal H. 2003. The LIM-homeobox gene Lhx8 is required for the development of many cholinergic neurons in the mouse forebrain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:9005-9010.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊