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研究生:林志鴻
研究生(外文):Chin-Hung Lin
論文名稱:異氰酸鹽類採樣器之採樣效果比較研究
論文名稱(外文):Comparison of sampling effectiveness for different isocyanates sampler
指導教授:陳美蓮陳美蓮引用關係毛義方毛義方引用關係
指導教授(外文):Mei-Lien ChenI-Fang Mao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立陽明大學
系所名稱:環境衛生研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:129
中文關鍵詞:異氰酸鹽類包覆型濾紙採樣器兩片式雙層濾紙採樣匣三片式雙層濾紙採樣匣
外文關鍵詞:isocyanatesclose-face filter cassette2-piece filter cassette3-piece filter cassette
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摘□要
本研究分成兩階段來探討不同採樣器對異氰酸鹽的採樣效果:第一階段是以標準氣體產生器產生固定濃度的2,4-TDI、2,6-TDI及HDI,以包覆型濾紙採樣匣(收集總二異氰酸鹽)、兩片式雙層濾紙採樣匣及三片式雙層濾紙採樣匣(同時收集蒸氣與氣膠二異氰酸鹽)同時進行採樣分析,目的在比較三種採樣器在不同採樣條件(流量、環境溼度與採樣時間)下的採樣結果之影響。第二階段是選取三家汽車修理廠進行現場採樣,以包覆型濾紙採樣匣(收集總異氰酸鹽)以及兩片式雙層濾紙採樣匣(同犰炮偵]氣與氣膠異氰酸鹽)於汽車修理廠的噴漆與研磨作業區域進行異氰酸鹽類(2,4-TDI、2,6-TDI、MDI、HDI與HDI-BT )的採樣結果比較。進而針對異氰酸鹽之採樣,提出較佳的採樣裝置之建議。本研究在標準氣體捕集效率之比較所用的裱敷劑是1-(2-pyridyl)piperazine (1,2-PP),汽車廠現場空氣採樣所用的裱敷劑則是9-(N-methylaminomethyl)anthracene (MAMA),經採樣衍生後,以HPLC/螢光偵測器進行分析。
在標準氣體捕集效率之比較方面,三種採樣器在較佳採樣條件:採樣流量1.0L/min,環境濕度25%,採樣時間15分鐘之下,發現使用包覆型濾紙採樣匣進行二異氰酸鹽的採樣時所捕集到的單純蒸氣與總2,6-TDI、2,4-TDI和HDI的濃度均為最高,雙層濾紙採樣器次之,三片式採樣匣最低。
若以採樣流量1.0L/min,環境濕度25%,採樣時間15分鐘的總異氰酸鹽採樣結果為基準,當採樣流量增加為2.0L/min時,則發現三種採樣器與其結果相比較有高達60%以上的損失;當環境濕度增加為80%時則有高達80%的損失;而當採樣時間加至60斂螳氶A發現也有高達80%的損失。因此由上述結果可知,在高流量(2.0L/min)、高濕度(80%)與較長的採樣時間(60分鐘)下,三種採樣器皆有高達60%以上的損失。
在相同的條件(採樣流量1L/min、環境濕度25%、採樣時間15分鐘)下,比較兩片式雙層濾紙採樣匣及三片式雙層濾紙採樣匣的捕集結果,發現雙層濾紙採樣匣所採集到蒸氣與氣膠濃度皆較三片式雙層濾紙採樣匣為高。且發現當採樣流量從0.5L/min增加為2.0L/min,環境濕度從25%增為80%、採樣時間由15分鐘增為60分鐘時,兩種採樣器的氣膠濃度減小比例皆在在99%以上。
至於三家汽車修理廠的現場採樣方面,若以包覆型濾紙採樣匣的採樣結果來看,各異氰酸鹽類在噴漆作業區域的最高濃度在HDI為9.72μg/m3、2,6-TDI為4.09μg/m3、2,4-TDI為55.76μg/m3、MDI為12.02μg/m3,以上最高濃度均出現在A廠且HDI-BT為31.20μg/m3(B廠);研磨作業區域在HDI為4.81μg/m3、2,6-TDI為2.01μg/m3、2,4-TDI為6.17μg/m3、MDI為5.78μg/m3且HDI-BT為11.32μg/m3,最高濃度均出現在A廠。
現場捕集效果之比較,則無論在噴漆與研磨作業區域,若以包覆型濾紙採樣匣所捕集的濃度為基準,則兩片式雙層濾紙採樣匣在A、B、C三廠各異氰酸鹽的捕集率皆在50%以下。此外,不論是噴漆或研磨作業區域HDI、2,6-TDI與2,4-TDI皆是以蒸氣為主,而MDI與HDI-BT 則是以氣膠為主。
因此,就總異氰酸鹽的濃度而言,無論是以標準氣體進行捕集效率之比較或是在汽車修理廠進行現場採樣,皆是以包覆型濾紙採樣匣所捕集的濃度為最高,但是此採樣器的缺點是無法將蒸氣與氣膠的濃度分開。雖然,兩片式雙層濾紙採樣匣及三片式雙層濾紙採樣匣能有效的將蒸氣與氣膠的濃度分開,但在高流量(2.0L/min)、高濕度(80%)與較長的採樣時間(60分鐘)下,氣膠的濃度會被明顯的低估,故在作業環境現場量測時,建議使用包覆型濾紙採樣匣採集總異氰酸鹽類並搭配兩片式雙層濾紙採樣匣來捕集蒸氣與氣膠的濃度,並將採樣時間儘量縮短,以反應作業現場實際濃度,作為異氫酸鹽類相關作業場所危害控制之參考。
Abstract
This study aimed to analyze sampling efficiencies of isocynates using three different samplers – close-face, 2-piece and 3-piece filter cassettes. Whether sampling conditions affect sampling efficiencies of those three samplers were performed, including flow rate, moisture and sampling time. The 2,4-TDI, 2,6-TDI and HDI were produced by standard gas generator and the filters were coated by 1-(2-pyridyl)piperazine (1,2-PP). Then sampling was performed in painting and grinding district in car repair factories. 2,4-TDI, 2,6-TDI, MDI, HDI and HDI-BT were collected by using close-face and 2-piece filter cassettes, which loaded glass-fiber fibers and fibers coated by 9-(N-methylaminomethyl)anthracene (MAMA). After derivatization, samples were analyzed by HPLC with fluorescence detector.
This investigation found the optimal sampling condition of all types of samplers was as follow: sampling flow rate was 1.0 L/min; moisture was 25%, and sampling time was 15 min. Close-face filter cassette performed the optimal efficiency of collecting 2,4-TDI, 2,6-TDI and HDI both in aerosol and vapor type and, followed by 2-piece, the 3-piece filter cassette was the worst. The higher flow rate, moisture and longer sampling time would decrease the collection of target analytes.
Field sampling in car repair factories showed the efficiency of close-face filter cassette was better than that of the others. The highest concentrations of HDI, 2,4-TDI, 2,6-TDI and MDI in painting district were 9.72 μg m-3, 55.76 μg m-3, 4.09 μg m-3 and 12.02 μg m-3, respectively. These were all appearing in factory A. But the highest concentration of HDI-BT existed in factory B which was as 31.20 μg m-3. In grinding district, the highest concentrations of HDI, 2,4-TDI, 2,6-TDI, MDI and HDI-BT were 4.81μg m-3, 6.17μg m-3, 2.01μg m-3, 5.78μg m-3 and 11.32μg m-3. HDI, 2,4-TDI and 2,6-TDI mainly existed as vapor type both in two operating districts and MDI and HDI-BT were predominantly in aerosol type.
This study confirmed that close-face filter cassette performed the best capture capability, although it could not separate vapor and aerosol type of isocynates. 2-piece and 3-piece filter cassettes could separate vapor and aerosol isocynates, but they would greatly underestimate the aerosol isocynates at high flow rate (2.0 L/min), high moisture (80%) and long sampling time (60 min). This investigation suggested utilizing the close-face filter cassette to determine the total isocynates and the 2-piece filter cassette was applied to measure the vapor and aerosol isocynates in working field. The short sampling time was necessary to reflect the real concentration.
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