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研究生:吳木興
研究生(外文):Mu-Hsing Wu
論文名稱:果農有機磷農藥暴露之尿中代謝物生物偵測研究
論文名稱(外文):Biomonitoring of urinary organophosphate metabolites for pesticide sprayer
指導教授:陳美蓮陳美蓮引用關係毛義方毛義方引用關係
指導教授(外文):Mei-Lien ChenI-Fang Mao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立陽明大學
系所名稱:環境衛生研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:有機磷農藥二烷基磷酸鹽生物偵測尿液果農
外文關鍵詞:organophosphorus pesticidesdialkyl phosphatebiomonitorurinepesticide sprayer
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有機磷農藥廣泛的使用於農作物、住家或商業用途,此類會經由抑制乙醯膽鹼酯酶的活性引起神經系統疾病。爲比較果農與一般族群有機磷農藥代謝物濃度之差異,和果農噴藥前後的有機磷農藥代謝物之濃度變化情形,以及探討果農農藥暴露濃度與體內代謝物之關係,本研究先建立六種有機磷代謝物DAP同時測定之GC/MS分析條件,再進行果農噴藥期間之空氣及尿液採樣與偵測不同族群尿液中有機磷之代謝物-二烷基磷酸鹽(dialkyl phosphate;DAP)濃度。
本研究使用OVS-2採樣管進行果農農藥暴露之空氣採樣,共採得24個空氣樣本;生物偵測部分,則於果農噴藥前後收集其尿液樣本,並以果農家人及一般民眾作為對照組,對照組只收集早上尿液樣本,合計採得尿液樣本數共117個,經去除濃度太濃或太稀之尿液樣本後,實際統計分析的尿液樣本數為91個。
研究結果顯示,噴藥後果農尿液中平均dimethyl alkylphosphate (DMAP)和diethyl alkylphosphate (DEAP)濃度顯著高於噴藥前,且DMAP和DEAP在噴藥後2-4小時內會達到最高濃度。
在各族群之二烷基磷酸鹽濃度比較分析中發現,在去除2個極端值的學生尿液樣本之後,DMAP濃度在果農、果農家人、公務員和學生分別為272.15 ± 212.76、290.76 ± 223.67、204.47 ± 234.20和143.03 ± 208.25 nmol/L;DEAP濃度分別為104.09 ± 53.48、98.17 ± 63.92、23.20 ± 49.63和79.78 ± 67.85 nmol/L;DAP濃度分別為376.24 ± 229.21、288.92 ± 213.36 、227.68 ± 237.84 和222.81 ± 204.89 nmol/L。以平均值來看,DMAP以果農家人最高,DEAP和DAP以果農最高。果農之DEAP濃度顯著高於公務員且果農之DAP濃度顯著高於學生,若以濃度分布的百分位來看,則第50百分位濃度均以果農為最高。值得注意的是果農家中兒童之尿液DAP濃度與果農差不多,且比一般族群偏高。
本研究發現,各族群之受測者皆可檢出二烷基磷酸鹽代謝物,且部分代謝物之濃度偏高,顯示無論哪一個族群都普遍暴露到有機磷農藥,暴露來源可能為環境衛生用藥或蔬菜農藥殘留;至於果農及其家人平均值偏高的原因,可能來自額外的噴藥暴露,另外,本研究認為,農村用藥造成孩童的二烷基磷酸鹽濃度偏高的事實不容忽視,本研究已建立有機磷代謝物方法且提供國人有機磷暴露情形之初步資料。有利於未來我國人尿中二烷基磷酸鹽代謝物濃度之長期監測系統之建立。
Organophosphorus pesticides are widely used in agriculturial, housing, or commercial purposes. It is known that these pesticides would cause neurons system disease through activating acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitor. Our study aims to measure the organophosphorus pesticides exposure level among general population and pesticide sprayer while spraying, and the relationship of external exposure level and internal metabolic concentration. We established the coincident condition for GC/MS analysis of 6 classes of organophosphorus metabolites, DAP, and followed with detecting the urinary level of dialkyl phosphate (DAP), organophosphorus pesticides metabolite, as the biomoniter marker.
We used OVS-2 sampler to collect the ambient pesticides exposure of pesticide sprayers, and 24 samples were obtained. In biomonitoring, we collected pesticide sprayers’ urine before and after they sprayed. We collected urine in early morning of their family and general population as control group. The total of 117 samples was obtained, and 91 samples were analyzed after adjusted by urinary creatinine.
The results showed the average levels of dimethyl alkylphosphate (DMAP) and diethtyl alkylphosphate (DEAP) at post-spraying was significantly higher than it at pre-spraying. The highest level of DMAP and DEAP was reached between 2 to 4 hours after spraying.
The results of comparing DAP levels among groups, after eliminating 2 outliners of student group, showed that DMAP concentrations were 272.15 ± 212.76, 290.76 ± 223.67, 204.47 ± 234.20, and 143.03 ± 208.25 nmol/L for pesticide sprayers, growers’ families, officials, and students, respectively. DEAP concentrations were 104.09 ± 53.48, 98.17 ± 63.92, 23.20 ± 49. 63. and 79.78 ± 67.85 nmol/L. DAP levels were 376.24 ± 229.21, 288.92 ± 213.36, 227.68 ± 237.84, and 222.81 ± 204.89 nmol/L. In summary, the highest DMAP average level was detected among pesticide sprayers’ families, and pesticide sprayers had the highest average levels of DEAP and DAP. DEAP level of pesticide sprayers was significantly higher than it of officials (p<0.001), and DAP level of pesticide sprayers was also significantly higher than it of students. Pesticide sprayers also had the highest 50th percentile level of concentration distribution among groups. It should be noted that the DAP level of farmers’ children is similar to pesticide sprayers, and higher than of general population.
Our study showed that DAP metabolites are detectable in all studied subjects, and the levels in part of DAP metabolites tended toward high. It suggests that organophosphorus pesticides exposure is universal, and the exposure sources might be from environmental hygiene medicines or vegetable pesticide remnant. Pesticides spraying could explain the situation of higher DAP level among pesticide sprayers and their families. Moreover, our results reveal that pesticide exposure causes to higher detectable DAP level in children, and it should be more aware. Our study establishes the method for organophosphorus pesticides metabolite analysis, and offers a preliminary data of organophosphorus pesticide exposure situation. It will help to set up a long term biomonitory system of urinary DAP level in Taiwaness.
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