跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(35.174.62.102) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/25 03:57
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:林素華
研究生(外文):Su-Hua Lin
論文名稱:身體活動訓練課程對智能障礙學齡兒童之健康體適能及相關表現成效探討
論文名稱(外文):Effectiveness of a Physical Activity Intervention Program on Health-Related Physical Fitness and Other Related Outcomes inSchoolchildren with Mental Retardation
指導教授:李淑貞李淑貞引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shwn-Jen Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立陽明大學
系所名稱:物理治療研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:復健醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:80
中文關鍵詞:身體活動健康體適能智能障礙兒童
外文關鍵詞:Physical activityHealth-related fitnessMental retardationChildren
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:61
  • 點閱點閱:1336
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:340
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:27
背景與目的:智能障礙者的健康體適能較一般人為差,同時也有較一般人為高的健康風險。智能障礙者多處於靜態生活型態,身體活動量低;他們若有充足的身體活動量,不僅可避免因長期不活動的生活型態日後可能誘發的慢性疾病的發生,同時也可改善健康體適能表現。過去缺乏對於智能障礙學齡兒童體能訓練的研究;但一些文獻強調對身心障礙兒童健康體適能早期介入的重要性。健康體適能的改變決不能單憑短時間結構化體能訓練來達成,更需將身體活動訓練融入日常生活。對於學齡兒童而言,即是將健康體適能訓練課程,融入原本學校課堂和下課活動。本研究目的為探討18週學校身體活動訓練課程對智能障礙學齡兒童的健康體適能之改善效果,並探討其對身體活動量和一學期病假天數的影響、以及調查教師對身體活動訓練課程之意見。方法:本研究採前後測量對照之實驗設計,並以學校為單位,將32 名7至12 歲之輕、中度的智能障礙兒童分至實驗與對照兩組,其中實驗組18名兒童接受強調結構化體能訓練、個別體能補強與在校活動環境修正三者並行的18週學校身體活動訓練課程;對照組14名兒童則維持參與原來的課程教學。本研究測量身體活動訓練課程介入前後2組受試兒童之健康體適能改變,包含測量身體組成之身體質量指數、重高指數、腰/臀圍和四處皮脂厚度等、心肺耐力之六分鐘行走、最大握力、一分鐘仰臥起坐和靜態仰臥起坐之肌力與肌耐力、以及坐姿體前彎柔軟度。本研究以三度空間加速度測試器於訓練課程的第2、9、18週測量2組受試兒童的身體活動量;以學生到校出席記錄計算2組受試兒童的一學期病假天數;並於介入後由實驗組教師填寫相關意見及滿意度問卷。本研究以控制實驗組與對照組受試兒童介入前健康體適能各參數表現之共變數分析檢定2組受試學生在實驗組歷經18週身體活動訓練課程介入後的各項健康體適能參數變化量是否有差異;以相依樣本雙因子重複測量變異數分析檢定2組受試兒童在身體活動訓練課程進行之第2、9、及18週的在校身體活動量是否有差異;以獨立t檢定分析2組受試兒童於一學期病假天數是否有差異;以及以描述型統計分析教師意見與滿意度。結果:本研究結果發現在18週身體活動訓練課程介入後,實驗組受試兒童的六分鐘行走距離與靜態仰臥起坐的介入前後改變量顯著大於對照組受試兒童(p<0.05)。實驗組受試兒童的在校身體活動量之組別與介入時間有顯著交互作用(p<0.05),且實驗組受試兒童之在校身體活動量隨著介入時間而明顯增加;對照組受試兒童之在校身體活動量則隨著介入時間有升降、無固定變化的趨勢。本研究兩組受試兒童在一學期的病假總天數無顯著差異。而實驗組教師意見及滿意度問卷方面得到多數正面的回饋與意見。結論:18週的學校身體活動訓練課程可以有效提升智能障礙學齡兒童的心肺耐力、軀幹腹肌耐力、與在校身體活動量表現,並獲得教師的肯定;但在智能障礙學齡兒童的身體組成、最大握力、動態腹肌耐力、柔軟度、以及一學期病假天數等方面,則未呈現顯著的訓練成效。臨床應用:智能障礙學齡兒童的學校身體活動訓練課程應納入常規課表,而物理治療師與教師可以以協同教學的模式來訓練智能障礙兒童的健康體適能,不僅可有效改善這些兒童的健康體適能表現;教師更可藉參與課程訓練的過程,瞭解智能障礙學生在認知以外的各項表現、增加適應體育相關知能的認識,更可提供智能障礙學生適應體育教學模式參考之用。
Background. Lower fitness performances have been reported in persons with mental retardation. Persons with mental retardation usually adopt a sedentary life style and have lower level of physical activity. A structured physical training only has immediate response of increased fitness to training. Only when adequate amount of physical activities becomes part of the daily activities, the individual could maintain fit. It is also generally believed to be important to improve fitness and the level of physical activity starting from childhood. Some research has demonstrated that promotion of fitness is achievable in adolescents and adults with mental retardation. However, the applications of results of these studies to children with mental retardation are limited due to the small sample size, lacking of the control groups and specifically not recruiting children with MR as subjects. Purposes. The purpose of study was to investigate the effects of a physical activity intervention program on health-related physical fitness, the level of physical activity and the sick leaves in schoolchildren with mental retardation. This study also collected the opinions and satisfaction of teachers and teacher assistants of subjects on this physical activity intervention program. Study Design. A pretest-posttest control group design. Subjects. Thirty-two children (7-12 years old) with mild or moderate mental retardation were recruited and assigned into the experimental (N=18, from 3 I-Lan elementary schools) or the control group (N=14, from 2 I-Lan elementary schools). The experimental group had 18 children with mental retardation and control group had 14 children with mental retardation. Main Outcome Measures. This study measured the following outcomes: (1) body composition measures included body mass index, weight-for-length index, 4 areas of skinfold, and waist and hip circumferences; (2) cardiovascular fitness measure included 6-minute walk test; (3) muscle strength and endurance measures included power grip, one-minute sit-up test, and static semi-sitting test; and (4) flexibility measure included sit and reach test. Procedures. Subjects in the experimental group participated in an 18-week physical activity intervention program in addition to regular school classes. Subjects in the control group participated only the regular school classes. Parameters of the physical fitness for each subject were measured at the baseline and one-week after the intervention program. The level of physical activity for each subject was assessed by Tritrac accelerometer at the 2nd , 9th and 18th weeks during the intervention period. The sick leaves were recorded from the attendance record and the opinions and satisfaction of teachers and teacher assistants of subjects of the experimental group on this physical activity intervention program were assessed at the 18th weeks during the intervention period. Data Analysis. Independent t test and Chi- Square test ( X2 test ) were used to assess group differences in the baseline characteristics of subjects. An analysis of covariance was used to analyze the difference of changes from the intervention in each fitness element between two groups with the fitness status at pre-intervention of subjects controlled as the covariates. Two-factor (time and group) repeated measures analyses of variance were used to analyze the school physical activity levels in two groups at the 2nd , 9th and 18th weeks during the intervention period. Independent t-test was used to compare group differences in the sick leaves of a semester during intervention period. Results. Significant differences of changes between pre- and post-intervention (p<0.05) were found in the 6-minute walking distance and the one-minute sit-up repetitions between two groups with the fitness status at pre-intervention of subjects controlled as the covariates. It also demonstrated a time-group interaction (p<0.05) in the school physical activity levels in two groups during the intervention period. Subjects in the experimental group demonstrated an increase in the physical activity level along with the progression during the intervention. There was no significant difference in sick leaves of a semester between two groups. Other variables of the physical fitness measurements were not different in changes from intervention between two groups with the fitness status at pre-intervention of subjects controlled as the covariates. Most of the teachers and teacher assistants of subjects of the experimental group showed positive comments on the intervention program and were satisfied with the school performance of the subjects. Conclusion. The effects of this school-based 18-week physical activity intervention program were demonstrated in the areas of cardiovascular fitness and muscle endurance in children with mental retardation.
References
1. 行政院衛生署衛署醫字第0910014799號公告.身心障礙等級. 1992.
2.http://www.set.edu.tw(教育部特殊教育通報網). 2004.
3. Pate R.R., Blair S.N., Haskell W.L. Physical activity and public health: A recommendation from the centers for disease control and prevention and the American college of sports medicine. Journal of the American Medical Association 1995;273:402-7.
4. Exercise for children who are mentally retarded. Pediatrics 1987;80:447-8.
5.Beasley C.R. Effects of a jogging program on cardiovascular fitness and work performance of mentally retarded adults. American journal of mental deficiency 1982;86:609-13.
6.Buchik N.T. Improving the personal fitness of secondary trainable mentally handicapped students through aerobic exercise. 1990.
7. Frey G.C, McCubbin J.A. Physical fitness of trained runners with and without mild retatdation. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly 1999;16:126-37.
8. Fernhall B., Pitetti K.H. Leg strength is related to endurance performance in children and adolescents with mental retardation. Pediatric exercise science 2000;12:333.
9. Fernhall B., Pitetti K.H. Limitation to physical work capacity in individuals with mental retardation. Clinical Exercise Physiology 2001;3:176-85.
10. Fernhall B., McCubbin J.A., Pitetti K.H., Rintala P., Rimmer J.H., Millar A.L. Prediction of maximal heart rate in individuals with mental retardation. Medicine and science in sports and exercise 2001;33:1655-60.
11.Fernhall B., Millar L., Tymeson G., Burkett L. Cardiovascular fitness of mentally retarded individuals. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly 1988;5:12-28.
12. Fernhall B. Physical fitness and exercise training of individuals with mental retardation. Medicine and science in sports and exercise 1993;25:442-50.
13. Laurent L.S., Fournier A.L., Lessard J.C. Efficacy of three programs for elementary school students with moderate mental retardation. Education and Training in Mental Retardation 1993;December:333-48.
14.林偉仁 彰化啟智學校學生體適能現況及其影響因素之調查研究. 1999.
15. 莊耀洲特殊奧林匹克運動會訓練對智能障礙者體適能及職業能力的影響. 2003.
16.黃國庭. 智能障礙學生健康體適能及其相關影響因素之研究. 2003.
17. 謝淑芳. 有氧舞蹈訓練對高職輕度障礙男生體適能的影響. 2002.
18. Blair S.N., Kohl H.W. Physical fitness and all case mortality : A prospective study of healthy men and women. Journal of the American Medical Association 1989;262:2359-401.
19. Forssman H., Akesson H.O. Mortality of the mentally deficient:a study of 12903 institutionalised subjects. Journal of Mental Deficiency Research 1970;14:276-94.
20.Pitetti K.H., Campbell K.D. Mentally retarded individuals - a population at risk? Medicine and science in sports and exercise 1991;23:586-93.
21. Fernhall B., Tymeson G. Graded Exercise Testing of Mentally Retarded Adults :A Study of Feasibility. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1987;68:363-5.
22.LancioniG.E., Gigante A., O''reilly M.F. Indoor travel and simple tasks as physical exercise for people with profound multiple disabilities. Perceptual and Motor Skills 2000;91:211-6.
23. Lavay Barry, Reid G. Measuring the cardiovascular endurance of persons with mental retardation:a critical review. unknow 2004;263-90.
24.Pitetti K.H., Jacjson J.A., Stubbs N.B., Campbell K.D., Battar S.S. Fitness levels of adult special Olympic participants. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly 1989;6:354-70.
25. Pitetti K.H., Tan D.M. Effects of a minimally supervised exercise program for mentally retarded adults. Medicine and science in sports and exercise 1991;23:594-601.
26. Pitetti K.H., Rimmer J.H., Fernhall B. Physical fitness and adults with mental retardation. Sports medicine 1993;16:23-56.
27.Caspersen C.J. PKE, Christenson G.M. Physical activity , exercise , and physical fitness : definitions and distinctions for health ?related research. Pubic Health Reports 1985;100:126-31.
28.Pate R.R.., Dowda M., Ross J.G. Associations between physical activity and physical fitness in American children. American journal of diseases of children 1990;144:1123-9.
29.Ralph S.Paffenbarger, Robert T.Hyde, Alvin L.Wing. Physical activity , all cause mortality , and longevity of college alumni. The New England Journal of Medicine 1986;314:605-13.
30. Michael L.Pollock, Glenn A.Gaesser, Janus D.Butcher, Rod K.Dishman. ACSM position stand:the recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness , and flexibility in healthy adults. Medicine and science in sports and exercise 1998;30:975-91.
31. Recommendation for the fitness assessment , programming , and counseling of persons with disability. Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology 1998;23:119-30.
32. Fernhall B. Physical activity ,metabolic issues , and assessment. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America 2002;13:925-47.
33. Rimmer J.H., Braddock D., Pitetti K.H. Research on physical activity and disability :an emerging national priority. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1996;28:1366-72.
34. Horvat M., Franklin C. The effects of environment on physical activity patterns of children with mental retardation. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 2001;72:189-95.
35. Lorenzi D., Horvat M., Pellerini A.D. Physical activity of children with and without mental retardation in inclusive recess setting. Educ Train Ment Development Disabil 35, 160-7. 2000.
36. Fernhall B., Pitetti K.H., Rimmer J.H., McCubbin J.A., Rintala P., Millar A.L. Cardiospiratory capacity of individuals with mental retardation including Down syndrome. Medicine and science in sports and exercise 1996;28:366-71.
37.Pitetti K.H., Rimmer J.H., Fernhall B. Physical fitness and adults with mental retardation an overview of current research and future directions. Sport Medicine 1993;16:23-56.
38.Rimmer J.H., Kelly L.E. Effects of a resistance training program on adults with mental retardation. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly 1999;8:146-53.
39.Millar A.L., Fernhall B., Bukett N.L. Effects of aerobic training in adolescents with Downs syndrome. Medicine and science in sports and exercise 1993;25:270-4.
40.Harrell H.S., McMurray R.G., Bangdiwala S.I. Effects of a school-based intervention to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors in elementary-school children: the cardiovascular health in children (CHIC) study. The Journal of Pediatrics 1996;128:797-805.
41.Ross E., Thomas A., Susan J. Effects of lifestyle activity vs. structured aerobic exercise in obese women :a randomized trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 1999;281:335-40.
42. Andrea L.D., Ross E.A., John M.J. Lifestyle physical activity interventions ---history , short- and - long- term effects , and recommendations. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 1998;15:398-412.
43. Andrea L.D., Bess H.M., James B.K. Comparison of lifestyle and structured interventions to increase physical activity and cardio respiratory fitness: a randomized trail. Journal of the American Medical Association 1999;281:327-34.
44. Kahn E.B., Ramsey L.T., Brownson R.C. The effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity: a systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2002;22:73-107.
45. Gutin B., Cucuzzo N., IslamS. Physical training , lifestyle education , and coronary risk factors in obese girl. Medicine and science in sports and exercise 1996;28:19-23.
46.Resnicow K., Orlandi M.A., Vaccaro D. Implementation of a pilot school-site cholesterol reduction intervention. Journal of School Health 1989;59:74-8.
47.Chanias A.K. RGHML. Exercise effects on health related physical fitness of individuals with an intellectual disabilities : a meta analysis. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly 1998;15:119-40.
48. Eichstaedt C.B., Lavay Barry. Physical activity for infants and toddlers. In: Physical activity for individuals with mental retardation---from infancy through adulthood. 1992:259-99.
49.Eichstaedt C.B., Lavay Barry. Physical activity for preschoolers. In: Physical activity for individuals with mental retardation---from infancy through adulthood. 1992:301-19.
50.Levinson L., Reid G. Patterns of physical activity among youngsters with developmental disabilities. Canadian Alliance of Health , Physical Education,Recreaional Journal 1991;57:24-8.
51.Freedson P.S. Field monitoring of physical activity in children. Pediatric Exercise Science 1989;1:8-18.
52.Sallis J.F., Simons-Morton B.G., Stone E.J. Determinants of physical activity and intervention in youth. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1992;24:s248-s257.
53. Saris W.H. Habitual physical activity in children :methodology and finding in health and disease. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1986;18:263.
54. Amy L., Nancy J., Marjorie S. Energy expenditure in children with down syndrome :correcting metabolic rate for movement. The Journal of Pediatrics 1994;125:838.
55. Ma R.O., Chow B. Validity and reliability of accelerometry and pedometry in assessing physical activity in children with mental retardation. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2003;35,suppl.:s223.
56. Pitetti K.H., Millar A.L., Fernhall B. Reliability of a peak performance treadmill test for children and adolescents with and without mental retardation. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly 2000;17:322-32.
57. Eichstaedt C.B., Lavay Barry. Physical activity for school-age children and teenagers. In: Physical activity for individuals with mental retardation---from infancy through adulthood. 1992:321-57.
58.Luke A., Roizen N.J., Sutton M. Energy expenditure in children with down syndrome :correcting metabolic rate for movement. The Journal of Pediatrics 1994;125:838.
59. Pitetti K.H., Yarmer D.A., Fernhall B. Cardiovascular fitness and body composition of youth with and without mental retardation. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly 2001;18:127-41.
60. Rogers-Willgren J.L., Ben-Ezra V. Use of reinforcement to increase independence in physical fitness performance of profoundly mentally retarded young. Perceptual and Motor Skills 1992;75:975-82.
61.Croce R.V. Effects of exercise and diet on body composition and cardiovascular fitness in adults with severe mental retardation. Education and Training in Mental Retardation 1990;176-85.
62.BAR-OR ODED, Skinner J.S. Maximal aerobic capacity of 6- to 15-year- old girls and boys with subnormal intelligence quotients. Acta Pdiatrica Scandinavica Supplement 1971;271:105-13.
63. Pizarro D.C. Reliability of the health related fitness test for mainstreamed educable and trainable mentally handicapped adolescents. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly 1990;7:240-8.
64.Fernhall B., Millar A.L., Tymeson G., Burkett L. Maximal exercise testing of mentally retarded adolescents and adults :reliability study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1990;71:1065-8.
65. Rowland T.W. The role of physical activity and fitness in children in the prevention of adult cardiovascular disease. Progress in Pediatric Cardiology 2001;12:199-203.
66. Londeree B.R., Johnson L.E. Motor fitness for TMR vs EMR and normal children. Med Sci Sports 1974;6:252.
67.Horvat M., Croce R.V., Pitetti K.H., Fernhall B. Comparison of isokinetic peak force and work parameters in young with and without mental retardation. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1999;31:1190-5.
68. 許銘松 國小啟智班體育教學現況調查研究. 2000.
69.Hussey C., Schofield L. Physical education training for adult retardates in sheltered workshop setting. J Clin Psychol 1976;32:701-5.
70.Montgomery D., Reid G, Seidl C. The effects of two physical fitness programs designed for mentally retarded adults. Can J Spt Sci 1984;13:173-8.
71. Croce R.V., Horvat M. Effects of reinforcement based exercise on fitness and work productivity in adults with mental retardation. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly 1992;9:148-78.
72. Millar L., Fernhall B., Burkett L. Effects of aerobic training in adolescents with Down syndrome. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1993;25:270-4.
73. American College of Sports Medicine : ACSM''s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription, 6 th ed. edn. Philadelphia : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.
74. Pommering T.L., Brose J.A., Randolph E., MurrayT.F. Effects of an aerobic exercise program on community-based adults with mental retardation. Mental Retardation 1994;32:218-26.
75. Schurrer R., Weltman A. Effects of physical training on cardiovascular fitness and behavior patterns of mentally retarded adults. American Journal of Mental Deficiency 1985;90:167-9.
76. Lavay Barry, Mckenzie T. Development and evaluation of systematic run / walk program for man with mental retardation. Education and Training in Mental Retardation 1991;26:333-41.
77.Zetts R.A., Horvat M., Langone J. Effects of a community-based progressive resistance training program on the work productivity of adolescents with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities. Education and Training in Mental Retardation 1995;166-78.
78. Suomi R., Surburg P., Lecius P. Effects of hydraulic resistance strength training on isokinetic measures of leg strength in men with mental retardation. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly 1995;12:377-87.
79.National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for school and community programs to promote lifelong physical activity among young people. Journal of School Health 1997;67:202-19.
80. 陳偉德.小兒肥胖:評估與治療.中兒醫誌 1995.
81. 陳偉德,重高指數:簡易兒而準確之小兒體重評估法.臺灣醫誌 1993;92:134.
82. Despres J.P., Prud'' homme D, Pouliot M.C. Estimation of deep abdominal adipose-tissue accumulation from simple anthropometric measurements in men. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54:471-4.
83.Weits T., Van der Beek E.J. Computed tomography measurement of abdominal fat deposition in relation to anthropomery. Int J Obes 1988;12:217-25.
84. Lemieux S., Prud, Prud'' homme D, Bouchard C. A single threshold value of waist girth identified normal - weight and overweight subjects with excess visceral adipose tissue. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;64:685-93.
85.Chan J.M., Rimm E.B., Colditz G.A. Obesity , fat distribution , and weight gain as risk factors for clinical diabetes in men. Diabetes Care 1994;17:961-9.
86. Liese A.D., Mayer-Davis E.S., Haffner S.M. Development of the multiple metabolic syndrome : an epidemiologic perspective. Epidemiologic Reviews 1998;20:157-72.
87.Fernhall B., Pitetti K.H., Stubbs N., Stadler L. Validity and reliability of the 1/2 -mile run-walk as an indicator of aerobic fitness in children with mental retardation. Pediatric exercise science 1996;8:130-42.
88. Heyward V.H. Advanced fitness assessment and exercise prescription, 2 nd edn. Champaign ,IL ;Human Kinetic, 1991.
89.Jette M., Cambell J., Mongeon J. The Canadian Home Fitness Test as a predictor of aerobic capacity. Canadian Medical association Journal 1976;114:680-2.
90.闕月清 九十一年度提升學生體適能專案計畫---智障類學生體適能現況之調查計畫. 2003. 教育部.
91. Institute for Aerobic Research. FITNESSGRAM Users Manual. Dallas, TX: Institute for Aerobics Research, 1987.
92. Leger L.A., Mercier D., Gadoury C. The multistage 20 meters shuttle run test for aerobic fitness. Journal of Sports Sciences 1988;6:93-101.
93.Hamilton D.M., Haennel R.G. Validity and Reliability of the 6 - minute walk test in a cardiac rehabilitation population. J Cardiopulmonary Rehabil 2000;20:156-64.
94. Nixon P., Joswiak M. A six-minute walk test for assessing exercise tolerance in severely ill children. The Journal of Pediatrics 1996;129:362-6.
95.Marshall W.A., Tanner J.M. Variations in pattern of pubertal changes in girls. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1969.
96. Marshall W.A., Tanner J.M. Variations in pattern of pubertal changes in boys. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1970.
97.教育部 中華民國學生體能測驗手冊. 1997.
98. 郭俐纓 比較青春前期腦性麻痺兒童與正常發展兒童身體組成. 2003.
99. 林秀虹痙攣型腦性麻痺兒童之肌力及肌張力與步態表現之相關性. 2003.
100.SARAH M., ANN V. Intermonitor Variability of the RT3 Accelerometer during Typical Physical Activities. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2004;36:324-30.
101.SARAH M., DEWI I., ANN V. Technical Variability of the RT3 Accelerometer. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2003;35:1773-8.
102. 教育部體適能網站 http://www.fitness.org.tw/. 2004.
103.JEANNE F., CINDY G., JULIE A. Validity, reliability, and calibration of the Tritrac accelerometer as a measure of physical activity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1999;31:908-12.
104.STEWART G., RUSSELL R., PATTY S. Using objective physical activity measures with youth: How many days of monitoring are needed? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2000;32:426-31.
105.王志文. 體育與特教教師之教學行比較以適應體育為例. 2002.
106.學童體重控制指導手冊. 1995. 教育部出版.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊