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研究生:傅彥妮
研究生(外文):Yen-ni Fu
論文名稱:性別與談判:台灣女性經理人談判行為
論文名稱(外文):Gender and Negotiation: The Negotiation Behaviors of the Taiwanese Female Managers
指導教授:鍾從定鍾從定引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tsung-ting Chung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:企業管理系碩士班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:115
中文關鍵詞:談判策略談判資訊掌握程度時間壓力知覺對對手條件的在意程度
外文關鍵詞:The Perception of Time PressureThe Regards of Oppositions’ ConditionsNegotiation Strategies.NegotiationThe Degree of Information Acquisition
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在標榜著兩性平等的現代社會,女性勞工在職場上仍遭受不平等的對待。是什麼原因讓女性在職場中的成就,總是無不如男性的發展?是男女的談判行不同所造成,還是其它原因所導致?
根據上述目的,並進一步深入了解性別是否會影響談判行為;並以「對對手條件的在意程度」、「時間壓力知覺」、「資訊掌握程度」為本研究討論的重點。研究方法採問卷研究法,藉由252份中高階主管實証結果發現,女性在談判準備時間比男性來的短,另外,受過正式談判訓練比例亦比男性低,在談判技巧上也較男性來說較沒有自信;最後,研究亦顯示,男性與女性在談判策略上的使用,的確不同。
Female workers are treated with unfairness. Why are the accomplishments of female always worse than these of male? Does difference of gender behaviors cause those problems? Are there some other reasons?
According to previous purposes, we would like to know if gender will affect negotiation behaviors or not; moreover, we use “the Regards of Oppositions’ Conditions”, “The Perception of Time Pressure” and “The Degree of Information Acquisition” to be the points of our research. The research method was questionnaire survey and got outcomes through 252 middle and high positions of managers. The female preparation time of negotiation are shorter than male. Moreover, in negotiation disciplines, the percentages of female are less than those of male and female don’t have confidence than male. Finally, outcomes also showed the negotiation behaviors of female are different than those of male.
中文摘要…………………………………………………………………………… I
英文摘要…………………………………………………………………………… II
誌謝…………………………………………………………………………………III
目錄…………………………………………………………………………………IV
表目錄…………………………………………………………………………… VI
圖目錄…………………………………………………………………………… VIII

第一章 緒論
第一節 研究背景與動機…………………………………………………… 1
第二節 研究目的…………………………………………………………… 12
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 談判的基本概念……………………………………………………13
第二節 女性談判相關研究…………………………………………………18
第三章 研究方法
第一節 研究架構與架構說明……………………………………………… 27
第二節 研究假設與操作型定義…………………………………………… 44
第三節 研究步驟與流程…………………………………………………… 45
第四節 問卷設計…………………………………………………………… 46
第五節 研究對象與樣本特性分析 ……………………………………… 53
第六節 資料處理與分析方法……………………………………………… 57
第四章 研究結果與分析
第一節 各研究變項之描述性統計分析…………………………………… 59
第二節 人口統計變項與各構面的關係…………………………………… 61
第三節 談判要素對談判策略的影響……………………………………… 78
第四節 性別之干擾效果分析與探討……………………………………… 80
第五章 結論與建議
第一節 研究發現與討論…………………………………………………… 86
第二節 研究限制…………………………………………………………… 99
第三節 研究建議……………………………………………………………100
參考文獻
中文文獻……………………………………………………………………………103
英文文獻……………………………………………………………………………106
附錄
問卷…………………………………………………………………………………113


表目錄
表1-1-1 女性就業資料表……………………………………………………… 1
表1-1-2 女性勞工因性別而遭受不平等待遇情形…………………………… 5
表2-2-1 美國典型的男女性別角色之刻板印象……………………………… 24
表2-2-2 J.T.Spence與 R.L. Helmreich對男女特性的分類表………………… 25
表3-1-1 人際衝突管理風格研究彙整………………………………………… 39
表3-1-2 Riggs衝突解決釋例…………………………………………………… 40
表3-1-3 Thomas五種策略模式適用情形……………………………………… 41
表3-4-1 談判要素因素分析表……………………………………………………47
表3-4-2 談判策略因素分析表……………………………………………………52
表3-5-1 樣本資料特性分佈表……………………………………………………55
表4-1-1 各研究變項之描述性統計分析…………………………………………60
表4-2-1 性別與各變項間的t檢定表……………………………………………61
表4-2-2 男性年齡與談判行為傾向之F檢定表…………………………………62
表4-2-3 女性年齡與談判行為傾向之F檢定表…………………………………63
表4-2-4 男性學歷與談判行為傾向之F檢定表…………………………………64
表4-2-5 女性學歷與談判行為傾向之F檢定表…………………………………65
表4-2-6 男性服務年資與各談判策略的ANOVA表…………………………… 66
表4-2-7 女性服務年資與各談判策略的ANOVA表…………………………… 67
表4-2-8 男性談判經驗與各變項間ANOVA表………………………………… 68
表4-2-9 女性談判經驗與各變項間的ANOVA表……………………………… 69
表4-2-10 談判經驗與各變項間的ANOVA表……………………………………70
表4-2-11 男性受過談判訓練與否與談判策略各項間之t檢定表………………71
表4-2-12 女性受過談判訓練與否與各變項間之t檢定表………………………71
表4-2-13 受過談判訓練與否與各談判策略間之t檢定表………………………72
表4-2-14 男性談判準備時間長短與談判策略間之ANOVA檢定表…………… 73
表4-2-15 女性談判準備時間長短與談判策略間之ANOVA檢定表…………… 74
表4-2-16 男性談判自信程度與談判策略間之t檢定表…………………………75
表4-2-17 女性談判自信程度與談判策略間之t檢定表…………………………76
表4-2-18 各變項之相關分析表……………………………………………………77
表4-3-1 談判要素對談判策略迴歸分析摘要表…………………………………79
表4-4-1 談判要素與性別之交互作用對競爭與合作策略之層級迴歸分析……81
表4-4-2 談判要素與性別之交互作用對讓步與妥協策略之層級迴歸分析……83
表4-4-3 談判要素與性別之交互作用對趨避策略之層級迴歸分析……………84
表4-4-4 性別對談判要素與談判要素各構面之干擾效果彙總表………………84
表4-4-5 假設驗證結果彙總………………………………………………………85
表5-1-1 不同人口統計變項與談判策略之差異性分析…………………………87
表5-1-2 不同談判背景與談判策略之差異性分析………………………………89
表5-1-3 性別與研究變項之差異性分析驗証效果彙總表………………………91
表5-1-4 談判要素與談判策略效果驗證彙總表…………………………………94
表5-1-5 性別對談判要素與談判策略干擾效果驗證彙總表……………………96


圖目錄
圖1-1-1 86-91學年度國內碩士班在學學生性別比例圖…………………………2
圖1-1-2 86-91學年度國內博士班在學學生性別比例圖…………………………3
圖1-1-3 兩性就業所得分佈比較圖……………………………………………… 5
圖1-1-4 您對薪資待遇男女不平等的看法?…………………………………… 6
圖1-1-5 您對升遷機會男女不平等的看法?…………………………………… 6
圖3-1-1 研究架構圖……………………………………………………………….27
圖3-1-2 時間對談判過程的影響………………………………………………….31
圖3-1-3 五種衝突處理導向……………………………………………………….36
圖3-3-1 研究流程與步驟圖……………………………………………………… .45
圖4-4-1 性別對「對對手在意程度」與「競爭策略」的干擾作用…………………..82
【中文部分】
一、書籍
1.王大方,1996,玻璃天花板:管理女性VS 女性領導,台北,時報文化。

2.李美枝,1984,性別角色、性別差異與兩性關係:理論與研究,台北,大洋。

3.吳秀光,2001,政府談判之博奕理論分析,台北,時英。

4.劉必榮,1999,談判,台北,時報文化,三刷。

5.劉必榮,1996,談判聖經,台北,商業週刊。

6.Benson, John, Keenedy, Gavin and McMillian, John,1992,談判技巧手冊,蔡宗楊譯, Managing Negotiations,台北,遠流。

7.Bazerman, Max H. and Neale, Margaret A.,1993,樂在談判,賓靜蓀譯,初版,Negotiating rationally,台北,天下文化。

8.Lewicki, Roy J., Hiam Alexander, Olander Karen Wise, 1998, 思考談判學,黃治蘋、李慧美譯,Think Before You Speak: A Complete Guide to Strategic Negotiation,台北,滾石。

9.Lewicki, Roy J., Saunders, David M. and Minton John W.,2001,談判學,張鐵軍譯,第三版,Negotiation,台北,華泰。

10.Thompson, Leigh,1999,談判學—心靈與智慧,張善智譯,The Mind and Heart of the Negotiator,台北,新陸。

二、期刊
1.李美枝、鍾秋玉,1996,性別與性別角色析論,本土心理學研究,6 期, 260-299。

2.邱義城,2004,不是談判 高手不能當CEO,360期,管理雜誌,6月號,32-34。


3. 官振萱、陳一姍,2003,美麗與權力 台灣企業界20位最有影響力的女人,267期,天下雜誌。

4.徐木蘭,1993,女性就業生涯中的高吭與低唱,勞資關係月刊,70 期,6-13。

5.鍾從定,2001,談判理論與實務:商管學院的談判教學,商管科技季刊,第2卷第3期(90年9月),233-258。

6.鍾從定,2000,談判桌上的女性,談判復刊第一期(89年7月),15-20。

7.戴文雄等人,2000,台灣地區女性職場生涯危機之探討,就業與訓練,18 卷2期,89-98。

8.世界經理文摘編輯部,女性主管教戰手冊,167期,2000年7月。

三、學術論文
1. 余慧君,1999,以性別角色態度、生活型態、工作投入之角度探討女性經理人工作與家庭之調適,國立中山大學人力資源管理研究所碩士論文。

3.梁育立,1988,銷售人員談判權、協商策略及協商績效關係之研究,國立台灣大學商學研究所碩士論文。

4.程聖德,1988,企業經理人之人格特質與談判策略的關係,台北:中興大學企業管理研究所碩士論文,民國七十七年六月。

5.楚中慧,1991,權力結構對談判行為導向與談判績效影響之研究—以勞資談判為例,私立中原大學企業管理研究所碩士論文。

6.鍾從定,2000,性別與談判行為研究:台灣女性談判行為分析,國科會成果報告。

四、網路
1. 張老師文化讀家新聞網:
http://www.lppc.com.tw/月刊內文/magzine294-118.htm

2. 「職場女性痛苦與幸福大調查」,9999泛亞人力銀行:http://www.9999.com.tw/pj/act/p930309/

3. 上班族痛苦指數大調查,CHEERS雜誌:
http://www.cheers.com.tw/content/025/025084.asp

4. 行政院勞委會:http://www.cla.gov.tw/



【英文部分】
(I)Books
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7.Deutsch, M. (1973). The Resolution of Conflict. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

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9.DeVellis, R. F. (1991). Scale Development Theory and Applications. London: Sage.

10.Dolan, John Patrick. (1992). Negotiate Like The Pros. Boulder, CO : Career Track Publications.

11.Fisher, R., and Ury, W. (1981). Getting to Yes. New York: Penguin Books.

12.Gilligan, Carol. (1982). In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women''s Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

13.Goldman, Alvin L. and Rojot, Jacques. (2003). Negotiation:Theory and Practice. New York: Kluwer Law Internation.

14.Hopmann, P. Terrence. (1996). The Negotiation Process and the Resolution of International Conflicts. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press.

15.Henning, M. and Jardim, A. (1977). Managerial Women. A Garden City, NY: Anchor Press.

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20.Loftus, E.F. (1979). Eyewitness Testimony. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

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24.Pruitt, Dean G. (1981). Negotiation Behavior. New York: Academic Press.

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(II)Periodicals

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4.Brookmire, D. A. & Sistrunk, F. (1980). The Effects of Perceived Ability and Impartiality of Mediators andTime Pressure on Negotiation. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 24, 311-327.

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12.Helmut, Lamm and Ekkehard, Rosch. (1972). Information and Competitiveness of Incentive Structure as Factors in Two-Person Negotiation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 2, 4, 459-462.

1.Kelley, Harold H., Beckman, Linda L. and Fischer, Claude S.. (1967). Negotiating the Division of Reward Under Incomplete Information. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 3, 361-398.

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11.Putnam, L.L. and Jones, T.S. (1982). Reciprocity in Negotiations: An Analysis of Bargaining Interaction. Communciation Monographs, 49, 171-191.

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