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研究生:徐淑薇
研究生(外文):Shu-wei Hsu
論文名稱:以知覺公平觀點探討服務補救對顧客關係之影響─歸因理論的調節效果
論文名稱(外文):The Impact of Service Recovery on Customer Relationships from the Perspectives of Perceived Justice: The Moderating Effect of Attribution Theory
指導教授:賴其勛賴其勛引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chi-shiun Lai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:企業管理系碩士班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:97
中文關鍵詞:歸因服務補救知覺公平顧客關係
外文關鍵詞:Perceived JusticeService RecoveryAttribution TheoryCustomer Relationships
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:10
  • 點閱點閱:221
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
對企業經營而言,與顧客維持長期關係及獲得新顧客具有同等重要性。由相關研究顯示顧客流失的原因大多是由於顧客曾經遭遇服務失誤(service failure)事件。一旦發生服務失誤事件,即使是一貫擁有優良服務水準紀錄的企業亦會造成顧客降低對企業服務品質的評價,並甚而可能轉換至其他服務提供者。然而,在傳遞服務的整個過程中,即使是具有完善策略計畫、嚴格品質控制程序及顧客導向文化的企業,也無法完全避免服務失誤的發生,此時更凸顯了顧客抱怨行為、企業對於抱怨行為的處理、服務補救策略等議題之重要性。服務補救此相關議題在國內外已有許多相關研究,但因產業不同及服務失誤型式不同,企業該如何運用有限的資源,採用最適當的服務補救屬性,消除顧客不滿,進而提升顧客滿意度與忠誠度,仍將是非常值得探討釐清之研究範圍。
經濟部於92年度之調查分析,2003年我國B2C電子商務市場規模達新台幣220.9億元,較去年157.5億成長近40.3%。因商機無限而引起各類商家相繼投入使得電子商務市場的競爭激烈,但B2C電子商務興起的時間不過幾年光景,因此B2C電子商務仍有許多發展上的問題,網路購物除了要求便宜、便利,完善的顧客服務也是很重要的,尤其失誤補救此方面更是重要,因為顧客的轉換行為更是容易,但關於網路購物的服務失誤補救方面,國內的相關研究鮮少。故本研究以網路購物/電子商務為研究產業背景,探討服務失誤歸因、服務補救屬性、知覺公平與服務補救滿意度之關係,針對曾進行網路購物且遭遇過失務補救的消費者為問卷對象。研究結果發現:
1. 服務補救措施中,以補償對分配公平、補救回應速度對程序公平、道歉對互動公平均具有正向影響。 2. 知覺公平三構面均對服務補救滿意度有正向影響,但以分配公平的影響最大,可能因透過網路購物較缺少人際互動造成的失誤與補救,故消費者較注重實質的分配公平之獲得。 3. 服務失誤歸因中,發現穩定性與分配公平呈正相關、歸屬與速度之交互作用會與程序公平呈負相關、歸屬與道歉的交互作用會與互動公平呈負相關、可控制性與道歉之交互作用會與互動公平呈正相關。 4. 服務補救滿意度與信任呈正相關,信任與承諾呈正相關,但服務補救滿意度與承諾之相關性並不顯著,可能因承諾會牽涉到潛在的責難與犧牲,故除非已建立了信任,否則不太可能會有承諾的產生。
Keeping relationship with customers is as important as getting new customers to operate corporations. Relevant research revealed that customer switching behaviors happened probably because of the experiences of service failure events. In the whole process of service delivery, however, a corporation with perfect strategies, strict quality control process, and customer-oriented enterprise culture can not avoid service failure events. It stresses the importance of issues of customer complaining behaviors, the handling of complaining, and service recovery strategies.
Many relevant domestic and abroad researches about the issues of service recovery focus on the classification of service failure, how to make up effective service recovery strategies, or the relationship of service recovery and customer attitudes such as the relationship between the service recovery, customer satisfaction and loyalty, the relationship between the service recovery, re-purchase willing, and word-of-mouth. Because of the difference of industries and service failure types, it will still very worthy to study that how corporations use well of their limited resources and adopt the most appropriate service recovery attributions to eliminate customer complaint and advance customer satisfaction and loyalty.
The e-commerce market scale had reached N.T. 22 billion in 2003. The glorious future of e-commerce attracted many kinds of merchants to join the e-commerce market and compete violently. But there are still many problems in the immature market. Many litigations of e-commerce happened in recent years because of the merchants didn’t handle dealing problems timely and properly. E-commerce is the same as the usual purchase model that it also requires low price, convenience, and faultless customer service. The customer service recovery is very important particularly because the customer switching behaviors would happen more easily in e-commerce. But the domestic research about service recovery of e-commerce remains insufficient.
This work focuses on the e-commerce to explore the relationship between the service failure attribution, service recovery attributions, perceived justice, and service recovery satisfaction. The research targets are consumers who had experienced service failure and recovery in e-commerce. The outcomes of investigation revealed that:
1. In service recovery treatments: Compensation positively affects distributive justice. Speed of recovering affects procedural justice positively. Apologies affect interactional justice positively. 2. The three constructs of perceived justice affect the satisfaction of service recovery positively. The effect of distributive justice is the most great. Maybe it’s because of e-commerce lacks of personal interaction and consumers value the concrete requirement of distributive justice. 3. From the service failure attributions: Stability affects the distributive justice positively. The mutual effect of locus speed affects the procedural justice negatively. The interaction effect of locus and apology affects the interactional justice negatively. The interaction effect of controllability and apology affects the interactional justice positively. 4. The satisfaction of service recovery affects trust positively. Trust affects promise positively. But the relationship between service recovery satisfaction and promise is not notable and maybe because promise implies latent difficulties and sacrifices. Therefore promise would not exist unless trust had been established.
目 錄

中文摘要 --------------------------------------------------------------- i
英文摘要 -------------------------------------------------------------- iii
誌謝 -------------------------------------------------------------- v
目錄 --------------------------------------------------------------- vi
表目錄 --------------------------------------------------------------- ix
圖目錄 --------------------------------------------------------------- xi
一、 緒論----------------------------------------------------------- 1
1.1 研究背景與動機------------------------------------------------- 1
1.1.1 研究理論背景--------------------------------------------------- 1
1.1.2 研究產業背景--------------------------------------------------- 2
1.2 研究目的------------------------------------------------------- 4
二、 文獻探討------------------------------------------------------- 7
2.1 歸因理論------------------------------------------------------- 7
2.1.1 起源與定義----------------------------------------------------- 7
2.1.2 歸因理論與服務失誤--------------------------------------------- 8
2.1.3 總結----------------------------------------------------------- 10
2.2 服務補救------------------------------------------------------- 11
2.2.1 定義----------------------------------------------------------- 11
2.2.2 服務補救之重要性----------------------------------------------- 11
2.2.3 服務補救類型--------------------------------------------------- 12
2.2.4 制定有效的服務補救策略----------------------------------------- 15
2.2.5 總結----------------------------------------------------------- 17
2.3 知覺公平------------------------------------------------------- 17
2.3.1 知覺公平之來源------------------------------------------------- 17
2.3.2 知覺公平與服務補救--------------------------------------------- 18
2.3.3 知覺公平之分類與顧客滿意度關係之整理--------------------------- 19
2.3.4 總結----------------------------------------------------------- 21
2.4 服務補救期望--------------------------------------------------- 22
2.4.1 服務期望------------------------------------------------------- 22
2.4.2 服務補救期望--------------------------------------------------- 22
2.5 服務補救滿意度------------------------------------------------- 23
2.5.1 顧客滿意度之定義----------------------------------------------- 23
2.5.2 服務補救後之顧客滿意度之定義----------------------------------- 23
2.5.3 服務補救滿意度之影響性----------------------------------------- 24
2.6 信任----------------------------------------------------------- 25
2.6.1 定義----------------------------------------------------------- 25
2.6.2 信任的發展過程------------------------------------------------- 26
2.6.3 信任之重要性--------------------------------------------------- 26
2.6.4 總結----------------------------------------------------------- 27
2.7 承諾----------------------------------------------------------- 28
2.7.1 定義----------------------------------------------------------- 28
2.7.2 承諾之重要性--------------------------------------------------- 28
2.7.3 總結----------------------------------------------------------- 28
三、 研究方法------------------------------------------------------- 29
3.1 研究架構------------------------------------------------------- 29
3.2 研究假設------------------------------------------------------- 31
3.2.1 服務補救措施與知覺公平之關係----------------------------------- 31
3.2.2 知覺公平對滿意度的影響----------------------------------------- 34
3.2.3 歸因理論之干擾效果--------------------------------------------- 35
3.2.4 對補救的滿意度與信任及承諾間之關係------------------------ 37
3.2.5 服務期望落差與服務補救滿意度之關係------------------------ 38
3.3 研究變數定義與衡量--------------------------------------------- 39
3.3.1 服務失誤之歸因------------------------------------------------- 39
3.3.2 服務補救屬性--------------------------------------------------- 40
3.3.3 知覺公平------------------------------------------------------- 40
3.3.4 服務補救滿意度------------------------------------------------ 42
3.3.5 服務補救期望落差---------------------------------------------- 43
3.3.6 信任----------------------------------------------------------- 43
3.3.7 承諾--------------------------------------------------- 44
3.4 問卷設計------------------------------------------------------- 45
3.5 資料收集與分析方法-------------------------------------------- 46
3.5.1 研究樣本------------------------------------------------------- 46
3.5.2 資料收集------------------------------------------------------- 46
3.5.3 分析方法------------------------------------------------------- 46
四、 資料分析------------------------------------------------------- 47
4.1 樣本特性描述--------------------------------------------------- 47
4.1.1 個人基本資料次數分配分析--------------------------------------- 47
4.1.2 情境因素次數分配分析------------------------------------------ 49
4.1.3 服務補救滿意度之次數分配分析--------------------------------- 51
4.1.4 人口統計變數之影響-------------------------------------------- 52
4.2 信度與效度檢定------------------------------------------------- 61
4.2.1 信度分析------------------------------------------------------- 61
4.2.2 信度分析------------------------------------------------------ 61
4.2.3 驗證性因素分析------------------------------------------------- 62
4.3 迴歸分析--------------------------------------------------------67
4.3.1 知覺公平與服務補救滿意度之關係------------------------------ 67
4.3.2 不同服務失誤歸因情境中補償與分配公平之關係-------------- 69
4.3.3 不同服務失誤歸因情境中補救回應速度與程序公平之關係 72
4.3.4 不同服務失誤歸因情境中道歉與互動公平之關係-------------- 74
4.4 結構方程模式-------------------------------------------------- 76
4.5 研究假設之檢定結果------------------------------------------ 79
五、 結論與建議----------------------------------------------------- 80
5.1 研究結論------------------------------------------------------- 80
5.1.1 服務補救屬性與知覺公平------------------------------------- 80
5.1.2 知覺公平與服務補救滿意度--------------------------------------- 80
5.1.3 服務失誤歸因之干擾效果------------------------------------ 81
5.1.4 服務補救滿意度與信任、承諾之關係--------------------------- 82
5.2 管理實務建議--------------------------------------------------- 82
5.3 研究重要性----------------------------------------------------- 66
5.4 研究限制------------------------------------------------------- 85
5.5 研究建議------------------------------------------------------- 86
參考文獻 --------------------------------------------------------------- 88
附錄一 研究問卷------------------------------------------------------- 94









表 目 錄

表1 國內網路購物相關研究---------------------------------------- 04
表2 在知覺公平構面下,服務補救屬性之分類說明----------------------- 31
表3 服務失誤歸屬之變數衡量項目------------------------------------- 39
表4 服務補救屬性之變數衡量項目------------------------------------- 40
表5 知覺公平之變數衡量項目----------------------------------------- 41
表6 服務補救滿意度之變項衡量項目----------------------------------- 42
表7 信任之變項衡量項目--------------------------------------------- 43
表8 承諾之變項衡量項目--------------------------------------------- 44
表9 本研究樣本之變項次數分配(性別與年齡) ------------------------ 47
表10 本研究樣本之變項次數分配(學歷與月收入)--------------------- 48
表11 網路購物時間、次數及金額分配表--------------------------------- 49
表12 情境因素次數分配之一------------------------------------------- 50
表13 情境因素次數分配之二------------------------------------------- 51
表14 服務補救滿意度次數分配百分比--------------------------------- 51
表15 性別與知覺公平、服務補救後滿意度之變異數分析------------------ 52
表16 年齡與知覺公平、服務補救後滿意度之變異數分析------------------ 53
表17 學歷與知覺公平、服務補救後滿意度之變異數分析------------------ 54
表18 月收入與知覺公平、服務補救後滿意度之變異數分析--------------- 55
表19 從事網路購物時間與知覺公平、服務補救後滿意度之變異數分析 56
表20 平均每次購物金額與知覺公平、服務補救後滿意度之變異數分析 57
表21 平均每月網路購物次數與知覺公平、服務補救後滿意度之變異數
分析----------------------------------------------------------- 58
表22 平均每月網路購物次數與知覺公平、服務補救後滿意度之Post
Hoc檢定─多重比較--------------------------------------------- 59
表23 本研究問卷之信度檢定------------------------------------------- 61
表24 知覺公平之適配度評估------------------------------------------- 62
表25 知覺公平參數φij值之相關矩陣---------------------------------- 64
表26 知覺公平的區別效度分析----------------------------------------- 64
表27 服務補救滿意度、信任及承諾之適配度評估---------------------- 65
表28 知覺公平與服務補救滿意度之R平方------------------------------- 68
表29 知覺公平與服務補救滿意度之迴歸係數----------------------- 69
表30 不同服務失誤歸因情境中補償與分配公平之R平方---------------- 70
表31 不同服務失誤歸因情境中補償與分配公平之迴歸係數-------------- 71
表32 不同服務失誤歸因情境中補救回應速度與程序公平之R平方 73
表33 不同服務失誤歸因情境中補救回應速度與程序公平之迴歸係數 74
表34 不同服務失誤歸因情境中道歉與互動公平之R平方----------------- 75
表35 不同服務失誤歸因情境中道歉與互動公平之迴歸係數-------------- 76
表36 研究假設之檢定結果--------------------------------------------- 78
圖 目 錄

圖1 服務補救後之整體滿意度模式------------------------------------- 24
圖2 本研究之觀念性架構圖------------------------------------------- 30
圖3 知覺公平之T值檢定---------------------------------------------- 63
圖4 服務補救滿意度、信任及承諾之幅合效度------------------------ 66
圖5 服務補救滿意度、信任及承諾之相關---------------------------- 77
一、中文部分:
1. 李慈慧,2003,旅遊消費者抱怨行為之研究,朝陽科技大學,休閒事業管理系碩士論文。
2. 吳孟樺,1998,顧客對抱怨處理反應之研究—由預期補償的觀點探討,國立中央大學,企研所碩士論文。
3. 吳兆玲,1999,國內航空服務業服務疏失補救、疏失事件歸因顧客反應間關係之研究,國立中山大學,企研所碩士論文。
4. 黃文翰,2002,服務補救不一致、服務補救後滿意度與消費者後續行為意圖,國立東華大學,觀光暨遊憩管理研究所碩士論文,民國91年。
5. 陳鉦達,2002,企業形象、服務補救期望宇補救後滿意度關係之研究,私立中國文化大學,國際企業管理研究所碩士論文。
6. 陳盈如,2002,店舖、網路與宅配之服務傳送品質,國立成功大學,企業管理學系碩士論文。
7. 陳志遠、藍政偉,2000,”消費者抱怨行為、抱怨處理方式及其抱怨處理後行為之研究”,國立台北大學企業管理學報,第四十八期,頁139-172。
8. 陳曉天,2000,服務補救、公平認知與顧客態度關係之研究─以航空業為例,中國文化大學,國際企業管理研究所博士論文。
9. 賴其勛,1997,消費者抱怨行為、抱怨後行為及其影響因素之研究,國立台灣大學,商學研究所碩士論文。
10. 鄭紹成,1996,服務業服務失誤、挽回服務與顧客反應之研究,中國文化大學,國際企業管理研究所碩士論文。
11. 輝偉偉,1995,顧客抱怨處理與顧客滿意關係之研究/綜合認知面與情感面之探討,國立中央大學,企業管理學系碩士論文。
12. 韓維中,2001,服務缺失、顧客歸因與補救回復之滿意度模式,台灣大學商學研究所碩士論文。
二、英文部分:
1. Anderson, E. W., Cales, F., & Donald, R. L., 1994, “Customer Satisfaction, Market Share and Profitability: Findings from Sweden”, Journal of Marketing, 58(July), 53-66.
2. Bejou, D., & Palmer A., 1998, “Service failure and loyalty: An exploratory empirical study of airline customer”, Journal of Service Marketing, 12(1), pp.7-22.
3. Bettencourt, Lance A., 1997, “Customer Voluntary Performance: Customers As Partners in Service Delivery”, Journal of Retailing, 73(Fall), pp.383-406.
4. Bies, Robert J. and Debra L. Shapiro, 1987, “Interactional Fairness Judgments: The Influence of Causal Accounts”, Social Justice Research, 1(2), pp.199-218.
5. Bitner, Bemard H. Booms and Mary Stanfield Tetreault, 1990, “The Service Encounter: Diagnosing Favorable and Unfavorable Incidents”, Journal of Marketing, 54(January), pp.69-82.
6. Bitner, M. J., Booms, B. H., & Mohr, L. A., 1994, “Critical service encounters: The employee’s viewpoint”, Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 95-106.
7. Brinberg, David and Ronald Wood, 1983, “A Resource Exchange Theory Analysis of Consumer Behavior”, Journal of Consumer Research, 10(December), pp.330-338.
8. Cardozo, R. N., 1965, “An experimental study of customer effort, expectation, and satisfaction”, Journal of Marketing Research, 24(8), 244-249.
9. Christo, B., 1997, “An experimental study of service recovery options”, International Journal of Service Industry Management, 8(1), 110-130.
10. Conlon, D. E. and Murry N. M., 1996, “Customer Perception of Corporate Responses to Product Complaints: The Role of Explanations”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol.39, pp.1040-1056.
11. Cronin, J. Joseph, Jr. and Steven A. Taylor, 1992, “Measuring Service 89
Quality: A Reexamination and Extension”, Journal of Marketing, 56(3), pp.55-68.
12. Crosby, Lawrence A., Kenneth R. Evans, and Deborah Cowles, 1990, “Relationship Quality in Service Selling: An Interpersonal Influence Perspective”, Journal of Marketing, 54(3), pp.68-81.
13. Czepiel, John A., 1990, “Service Encounters and Service Relationships: Implications for Research”, Journal of Business Research, 20(1), pp.13-21.
14. Deutsch, M., 1975, “Distributive Justice”, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.
15. Dwyer, F. Robert, Paul H. Schurr and Sejo Oh, 1987, “Developing Buyer-Seller Relationships”, Journal of Marketing, 51(April), pp.11-27.
16. Ellen Garbarino and Mark S. Johnson, 1999, “The Different Roles of Satisfaction, Trust and Commitment in Customer Relationships”, Journal of Marketing, 63(April), pp.70-87.
17. Etzel, M. J., & Silverman, B.I., 1988, “A managerial perspective on directions for retail customer dissatisfaction research”, Journal of Retailing, 57(3), 124-136.
18. Folkes Valerie S. Kolestsky S. and Graham J. L., 1987, “A Field Study of Causal Influences and Consumer Reaction: The View from the Airport”, Journal of Consumer Research, 13(March), pp.534-539.
19. Folkes Valerie S., 1984, “Consumer Reaction to Product Failure: An Attribution Approach”, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol.10, pp.398-409.
20. Fornell, C., & Wernerfelt, B., 1987, “Defensive marketing strategy by customer complaint management: A theoretical analysis”, Journal of Marketing Research, 24(11), 337-346.
21. Fornell Claes, 1992, “A National Customer Satisfaction Barometer: The Swedish Experience”, Journal of Marketing, 56(January), pp.6-21.
22. Garbarino, E., & Johnson, S., 1999, “The different roles of satisfaction, trust, and commitment in customer relationships”, Journal of Marketing,63(4), 70-87.
23. Gilly, M. C., 1987, “Post complaint processes: From organizational response to repurchase behavior”, Journal of Consumer Affairs, 21(2),
pp.293-313.
24. Goodwin, Cathy and Ivan Ross, 1992, “Consumer Responses to Service Failures: Influence of Procedural and Interactional Fairness Perceptions”, Journal of Business Research, 25(September), pp.149-163.
25. Green, S. G., & Linden, R. C., 1980, “Contextual and attributional influences on control decision”, Journal of Applies Psychology, 13(2), pp.453-458.
26. Gummesson, E., 1993, “Relationship marketing: From 4Ps to 30Rs”, Stockholm: Stockholm University.
27. Gundlach Gregory T., Ravi S. Achrol, and John T. Mentzer, 1995, “The Structure of Commitment in Exchange”, Journal of Marketing, 59(January), pp.78-92.
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