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研究生:尹紹安
研究生(外文):Shao-An Yin
論文名稱:提升光邊界閘道器協定於備份路由穩定之研究
論文名稱(外文):Enhancement of OBGP for Backup Routing
指導教授:王文楓王文楓引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:電子與資訊工程研究所碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:63
中文關鍵詞:備份路由收斂OBGPBGP
外文關鍵詞:OBGPBGPBackup RoutingConvergence
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在本論文中,我們研究了光邊界閘道器協定(OBGP)以及傳統BGP於備份路由時系統穩定等兩個領域。Internet連接了數以千計的Autonomous Systems(簡稱ASes),不同的AS利用BGP來交換路由資訊。BGP是一種跨區域(Interdomain)的協定,它允許每個AS去設定屬於自己的規則(Local Policies)以選擇出最佳的路由、以及決定是否要將某個訊息傳遞出去。一旦線路或是路由器發生錯誤時,BGP會取消遭遇錯誤的路由,然後選擇另一條安全路徑作為備份路由。在過去的研究裡,為了保證BGP在備份路由的情況下仍能保持系統穩定,數個對 BGP的限定已經被提出。另一方面,佈建高頻寬光纖網路以應付呈爆炸性成長的網路流量已經是一個已知的解決方案。光 BGP(OBGP)提供了跨區域路由和建立連線的能力,不僅結合了光網路裡面不同的區域(Domains)、而且還可以相容於大部份現存的 Intradomain解決方案。OBGP的主要目的是讓網路用戶端有能力透過光網路控制與建立光路徑。在提昇網路可靠度的議題上,我們提出了一個機制,稱為 OBGP-BR,其中包含數個指導方針(Guidelines)以供ASes設定他們的路由規則、以及一個替OBGP找出最佳安全備份路徑的演算法。在驗證了我們提出的方法後,我們可以保証我們的模組在 OBGP 於備份路由時仍是安全穩定的,而且對OBGP的整體改變是輕微且可以接受的。
In this thesis, we investigate the Optical Border Gateway Protocol (OBGP) and stable backup routing with traditional BGP. The Internet connects thousands of Autonomous Systems (ASes) that exchange routing information by means of BGP. BGP is an interdomain protocol that allows ASes to apply local policies for selecting the best route and to decide whether to propagate this route to other Ases or not. When a failure occurs in a link or a router, BGP may withdraw the malfunctioning route and select an alternate path for backup routing. In previous researches, several restrictions for BGP in order to guarantee that the system is stable with backup routing have been proposed. On the other hand, to exploit huge bandwidth of fiber optical networks is a well-known solution for the explosive growth of Internet traffic. Optical BGP (OBGP) provides an interdomain routing/signaling capability that integrates heterogeneous domains into an end-to-end optical network and is capable of coexisting with most of the existing intradomain solution. The goal of OBGP is to provide an edge network customer with a control method to establish a lightpath through optical networks. With regard to increasing network reliability, we propose an approach, which is called OBGP-BR. It allows AS to follow the guidelines as to setting its own routing policies and provides an algorithm for OBGP protocol to find the best safety backup path. After verifying our proposal, we can guarantee that our model is inherently safe under OBGP backup routing and the overall changes for OBGP are slight and acceptable.
ABSTRACT --------------------------------------------------------------------------- vii
CONTENTS --------------------------------------------------------------------------- ix
TABLES --------------------------------------------------------------------------- x
FIGURES --------------------------------------------------------------------------- xi
1 INTRODUCTIONS--------------------------------------------------- 1
2 OBGP SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE------------------------------- 6
2.1 BACKGROUND------------------------------------------------------ 6
2.1.1 BGP Message Types-------------------------------------------------- 7
2.1.2 Routing Information Bases (RIBs)--------------------------------- 8
2.2 OBGP DESIGN------------------------------------------------------- 9
2.2.1 Leveraging BGP Properties------------------------------------------ 9
2.2.2 Combining OXCs with BGP Routers------------------------------- 10
2.2.3 Virtual BGP Routers-------------------------------------------------- 11
2.2.4 Lightpath Route Arbiter and Switch Control Server-------------- 14
2.2.5 The Prototype---------------------------------------------------------- 15
2.3 OBGP LIGHTPATH PROVISIONING---------------------------- 19
2.3.1 Two Phases of Operation--------------------------------------------- 19
2.3.2 Encoding Optical Lightpath Information in BGP----------------- 20
2.3.3 The Process Example------------------------------------------------- 21
3 CONVERGENCE BACKUP ROUTING-------------------------- 25
3.1 CONVERGENCE ISSUE ON BACKUP ROUTE OF BGP---- 25
3.2 ROUTING POLICY MODEL OF BGP---------------------------- 28
3.3 RESTRICTIVE PROPERTIES FOR SAFE BACKUP ROUTE----------------------------------------------------------------- 31
4 OBGP WITH BACKUP ROUTING-------------------------------- 38
4.1 OBGP-BR OVERVIEW---------------------------------------------- 38
4.2 POLICY GUIDELINES FOR STABLE BACKUP ROUTING 43
4.3 BEST BACKUP PATH FINDING ALGORITHM--------------- 45
4.4 A REAL-WORLD OBGP BACKUP EXAMPLE 49
4.5 IMPLEMENTING SAFE BACKUP ROUTING IN OBGP---- 53
5 CONCLUSIONS------------------------------------------------------ 57
BIBLIOGRAPHY ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 58
APPENDIX ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 61
Bibliography
[1]J. Moy, "OSPF Version 2," RFC 1247, July 1991.
[2]R. Perlman, “A Comparison Between Two Routing Protocols: OSPF and IS-IS,” IEEE Network Mag., Sep. 1991, pp. 18-24.
[3]Y. Rekhter and T. Li, “A border gateway protocol,” RFC 1771 (BGP version4), March 1995.
[4]T. G. Griffin and G. Wilfong, “An analysis of BGP convergence properties,” ACM SIGCOMM, September 1999.
[5]Lixin Gao, T. G. Griffin, et al., “Inherently safe backup routing with BGP,” IEEE INFOCOM, Vol. 1, April 2001, pp.547-556.
[6]B. St.Arnaud, et al., “Optical BGP Networks Discussion Paper,” Revised Draft, July 2000.
[7]M. Francisco, et al., “Interdomain routing in optical networks,” in Opticomm 2001, Proceeding of SPIE Vol.4599, pp. 120-129, August 2001.
[8]M. Francisco, et al., “End-to-end signaling and routing for optical networks,” IEEE ICC, Vol.5, April 2002, pp. 2870-2875.
[9]M. Blanchet and B. St.Arnaud, “Optical BGP (OBGP): InterAS lightpath provisioning,” Internet draft, , August 2001.
[10]Timothy Griffin and Gordon Wilfong, “A safe path vector protocol,” IEEE INFOCOM, March 2000.
[11]T. G. Griffin, F. B. Shepherd, and G. Wilfong, “Policy disputes in pathvector protocols,” Inter. Conf. on Network Protocols, November 1999.
[12] T. G. Griffin, F. B. Shepherd, and G. Wilfong, “The stable paths problem and interdomain routing,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, Volume 10, Issue 2 , April 2002, pp.232–243.
[13]W. Hong, “Inter-domain routing in optical networks: A distributed objects/agents-aased approach,” January 2002,
URL: http://obgp.canet4.net/jan2002.pdf.
[14]W. Hong, “Towards an OBGP prototype - A distributed objects approach,” May 2001, URL: http://obgp.canet4.net/may10.pdf.
[15]T. Bates, et al., “Multiprotocol extensions for BGP4,” RFC 2858, June 2000.
[16]S. R. Sangli, D. Tappan, et al. “BGP extended communities attribute,” Internet draft, , March 2004.
[17]Lixin Gao, “On inferring autonomous system relationships in the Internet,” IEEE Global Internet Symposium, November 2000.
[18]Lixin Gao and Jennifer Rexford, “Stable Internet routing without global coordination,” ACM SIGMETRICS, June 2000.
[19]B. St.Arnaud, et al., “Optical BGP Networks Paper Figures,” July 2000, URL: http://obgp.canet4.net/OpticalBGPNetworks-Figures.ppt.
[20]R. Chandra, P. Traina, et al., “BGP communities attribute,” RFC 1997, August 1996.
[21]E. Chen and T. Bates, “An application of the BGP community attribute in multi-home routing,” RFC 1998, August 1996.
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