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研究生:李進傑
研究生(外文):Jin-Jie Li
論文名稱:TCP/IP加速引擎之研究與改良
論文名稱(外文):Research and Enhancement on TCP/IP Offload Engines
指導教授:王文楓王文楓引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-Fong F Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:電子與資訊工程研究所碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:100
外文關鍵詞:Gigabit Ethernetinterrupt coalescing with TOSTCP/IP protocol stack
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在本論文中,將考察能夠提升高速網路中TCP/IP通訊協定效能的技術,並指出處理TCP/IP所需的代價,然後進一步說明七種用於改善問題的技術。同時,我們將列舉五種研究,以尋求增進在高速網路下�v例如:Gigabit乙太網路�wTCP/IP的效能。為了能同時顧慮緊急的資料在高網路負載時高產量與低網路負載時低延遲時間的雙重特性,我們另外提出一種策略,能讓TCP/IP加速引擎中adaptive interrupt coalescing這項技術,依靠識別TOS標籤來動態地調整interrupt coalescing的參數。為了驗證我們的構想,我們用Linux平台在Gigabit乙太網路的環境下做實驗。我們在這個平臺上已建構出數個實驗,並且做一些效能的量測。最後,我們將以實驗所得的圖表,顯示其在未來結合高速網路的優勢。
In this thesis, we survey the techniques to enhance the performance of the TCP/IP protocol stack for high-speed networks. Some overheads of protocol processing are pointed out, and then, seven important techniques for treating these overheads are discussed in further detailed. We investigate five representative researches published in the literature to seek some enhancement strategy for improving TCP/IP implementations in high-speed networks such as Gigabit Ethernet. To achieve high throughput during heavy traffic and low latency during light traffic for urgent data flow, we propose an enhancement strategy for TCP/IP offload engines using the technique of adaptive interrupt coalescing with types of service (TOS) to allow of dynamically adjusting the interrupt coalescing parameters. To verify our proposal, we realize an experiment running on Linux environment, networking with Gigabit Ethernet. Several experiments are conceived to perform over the implementation platform to obtain some performance measure. From the experimental figures, it shows the superiority of applications to integrate with future high-speed networks.
第一章 緒論 15
第二章 耗費說明與技術簡介 17
2.1 一般TCP/IP通訊協定架構的運作 17
2.2 不必要的耗費 18
2.2.1 記憶體流量 18
2.2.2 計算加總檢查 19
2.2.3 中斷負載 19
2.2.4 通訊協定的處理 20
2.3 降低耗費之技術 21
2.3.1 加速加總檢查 22
2.3.2 預測封包頭 22
2.3.3 增加封包大小 23
2.3.4 INTERRUPT COALESCING和POLLING 23
2.3.5 分割 24
2.3.6 ZERO-COPY 24
2.3.7 OS-BYPASS 26
第三章 相關的應用 27
3.1 ARSENIC 27
3.2 IP分割 28
3.3 TRAPEZE/IP 29
3.4 ALACRITECH SLIC 29
3.5 WINSOCK DIRECT 30
第四章 ADAPTIVE INTERRUPT COALESCING WITH TOS 32
4.1 ADAPTIVE INTERRUPT COALESCING WITH TOS的基本原理 32
4.2 區分IP封包 32
第五章 實驗 34
5.1 實驗平台 34
5.2 修改驅動程式 35
5.2.1 普通的LINUX乙太網路的驅動程式 36
5.2.2 ADAPTIVE INTERRUPT COALESCING的程式碼 37
5.2.3 修改ADAPTIVE INTERRUPT COALESCING 39
5.3 ADAPTIVE INTERRUPT COALESCING WITH TOS的效果 40
第六章 結論 48

CONTENTS

CHARPTER 1 49
CHARPTER 2 52
2.1 TYPICAL OPERATION OF THE TCP/IP PROTOCOL STACK 52
2.2 OVERHEADS 54
2.2.1 Memory traffic 54
2.2.2 Checksum computation 55
2.2.3 Interrupt load 56
2.2.4 Protocol processing 57
2.3 TECHNIQUES FOR REDUCING OVERHEADS 59
2.3.1 Checksum offloading 59
2.3.2 Header prediction 61
2.3.3 Increased frame size 61
2.3.4 Interrupt coalescing and polling 62
2.3.5 Fragmentation and segmentation 63
2.3.6 Zero-copy 65
2.3.7 OS-bypass 67
CHARPTER 3 69
3.1 ARSENIC 69
3.2 IP FRAGMENTATION 71
3.3 TRAPEZE/IP 72
3.4 ALACRITECH SLIC 73
3.5 WINSOCK DIRECT 74
CHARPTER 4 76
4.1 THE CONCEPT OF ADAPTIVE INTERRUPT COALESCING WITH TOS 76
4.2 CLASSIFYING IP PACKETS 77
CHARPTER 5 79
5.1 EXPERIMENT PLATFORM 79
5.2 DRIVER MODIFICATION 81
5.2 .1 A common Linux Ethernet driver 82
5.2.2 The part of code for adaptive interrupt coalescing 84
5.2 .3 Adaptive interrupt coalescing modification 86
5.3 EFFECTS ON ADAPTIVE INTERRUPT COALESCING WITH TOS 88
CHARPTER 6 98
REFERENCES 99
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[2]Evangelos P. Markatos, 2002, “Speeding up TCP/IP: Faster Processors are not enough”, In 21st IEEE International Performance, Computing, and Communication Conference, pages 341-345, Phoenix, Arizona, April.
[3]J. C. Mogul and K. K. Ramakrishnan, 1997, “Eliminating receive livelock in an interrupt-driven kernel”, ACM Transactions on Computer Systems, vol.15, no.3, pp.217-252, August.
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[5]Clark D., 1982, “Modularity and Efficiency in Protocol Implementation”, RFC 817
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[7]Gregory Finn, Steve Hotz, and Rodney Van Meter, 1996, “The impact of a zero-scan internet checksumming mechanism”, ACM Computer Communication. Review, vol.26. no 5, pp. 27-39, October.
[8]Steenkiste P., 1998, “Design, implementation and evaluation of a single-copy protocol stack”, Software - Practice and Experience, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 749-772, June.
[9]Gilfeather P. and Underwood T., 2001, “Fragmentation and High Performance IP”, In: Workshop on Communication Architecture for Clusters CAC ’01, San Francisco, 27 April.
[10]Jacobson V., 1990, “4BSD Header Prediction”. ACM Computer Communication Review, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 13-15.
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[12]Broadcom BCM5700 product brief
URL: http://www.broadcom.com/pbs/BCM5700.pdf
[13]Andrew Gallatin, Jeff Chase, and Ken Yocum, 1999, “Trapeze/IP: TCP/IP at Near-Gigabit Speeds”, Proceedings of USENIX Technical Conference, June.
[14]SLIC technology overview
URL: http://www.alacritech.com/html/tech_review.html
[15]GAMMA Project: Genoa Active Message MAchine
URL: http://www.disi.unige.it/project/gamma
[16]P. Shivam, P. Wycko , and D. Panda., 2001, “EMP: Zero-copy OS-bypass NIC-driven Gigabit Ethernet message passing”, In the Proceedings of Supercomputing '01. Denver, November.
[17]Information about Winsock Direct
URL:http://www.microsoft.com/windows2000/en/datacenter/help/wsd_concepts.htm
[18]Colleen Shannon, David Moore, and K. Claffy, 2001, "Characteristics of fragmented IP traffic on Internet links", RIPE Workshop on Passive and Active Measurements.
[19]Marko Zec, Miljenko Mikuc, Mario Zagar, 2002, “Estimating the Impact of Interrupt Coalescing Delay on Steady State TCP Throughput” in Proceedings of the 10th SoftCOM Conference, October.
[20]P. Almquist, 1992, “Type of Service in the Internet Protocol Suite”, RFC 1349.
[21]Alessandro Rubini and Jonathan Corbet, 2001, “Linux Device Drivers 2nd”, ISBN 0-596-00008-1.
[22]ARON, M., AND DRUSCHEL, P, 2000, “Soft timers: Efficient microsecond software timer support for network processing”, ACM Transactions on Computer Systems, vol.18, no.3, pp.197-228.
[23]Setsockopt Is Unable to Mark the Internet Protocol Type of Service Bits in Internet Protocol Packet Header
http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=KB;en-us;q248611
[24]K. Thompson, G. J. Miller, and R. Wilder, 1997, “Wide-Area Internet Traffic Patterns and Characteristics”, IEEE Network, Nov./Dec. 1997, pp. 10-23.
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