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研究生:林純安
研究生(外文):Chun-an Lin
論文名稱:組織認定-競爭優勢的來源
論文名稱(外文):Organizational Identity as a Source of Competitive Advantage
指導教授:賴志超賴志超引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chih-chao Lai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:應用外語系碩士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:148
中文關鍵詞:組織認定組織認同競爭優勢策略
外文關鍵詞:organizational identityorganizational identificationstrategycompetitive advantage
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本研究首先試圖探討組織成員對組織策略管理及領導者影響力的觀感如何影響他們對組織的認同,基於Cook and Wall (1980)及Porter et al. (1974)所發展的研究,本研究設計問卷並進行前測調查以衡量成員的組織承諾及認同。前測的結果顯示成員對組織策略管理及領導者影響力的觀感對他們組織認同強度的影響不大,即成員們較重視組織正義,尤其是分配正義與人際正義,他們對組織可能只有情境認同(Situated identification),組織成員們通常在有報酬的情境下對組織產生情境認同,當報酬誘因消失時,他們對組織的認同也隨之消失。不同於情境認同,深層結構認同(Deep structure identification)所持續的時間較長,且即便誘因消失,成員對組織的認同依然存在,對組織有益。因此,組織需增強成員對組織的深層結構認同而非情境認同。由於顯著的組織認定是建構深層結構認同的重要元素,本研究轉而進一步探討組織認定及其對組織認同、競爭優勢的影響。
由於各組織的認定具有不同的認知構成要素(cognitive components),因此組織認定可做為競爭者無法模仿的競爭優勢來源。然而,組織認定的持續性(enduringness)可能隨著時間變得死板、過時,影響組織有效因應環境改變的能力。因此,組織認定被賦予兩項新的特質--更新能力(renewability)與適應能力(adaptiveness)。可自我更新並適應環境的認定與組織的策略之間具有相互作用(reciprocity),並會主導組織的策略方向。在評估組織認定與外部環境間的聚合度(convergence)後,能不斷在營運、策略及認定三個層次進行變革的組織擁有較多的成功機會。本研究進行個案研究,探討台灣企業「鴻海精密工業股份有限公司」的組織變化過程。鴻海成立至今三十年,已成功由傳統製造商轉型為世界領先的電子製造服務(electronics manufacturing services, EMS)提供者,其認定的改變反映到其營運及策略上,展現出可自我更新並適應環境的組織認定,鴻海的組織認定具備更新能力與適應能力,其可視為成功進行組織轉型的典型。經歷過認定主導轉型的組織較有成功的機會,此外,他們所創造的組織認定能提升成員對組織認同的強度,組織成員亦會因此更加關心組織的福址,並展現較多有益於組織的行為。
The present study first attempted to investigate how organizational members’ perception towards strategic management and leadership influence within an organization would affect their identification with the organization. A questionnaire was designed based on Cook and Wall (1980) and Porter et al. (1974) to measure members’ organizational commitment and identification. Followed was a survey as a pilot test. The results suggested that members’ perception towards strategic management and leadership influence had little impact on the strength of their identification with the organization. Members valued organizational justice, especially distributional and interpersonal justice more, implying that they only had situated identification with the organization. Situated identification occurs because of the rewards associated with binding the organization together, and it fades when the incentives disappear. Unlike situated identification, deep structure identification lasts for long and benefits the well-being of the organization. Organizations need to strengthen members’ deep structure identification rather than situated identification. As a significant organizational identity is essential for building deep structure identification, the focus of the present study shifted to organizational identity and its effect on competitive advantages.
With cognitive components that are organization-specific, organizational identity serves as a source of competitive advantage that is difficult for rivals to imitate. However, an enduring identity may become rigid and outdated overtime, depriving the organization’s ability to respond effectively to environmental changes. Thus, organizational identity is given new characteristics of “renewability and adaptiveness.” A renewable and adaptive identity has reciprocity with strategy, leading strategic direction of the organization. After assessing the convergence between organizational identity and external environment, organizations that conduct transformation in operational, strategic and identity levels have more chance to succeed. The present research conducted a case study to investigate the transformational process of a successful Taiwanese corporation-- Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., Ltd.. Hon Hai has successfully transformed itself from the role of a traditional manufacturer to a leading electronics manufacturing services (EMS) provider around the world. The change in its identity has been reflected to its operational and strategic moves. By doing this, it has progressed from traditional manufacturing to high-technology approaches, constantly demonstrating the strength of a renewable and adaptive organizational identity. In conclusion, Hon Hai can be considered as a prototype of an organization with a renewable and adaptive identity and successful organizational transformation. Organizations going through such a process have more chances of success than others. Moreover, they may create a significant identity that strengthens members’ identification with the organization. With a strengthened organizational identification, members would have more concerns over the well-being of the organization and show more behaviors to benefit the organization.
Table of Contents

Chinese Abstract………………………………………i
English Abstract………………………………………iii
Acknowledgement…………………………………………v
Table of Contents………………………………………………vi
List of Tables……………………………………………ix
List of Figures……………………………………………x
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION………………………………1
1.1 Background of the Study………………………1
1.2 Purpose of the Study………………………………7
1.3 Significance of the Study………………………9
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW………………………10
2.1 Theoretical Background of Organizational Identification………………………10
2.1.1 Organizational Identity versus Organizational Identification1…………10
2.1.2 The Impact of Organizational Identification on Members……………14
2.1.3 The Consequences of Organizational Identification…………16
2.1.4 Individual Identity, Organizational Identity and Identification…………19
2.1.5 The new face of organizational identity…22
2.1.6 Multiple Organizational Identities………26
2.2 Organizational Identity and Strategy…………32
2.2.1 Linkage between Organizational Identity and Strategy……32
2.2.2 Strategic Management……………………………37
2.2.2.1 The Concept and Nature of Strategic Management……………38
2.2.2.2 The Definition of Strategy…………………39
2.2.2.3 Strategic Management Process………………41
2.2.2.4 Porter’s Generic Strategies…………44
2.2.2.5 Strategic Analysis and Choice……………52
2.2.2.6 Implementation, Feedback and Control of Competitive Strategy…………54
2.2.2.7 Perceived Strategic Advantages and Organizational Identification ……………56
2.3 Reviews on Leadership Influence………62
2.3.1 The Definition of Leadership…………………62
2.3.2 Brief Overview on Leadership Research Literature…………………64
2.4 Organizational Commitment………………………69
2.4.1 The Definition of Organizational Commitment………………69
2.4.2 Antecedents and Consequences of Organizational Commitment………………………71
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY………………………75
3.1.1 Instrument………………………………………75
3.1.2 Subjects and Research Procedure……………77
3.1.3 Statistic Results for Pilot Test……………78
3.1.4 Discussion for the Results of Pilot Test…82
3.2 Case Study…………………………………………85
3.2.1 A Shift in Research and Methodological Focus……………………………85
3.2.2 Instrument and Research Procedure…………86
3.2.3 Why Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., Ltd as the Targeted Case………………………88
CHAPTER FOUR CASE STUDY………………………………90
4.1 Electronics Manufacturing Services (EMS) Industry…90
4.1.1 Background Information of EMS Industry……90
4.1.2 The EMS industry in Asia……………92
4.1.3 Future Development of EMS Industry…………95
4.2 The Case of Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., Ltd. ……………99
4.2.1 Background Information of the Company ………………99
4.2.2 Renewal and Redefinition of Hon Hai’s Organizational Identity……104
4.2.3 Conclusion……………………………………109
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION…………112
5.1 Conclusion…………………………………………112
5.2 Suggestion for Future Research………………114
REFERENCES………………………………115
APPENDIX 1…………………………………………143

List of Tables
Table 3.1: Variables and Operational Definitions of Strategic Advantages………76
Table 3.2: Statistic Results of the Pilot Test……………………………………82
Table 4.1: Milestone of Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., Ltd. …………………102
Table 4.2: Hon Hai’s Strategic Layout……………………………111

List of Figures
Figure 2.1: Organizational Identification………………………………………13
Figure 2.2: Strategic Management Process…………………………………………42
Figure 2.3: The Contrast between Corporate Level Strategy and
Business Level Strategy………………………………54
Figure 4.1 The Changing Role of EMS Providers…………………………………97
Figure 4.2: Revenue, Net Income and Inventory Level of Major EMS Providers
Through 2000 to 2004……………………………………98
Figure 4.3: Prediction for Electronic Equipment Production Growth……………99
Figure 4.4: Revenue, Income and Inventory of Hon Hai from 1998 to 2002……100
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