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研究生:黃詩琦
研究生(外文):Shih-Chi Huang
論文名稱:國中基本學力測驗對英語教學的影響
論文名稱(外文):Washback Effects of the Basic Competence English Test on EFL Teaching in Junior High School in Taiwan
指導教授:鄧慧君鄧慧君引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:應用外語系碩士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:132
中文關鍵詞:回沖效應入學考試
外文關鍵詞:Entrance ExaminationsWashback effects
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本研究透過教師與學生之問卷與訪談,探討國中基本學力測驗英語科(以下簡稱英語基測)對英語教學的影響。因國中英語基測為目前高中入學考試科目之一,勢必將對國中英語教學帶來回沖效應(washback effects)。根據Bailey (1996)提出的回沖效應模式(model of washback),大型標準化測驗將對教學教材、教法、評量和學生學習產生影響。因此,主要研究問題分別為:國中基本學力測驗英語科的實施對國中英語教學(1)教材、(2)教法、(3)評量、及(4)學生學習的影響為何?
本研究的受測對象為北、中、南區共82位英語教師及351位國三生。量化研究的部分將採用描述性統計,呈現問卷中各題之答題平均數、標準差、以及答題百分比。本研究亦兼採質性訪談的方式,蒐集教師及學生對英語基測影響的看法,以期與問卷結果相互對照應證。
本研究結果指出英語基測對於國中英語教學教材、教法、評量及學生學習四方面,具有正面及負面的影響。首先,在英語教材方面,英語基測會影響教師教科書的選擇、課外閱讀材料的補充、和多元教具的使用。其次,在英語基測實施後,受測教師在英語教法上,會透過英語基測歷年試題的練習,來指導學生閱讀的技巧。此外,他們亦傾採多元化的教學方式,以加強學生的基本語料知識和語用溝通能力。再者,在英語評量方面,學校段考會仿效英語基測的試題題型及內容,但受訪者仍強調採用不同的題型,考學生寫作及聽力。最後,受測學生表示因英語基測關乎入學成積,他們便會努力準備,先從課本中的語法重點準備起,再加上老師補充的教材。本研究結果提出對英語教學與學習、英語基測未來的命題及實施的一些啟示。
The current study intends to investigate washback effects of the Basic Competence English Test for Junior High School Students (BCET) on EFL teaching in junior high school through questionnaire and interview with English teachers and students. Since the BCET provides the criteria to admit junior high school students to senior high schools, its washback effects have become important issues to be addressed. Based on Bailey’s (1996) model of washback, a high-stake standardized test would exert influence on EFL teaching materials, methodology, assessment, and students’ learning. Accordingly, the research questions of the study are: What effects does the BCET have on EFL teaching materials, teaching methods, assessment, and students’ learning in junior high school?
In the present study, the subjects were 82 English teachers and 351 third-grade students chosen from different junior high schools in northern, central, and northern Taiwan. The quantitative data was analyzed by descriptive statistics to present the mean, standard deviation, and percentage of the responses for each item. Then the interview was transcribed and utilized as complementary opinions. Major findings show both positive and negative washback effects of the BCET on EFL teaching materials, methods, assessment, and students’ learning.
First, the BCET exerts influence on teachers’ decision on selecting textbooks, providing extra reading authentic materials, and adopting realistic audio-visual aids. Second, after the administration of the BCET, teachers would provide more authentic similar to the BCET for extensive reading and instruct reading strategies. Also, they preferred to utilize multiple teaching approaches to enhance both learners’ basic linguistic knowledge and communicative competence. Third, school examinations imitate the lively item contents and types of the BCET; however, the subjects still insisted on evaluating students’ listening and wiring abilities through different item types. Finally, students were motivated extrinsically by the BCET to focus on main grammatical knowledge on textbooks and the additional reading materials offered in class. Through the discovered results, the present study will contribute to the improvement of the BCET items and provide suggestions toward the administration of the BCET and the reformation of the current EFL teaching and learning in junior high school.
Abstract (Chinese) i
Abstract (English) ii
Acknowledgement iv
Table of Contents v
List of Tables viii
List of Figures ix
List of Appendixes x
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
Background of the Study 1
Purpose of the Study 4
Definition of Key Terms 5
Significance of the Study 6
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 8
Theoretic Perspectives of Washback Effect 8
Definition of Washback 8
Classification of Washback 11
The Way Washback Works 13
Research on Washback Effects of Language Tests 15
Overview of the Basic Competence Test (BCT) 19
Background of the BCT 20
Definition of the BCT 21
Characteristics of the BCT 22
Administration of the BCT 24
Format of the BCET 26
Related Studies on Washback Effects of
EFL Entrance Examinations in Taiwan 27
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 32
Subjects 32
Instruments 33
The Questionnaire 33
The Interview Guide 34
Procedures 35
Data Analysis 36
Pilot Study 36
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS 38
Results of Questionnaires 38
Questionnaire for English Teachers 39
Questionnaire for Junior High Students 45
Participants’ Complementary Information 48
Results of Interview 51
Interview with English Teachers 51
Interview with Junior High Students 55
CHAPTER FIVE DISSCUSION AND CONCLUSIONS 58
Summary of the Study 58
Discussion of the Results 59
Washback Effects of the BCET on EFL Teaching Materials 60
Washback Effects of the BCET on EFL Teaching Methods 63
Washback Effects of the BCET on EFL Assessment 66
Washback Effects of the BCET on EFL Learning 68
Implications of the Study 72
Reformation of Current EFL Teaching 73
Suggestions for Students’ Learning 77
Improvement of the BCET Item Format 79
Limitations and Suggestions for Further Research 80
Conclusions 83
REFERENCES 85
APPENDIXES 95
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