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研究生:李芳三
研究生(外文):Fan-San Lee
論文名稱:從追隨者角度探討文化對領導的影響─以證嚴上人和佛教慈濟功德會為例
論文名稱(外文):A Leadership Research of Cultural Influence from Follower''s Perspective─ A Case Study on Master Cheng Yen and Buddhist Tzu Chi Merit Society
指導教授:賴志超賴志超引用關係
指導教授(外文):Zhi-chao Lai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:應用外語系碩士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:160
中文關鍵詞:魅力領導慈濟人證嚴上人追隨者行為焦點團體訪談佛教慈濟功德會
外文關鍵詞:Master Cheng YenCharismatic leadershipFocus group discussionBuddhist Tzu Chi Merit SocietyFollowershipTzu Chi people
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本研究從追隨者的觀點探討領導研究 ,目的在於了解文化如何影響追隨者對領導行為的觀感及對領導者的選擇 ,本篇的研究對象為證嚴上人及佛教慈濟功德會, 研究的資料來自於兩個來源:焦點團體訪談及文獻分析, 本研究共進行了四場焦點團體訪談 訪問了32 位慈濟人。
焦點團體訪談的資料完整的謄寫成文字稿並和從文獻取得的資料一併分析, 資料分析是按照研究問題的順序一一探討 。研究顯示證嚴上人為一魅力領導者, 另外六種傳統文化及五大類的社會現況皆有利於佛教慈濟功德會的發展 , 本研究也探討這些追隨者其加入功德會他們的需求。
資料分析顯示儘管文化和社會現況皆有利於佛教慈濟功德會的發展, 但真正能滿足慈濟人的需求併把慈濟轉變成一個積極參與社會及重視個人修行的組織的力量是來自於證嚴上人個人的魅力及領導風格, 這正是慈濟吸引人的地方。
總而言之, 本研究顯示 :領導者的特質、文化及社會因素都會影響領導行為的有效性, 社會現況有助於將領導者呈現給潛在的追隨者, 而當領導者的特質和追隨者的需求一致時 ,追隨者行為便可能出現。
This study approached leadership research from followers'' perspective. It aimed at understanding how culture affected followers'' perception of leadership and selection of leaders. The case studied was Master Cheng Yen and Buddhist Tzu Chi Merit Society. Data collected consisted of focus group discussions and existing documents. In addition to one pilot testing group, four focus group sessions were held; thirty-two Tzu Chi people in three locations were invited to attend the focus group discussions.
Complete transcriptions of focus group discussion were analyzed with data collected from documents. Data were analyzed in accordance with the listed research questions. This study identified Master Cheng Yen''s charismatic leadership, and concluded six types of traditional cultural patterns and five categories of social factors that were conducive to the development of Buddhist Tzu Chi Merit Society; it also distinguished the followers'' needs that led them into the organization.
Further analysis indicated that cultural and social factors were beneficial to the development of Buddhist Tzu Chi Merit Society. It was the personal charisma and effective leadership of Master Cheng Yen, however, that satisfied the needs of Tzu Chi people and transferred Tzu Chi into an active organization and a place for personal moral practice. Therefore, after joining Tzu Chi, many people never considered pulling back.
In sum, this study recognized that effective leadership was the combination of leader''s characteristics and cultural and social reality. Social reality also facilitated portraying the leader to its potential followers. When leaders'' characteristics met followers'' needs, followership might happen.
Table of Contents
Chapter One Introduction 1
Background of the Study 1
Purpose of the Study 4
Definition of Terms 7
Significance of the Study 7
Limit of the Study 8
Chapter Two Literature Review 9
Leadership 9
Defining Leadership 10
Development of Leadership Theories 13
Introduction to Contemporary Leadership Theories 18
Summary of Leadership Theories 30
Criticism of Leadership Theories and an Integrated Conceptual Framework of Leadership Study 32
Followers and Followership 35
Followership Research 36
Culture 44
Definitions of Culture 45
Identifying National Culture 49
Culture and Leadership 59
Master Cheng Yen and Buddhist Tzu Chi Merit Society 66
A Humble Beginning to a Great Achievement: Master Cheng Yen and Buddhist Tzu Chi Merit Society 66
Master Cheng Yen’s Leadership 70
Master Cheng Yen versus Other Buddhist Masters 72
Summary- Conceptual Framework 75
Chapter Three Methods 77
Qualitative Approach and Leadership Study 77
Research Methods 78
Focus Group Design 81
Document Analysis 84
Data Presentation 84
Chapter 4 Results 86
The First Encounter with Tzu Chi 86
Descriptions of the Focus Group Sessions 87
Research Questions Revisit 89
Analysis of Data 89
What Cultural Factors Are Conducive to Tzu Chi''s Success? 90
How Does Master Cheng Yen Lead Buddhist Tzu Chi Merit Society and Tzu Chi People? 104
Why Do Followers Prefer Master Cheng Yen to Other Masters? 119
Chapter 5 Discussion and Conclusion 130
Discussion of Research Questions 130
Findings of the Research 140
Implications for Organizations 144
Contribution of This Research 148
Future Suggestions 149
Bibliography 150
Appendices 155
Bibliography
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