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研究生:林三卜
研究生(外文):San-Pu Lin
論文名稱:ARM處理器之MMX設計與建構
論文名稱(外文):The MMX Technique Design and Construct of ARM Processor
指導教授:黃 朝 章
指導教授(外文):Chaio-Jang Hwang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:元智大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:52
中文關鍵詞:MMX技術離散餘弦轉換架構
外文關鍵詞:ARMMMXAlpha BlendDCT
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多媒體已隨著處理器(Processor)運算處理能力的進步,日益普遍的融入我們生活之中。最近,更有許多的產品被設計研發為家電( Information Appliance )型態、STB( Set-Top-Box )和嵌入式系統。更由於在通訊、電玩、教學性視訊、3D圖形顯示、卡通及音訊等方面在多媒體廣泛之應用,使得作為一多媒體處理器必須具備處理大量資料運算的能力。
目前,ARM處理器為一個最受歡迎且被廣泛應用於嵌入式系統的處理器。在此研究論文中,我們將使用ARM公司之ARM7系列作為基本核心,並以ARM7為平台,去建構及強化它多媒體處理能力。
為了改善ARM7在多媒體資料上的處理效能,我們將修改ARM處理器部分的架構( Architecture ),再增加Intel公司之MMX技術( Technique ),然後合成一個新的架構之多媒體處理器,並藉由MMX技術的平行處理方式,使ARM7處理器於多媒體之資料處理效能大幅提升。
在此文中,將分兩部分來評估效能的提升,一為影像合成( Image Overlaid )的Alpha Blend技術;另一為MPEG影像壓縮編碼流程的離散餘弦轉換(Discrete Cosine Transform)。我們將運用MMX技術它所支援的資料型態及轉換指令( Convert Instruction ),及修改後以嶄新的處理器架構去完成此兩部分的效能評估。在效能評估過程,會透過時脈週期( Clock Cycles)的加總及比較MMX技術被整合至ARM處理器之間的效能差異。而在最後的評估結果,將得到相當高的改善成果。

The multimedia have generally and popularly involved to our life. Recently, many products were developed in the form of IA (Information Appliance), STB (Set-Top-Box), and embedded system. Due to these communications, games, and “edutainment” feature video, 3D graphics, animation, audio and virtual reality of multimedia applications will cause the multimedia microprocessor have to support a large amount of data computing.
The ARM processor is one of the most popular microprocessor for embedded system. In the thesis, we will use the ARM7 processor of ARM company to be the basic core and base on it to enhancement the performance for multimedia applications.
In order to improve the performances of the multimedia data processed. We had planed to modify the part of ARM architecture and added the Intel MMX technique to compose a new multimedia processor. Via the parallel data processing of the MMX technology bring to a highly promoted performance for data computing.
In this research project, we will evaluate the promotion on two parts. One is Alpha Blending of the image overlaid. The other will be the DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform) that the encoded procedure of MPEG video compression. The MMX technique will contain new data type and convert instructions to implement to the integrated new computed architecture. Final, the modified architecture will cause the performance highly improved and enhanced.

Chapter 1. Introduction ............................................1
1.1 Background and Motivation............................2
1.2 Thesis Organization .................................2
Chapter 2. Architecture of ARM Microprocessor ...........3
2.1 The ARM7 Introduction................................3
2.2 Data Type............................................4
2.3 Instruction Length and Switching State...............4
2.4 Pipeline ............................................5
2.5 Register Organization ...............................6
2.6 Instruction Set .....................................8
2.7 The ARM Overall Organization........................10
Chapter 3 MMXTM Technology realization..................13
3.1 MMXTM Data Type ....................................13
3.2 MMX Instruction Set.................................14
3.3 MMX Instruction Application.........................15
3.4 The Construction of MFU.............................19
3.5 RTL of EMM Construction.............................22
Chapter 4. Performance Evaluation.......................30
4.1 Alpha Blending .....................................30
4.2 MPEG Video Data Compression.........................37
Chapter 5. Conclusion and Future Work...................49
5.1 Conclusion..........................................49
5.2 Future Work.........................................49
Bibliography............................................51
Apendix..........................................Apendix-1

[1] Alan V. Oppenheim, Ronald W. Schafer, John R. Buck “Discrete-Time Signal Processing” Second Edition, Prentice_Hall Inc. , 1999
[2] Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson, Tonald L. Rivest, Clifford Stein “ Introduction to Algorithms” Second Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Comp., 2001
[3] “ARM7TDMI(Thumb) Data Sheet” ATMEL Corp. January 1999
[4] Steve furber,”ARM System-On-Chip Architecture” Second Edition, ADDISON-WESLEY Book Corp., March 2000
[5] Chein Wei Jen, KB Lee,”ARM Processor Core and SoC Architecture” National Chiao Tung University. July 2002.
[6] Craig R. Barrett “The Complete Guide To MMX Technology” McGraw-Hill Book Comp., 1997
[7] MPEG-2 Information technology-“Generic coding of moving picture and associated audio information: system” ISO/IEC 13818-1, 1995
[8] “IA-32 Intel Architecture Software Developer’s Manual Volume 1: Basic Architecture” Intel Corp., 2002
[9] “Accelerating JPEG pipeline components— DCT, quantization and level shifting” , Intel Corp., June 2002
[10] John G. Apostolopoulos, “Image and Video Compression” Streaming Media Systems Group of HP corp. Spring 2002
Bibliography
[1] Barry B. Brey “The Intel Microprocessors” Fifth Edition, Prentice_Hall Inc. , 2000
[2] John L. Hennessy, David A. Patterson “ Computer Architecture A Quantitative Approach” Third Edition, Morgan Kaufmann Publisher , 2003
[3] John L. Hennessy, David A. Patterson “ Computer Organization & Design” Second Edition, Morgan Kaufmann Publisher , 1998
[4] Charles H. Roth. “ Digital Systems Design Using VHDL” PWS Publisher Comp. 1998
[5] MPEG-2 Information technology-“Generic coding of moving picture and associated audio information: video” ISO/IEC 13818-2, 1995
[6] MPEG-4 overview “ Overview of the MPEG-4 Standard: Coding of Moving Pictures and Audio” ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 N4030 ,March 2001
[7] James Stephen ,Soe Mien Wong “Microcoded Reconfigurable Embedded Processors”, PROEFSCHRIFT Corp. 2002
[8] Yin-Kuan Lin, “High-level Modeling of VLSI System” Yuan Ze University, 2002
[9] D.E. Ott, T.J. Wilderotter, “A Designer’s Guide to VHDL Synthesis”, Kluwer Academic Publishers,1994
[10] Dave Van Den Bout, “The Practical XILINX Designers LAB Book”, Prentice Hall, 1998
[11] F.A. Scarpino, “VHDL and AHDL Digital System Implementation”, Prentice Hall, 1998
[12] K. Konstantinides, V. Bhaskaran , G. Beretta, “Image sharpening in the JPEG domain", IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, June 1999

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