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研究生:吳錦龍
研究生(外文):Wu Chen lung
論文名稱:變動中的JusCogens:緣起、發展與定型
指導教授:李孟玢李孟玢引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:法律學研究所
學門:法律學門
學類:一般法律學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:340
中文關鍵詞:自然法法律實證主義主權強行規律國際社會共同體維也納條約法公約法治對世義務公眾訴追規範位階
外文關鍵詞:Nature LawLegal PositivismSovereignityJus CogensInternational CommunityVienna Convention on the Law of TreatiesRule of Law
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自聯合國國際法委員會(ILC)關於維也納條約法公約草擬委員會第一任報告人Hersch Lauterpacht,於一九五三年提交予聯合國會員大會討論之報告書中指出,國際法某些具有重要性之原則應可構成國際公共政策之原則後 ,雖其並無使用Jus Cogens或強行規律(peremptory norm)等名詞,然亦已開啟嗣後研析Jus Cogens概念於國際法中應有意涵與地位之風潮。汲至一九六九年維也納條約法公約正式獲得通過,更加確立Jus Cogens將成為引領國際法邁向另一里程的關鍵因素。
其後,雖仍有國家尚未批准維也納條約法公約,然並非即表示該等國家不支持公約條款之內容,同時亦無損Jus Cogens概念業已被普遍承認之地位。即使於草擬會議當時,基於國家主權原則之理由而反對Jus Cogens概念之國家,之後亦不否認Jus Cogens的確已於國際法中存在之事實。自一九六九年維也納條約法公約提出Jus Cogens概念以來,歷經四、五十年之發展,藉由國際司法實務、國家實踐及學者之論述,關於Jus Cogens此一概念逐漸有一清晰之輪廓浮現,然針對Jus Cogens所涉及之各層面之相關議題,各方意見仍呈現分歧之狀態,是故如何在豐富之實踐中揭開Jus Cogens神秘面紗,將是一重要課題。雖學者Ian Sinclair曾總結歸納相關國際法學家對於Jus Cogens之觀點後,認為:「Jus Cogens的奧秘依然是個謎。」 ,甚至澳大利亞代表亦強調條約法中關於Jus Cogens之規定內容只是陳述出問題所在而非解決問題。然而,經過數十年的發展後,藉由國家實踐、國際司法實務之闡釋與國際法學者之分析,是否已為Jus Cogens此一概念注入更多活力與生命?Jus Cogens是否已呈現另一新風貌?凡此種種均深值吾人加以深入分析與探討。
Jus Cogens規範之設計,毋寧乃是國際法上一個概念性的轉折,對於二十一世紀後的國際政治將具有深遠之影響,從而促進現代國際法之發展,一種新的國際法制度正在形成與蛻變中。而其亦顯示出國際社會對於共同價值與目標追求之執著已無庸置疑,規則導向及國家絕對權力之限制已然成熟,「新主權」之時代業已來臨。自十七世紀民族國家興盛以來,國際法的核心理念已逐漸揚棄「力」與「數」的觀念,轉而追求一和平與安全的健全國際秩序,國與國間彼此以人民生命財產相互對抗的方式亦遭摒除,轉而代之者乃是合作無間地解決共同之難題,「國際社會整體利益」於某些限度內早已凌駕於「國家利益」之上。
本論文擬從以下幾個面向分析與探討Jus Cogens在現代國際法中應有之地位與面貌,以及其如何帶動國際法制度進行結構性的轉變:(一)從Jus Cogens概念被引入國際法之緣由、背景,以及其背後所呈現之意涵加以介紹,以明瞭國際法從過去到現在究竟面臨如何之轉變與衝擊,並藉此釐清某些已被混淆之概念;(二)其次,由於Jus Cogens概念的導入,對國際法制度所為之影響不可謂不大,因而本論文將論述Jus Cogens對現有國際法制度所產生之影響與衝擊層面究竟為何,如此方可重新架構出現行國際法制度變動後之新面貌;(三)深入剖析Jus Cogens、Obligations Erga Omnes、Actio Popularis三者之連帶關係,並藉由國際司法實務所為之闡釋及國家相關實踐,以求確切掌握三者於國際法中之發展脈動。此外,更一併分析Jus Cogens如何在區域性組織裡發展與進化,並分析國際法新興領域中有無Jus Cogens形成之空間;(四)最後,將回顧傳統國際法如何在時代變遷中進行調整,並就現行國際法規範予以檢視與分析,其中主要者在於檢視當前國際法基本原則中,何者的確已構成Jus Cogens之地位,以及分析Jus Cogens在人權法領域與其他國際法新興領域中如何活躍與轉動。於文末,更將指出現代國際法進一步發展值得注意之方向,以供日後發展參酌之用。
最後,本文作者深信,二十一世紀將是Jus Cogens於國際法中綻放光芒的時代,亦將是國際法制度逐漸成熟的世代,Jus Cogens、Obligations Erga Omnes、Actio Popularis、國際社會整體利益及共同價值(目標)等概念在國際法領域中的深耕與接軌,讓我們可以重新定位國際法在現代國際社會中應有之功能與角色扮演,看到此等意義深遠概念背後所透出的微光以及得到世界性法律(World Law)的導引。
變動中的Jus Cogens
-緣起、發展與定型-
一、 研究動機
二、 研究目的
三、 研究範圍
四、 研究方法

第一章 國際法體系之基礎

第一節 概說
第二節 國際法之法律性質
第一項 難題(Paradox)的源頭:何謂『法律』?
第二項 實證道德論
第三項 法性質承認論
第三節 國際法之存立基礎
第一項 自然法
第二項 法律實證主義
第一款 分析法學
第二款 純粹法學
第四節 過往與未來:轉型中之主權
第一項 傳統國際法下之主權概念
第二項 現代國際法下之主權概念
第三項 Jus Cogens對於主權之衝擊與影響:認真看待主權與法治的一體性
第五節 結語

第二章 Jus Cogens概念之溯源與發展

第一節 概說
第二節 內國法中之Jus Cogens
第一項 Jus Cogens概念的起源、意涵界定及規範功能
第一款 Jus Cogens概念的源起
第二款 Jus Cogens概念之意涵與規範功能
第二項 Jus Cogens與公共秩序(政策)之辯證與連繫
第三節 Jus Cogens於國際法中之法理依據
第一項 自然法
第二項 實證法
第三項 聯合國國際法委員會(ILC)之定調
第四節 國際法中之Jus Cogens:既有法律概念之編篡(Codification)或逐步發展(Progressive Development)之概念
第一項 Jus Cogens表達方式之歸納與分析
第二項 Jus Cogens概念之肯認
第一款 理論的源起
第二款 共識的凝聚與樣貌的型塑:Jus Cogens概念的逐步成長與發展
第三款 初步定型期
第三項 各主要法系對Jus Cogens意涵之闡釋
第五節 結語

第三章 Jus Cogens意涵之界定
第一節 概說
第二節 Jus Cogens之認定標準
第一項 國家之國際社會整體接受
第一款 國家之國際社會整體意涵之闡釋
第二款 國際組織於Jus Cogens所扮演之角色
第三款 相關國際法原則的初步檢視
第一目 自然資源永久主權
第二目 人類共同繼承財產原則
第三目 其它
第四款 小結
第二項 不許損抑
第一款 名詞界定
第二款 不許損抑思維之基礎
第三款 國際法相關原則的初步檢視
第一目 聯合國憲章之基本原則分析
第二目 條約必須遵守原則
第三目 人權法中之絕對權條款
第三項 僅有以後具有同等性質之一般國際法規始得更改之規律
第三節 Jus Cogens之法源
第一項 條約
第二項 習慣法
第三項 法律一般原則
第四節 Jus Cogens於國際法中之功能及其可能衍生之風險
第五節 結語

第四章 Jus Cogens之規範對象及其效力
第一節 概說
第二節 Jus Cogens之效力
第一項 條約法領域中之規制效力
第一款 條約之絕對失效
第一目 條約法公約第五十三條之適用
第二目 與一般國際法新強行規律相抵觸之效力
第二款 Jus Cogens追溯效力的問題
第三款 Jus Cogens概念與條約保留
第二項 條約法領域外的影響層面
第三項 小結
第三節 Jus Cogens之規範對象
第一項 國家行為
第二項 國際組織之行為
第三項 個人之行為
第四節 Jus Cogens之控訴機制
第一項 維也納條約法公約程序機制之分析與檢討
第一款 立法沿革
第二款 現行程序機制的檢視
第二項 國際司法體系案例實踐之分析
第一款 國際法院
第二款 國際仲裁實務
第三款 國際特別刑事法庭
第三項 小結
第五節 結語

第五章 Jus Cogens與國際法規範階層
第一節 概說
第二節 持續反對原則(Principle of the Persistent Objector)於國際法制度之運用與發展
第一項 國際法學者之觀點
第二項 國家具體實踐
第三項 國際司法實務之運用
第四項 其它
第一款 持續性(Persistent)與一致性(Consistency)的要求與判 斷
第二款 反對的實踐方式
第三款 新國家與持續反對原則
第三節 Jus Cogens與持續反對原則
第四節 Jus Cogens對國際法規範適用上之衝擊:規範位階(Hierarchies of Norms)之形成
第一項 傳統國際法中法源之適用順序
第二項 Jus Cogens引進所生之衝擊
第五節 結語

第六章 Jus Cogens與Obligations Erga Omnes之關連性及Jus Cogens之新發展趨勢

第一節 概說
第二節 Obligations Erga Omnes於國際法制度的發展及影響

第一項 Obligations Erga Omnes於國際法領域的發展脈絡剖析與前瞻
第一款 Obligations Erga Omnes概念的溯源與意涵之研析
第二款 Obligations Erga Omnes與國家責任
第二項 Jus Cogens 與Obligations Erga Omnes相互之關連性
第一款 Jus Cogens 與Obligations Erga Omnes的連繫
第二款 Actio Popularis制度的承認?
第三款 Jus Cogens、Obligations Erga Omnes與Actio Popularis

第三節 Jus Cogens新興領域之發展
第一項 國際刑法
第二項 國際環境法

第四節 區域Jus Cogens的成形

第一項 普遍性國際法秩序下的區域體系發展
第二項 美洲地區
第三項 歐洲地區

第五節 結語

第七章 Jus Cogens之回顧與前瞻-代結語
第一節 概說
第二節 傳統國際法之評述與Jus Cogens理論發展脈絡之回顧
第一項 傳統國際法之評述
第二項 Jus Cogens理論發展脈絡之回顧
第三節 現行國際法規範之檢視與分析
第一項 國際法之基本原則
第二項 人權法領域之規範
第三項 新興領域之剖析
第四節 現代國際法進一步發展值得注意之方向:Jus Cogens理念與國際法治的再對話
第五節 結語
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顏厥安,法與實踐理性,允晨文化,台北,2003年3月初版三刷。
二、期刊文章
王鐵崖,中國與國際法—歷史與當代,中國國際法學會,北京,1992年,第5至115頁。
李孟玢,論世界人權宣言之基本性質與法律效力,中正大學法學集刊,第一期,民國87年7月。
李孟玢,論國際人權法之平等原則與非歧視原則,輔仁法學,第十四期,民國84年6月。
李孟玢,外國人私有財產之公用徵收,台灣國際法季刊第一卷第三期,2004年7月。
洪德欽,歐盟對外貿易與發展協定之人權條款—規定與實踐,歐美研究,第三十四卷第一期,民國93年3月,第143至202頁。
徐克銘,論國際法之強制性,軍法專刊,第47卷第9期,民國90年9月,第21-33頁。
徐揮彥,論貿易與發展:以全球化下之世界貿易組織為中心,台灣國際法季刊,第一卷第三期,2004年7月。
葉錦鴻,美洲國家組織與國際人權法,台灣國際法季刊,第一卷第一期,2004年1月。
鄧衍森,歐洲人權公約的法制化發展,月旦法學雜誌,第四十四期,一九九一年一月,第22-34頁。
鄧衍森,法治與人權-兼論我國憲法解釋上之應用,東吳大學法律學報,第十五卷第二期,第105-163頁。
蕭淑芬,我國與日本憲法「概括性人權」保障規範之初探,經社法制論叢,第三十一期,民國九十二年元月,第71-91頁。
貳、外文部分(依字母順序)
一、書籍
American Law Institute., Restatement of the law:the foreign relations law of the United Nations (American Law Institute Publishers, St. Paul, 1987)

Allain, J., A Century of International Adjudication:The Rule of Law and its Limits (T.M.C. Asser Oress, Hague, 2000)
Aust, A., Modern Treaty Law and Practice (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000)
Austin, J.(ed. by Wilfrid E. Rumble), The Province of Jurisprudence Determined (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1995)
Bedjaoui, M. (ed), International Law: Achievements and Prospects (UNESCO Publishers, Paris, 1991)
Bos, M., A Methodology of International Law (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1984)
Brownlie, I., System of the Law of Nations:State Responsibility part I (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1983)
Brownlie, I., Principle of Public international law (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 6th ed., 2003)
Brownlie, I.(ed.), Basic Documents in International Law (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 5th ed., 2002)
Brownlie, I. and Goodwin-Gill, G. (eds.), Basic Documents on Human Rights (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 4th ed, 2002)
Brus, M.M.T.A., Third Party Dispute Settlement in an Interdependent World ( Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Drodrecht, 1995)
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, The Concept of Jus Cogens in International Law in Carnegie Endowment for International Peace(European Centre), (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Geneva, 1967).
Casanovas, O., Unity and Pluralism in Public International Law (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Hague, 2001)
Cassese, A., International law (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2001)
Cassese, A., International Law in a Divided World (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1986)
Cassese, A., Human Rights in a Changing World (Polity Press, 1990)
Cassese, A., and Weiler, J.H.H.(eds.), Change and Stability in International Law Making (De Gruyter, Berlin, 1988)
Cheng, B. and Brown, E.D. (eds.), Contemporary Problems of International Law:Eassays in honour of Georg Schwarzenberger on his eightieth birthday (Stevens & Sons Limited, London, 1988)
Crawford, J., The Creation of States in International Law (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1979)
Crawford, J., The International Law Commission’s Articles on State Responsibility: Introduction, Text and Commentaries (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2002)
Danilenko, G.M., Law-Making in the International Community (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht, 1993)
de Charles, V., Theory and reality in public international law ( Princeton University, Press Princeton, 1968)
de Hoogh, A., Obligations Erga Omnes and International Crimes:A Theoretical Inquiry into the Implementation and Enforcement of the International Responsibility of States (Kluwer Law International, Hague, 1996)
de Than, C., and Short, E. (eds.), International Criminal Law and Human Rights (Sweet &Maxwell, London, 2003)
Dixon, M., Textbook on International Law (Blackstone Press Limited, London, 4th ed, 2003)
Efraim, A.D., Sovereign (In)equality in International Organizations (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Hague, 2000)
Elias, T. O., New Horizons in International Law (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dorfrecht, 2nd ed., 1992)
Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann., Constitutional Functions and Constitutional Problems of International Economic Law (University Press, Fribourg Switzerland,1991)
Evans, M.D. (ed.), International Law, (University Press, Oxford, 2003).
Fitzmaurice, G., The Law and Procedure of the International Court of Justice (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1995)
Freeman, M.D.A., Lloyd’s Introduction to Jurisprudence (Sweet & Maxwell, London, 6th ed, 1996)
Friedmann, W., The Changing Structure of International Law (Columbia University Press, New York, 1964)
Garner, B.A.(ed.), Black’s Law Dictionary (West Group, Minnesota, 7th ed, 1999)
Goodwin-Gill, G.s., and Talmon, S. (eds.), The Reality of International Law:Eassys in Honour of Ian Brownlie(Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1999)
Gray, C.D., Judicial Remedies in International Law (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1990)
Hannikainen, L., Peremptory Norms (Jus Cogens) in International Law-Historical, Development, Criteria, Present Status (Lakimiesliiton Kustannus, Helsinki, 1988)
Harris, D.J., Cases and Materials on International Law (Sweet & Maxwell, London, 5th ed., 1998)
Hart, H.L.A., Essays in Jurisprudence and Philosophy (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1983)
Hart, H.L.A., The Concept of Law (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 2nd ed., 1994)
Herczegh, G., General Principles of Law and the International Legal Order (Akademiai Kiado, Budapest, 1969)
Hudson, M.O., World Court Reports:A collection of the judgments order and opinions of the Permanent Court of Justice (Oceana Publications, Dobbs Ferry, New York, 1969 )
Jasentuliyana, N.(ed.), Perspectives on International Law (Kluwer Law International, London, 1995)
Jennings, R. and Watts, A. (eds.), Oppenheim’s International Law (Longman Group, UK, 9th ed., 1992, reprinted in 1993)
Kamminga, M.T., Inter-State Accountability for Violations of Human Rights (University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1992)
Kelsen, H., Principles of International Law (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., New York, 2nd ed, 1966)
Kelsen, H., General theory of Norms (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1991)
Klabbers, J., The Concept of Treaty in International Law (Kluwer Law International, Hague, 1996)
Lauterpacht, H., International Law and Human Rights (Stevens & Sons Limited, London, 1950)
Malanczuk, P.(ed.), Akehurst’s Modern Introduction to International Law (Routledge, London, 7th ed. 1997)
Mann, F.A., Further Studies in International Law (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1990)
McNair, A., Law of Treaties (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1961, reissued in 1986)
Mendelson, M.H., The Formation of Customary International Law (272 Hague Recueil, 1998)
Meron, T.(ed.), Human Rights in International Law:Legal and Policy Issues (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1984)
Meron, T., Human Rights Law-Making in the United Nations:A Critique of Instruments and Process (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1986)
Meron, T., Human Rights and Humanitarian Norms as Customary (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1989)
Merrills, J.G., International Dispute Settlement (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 3rd ed., 1998)
Michalopoulos, C., Developing Countries in the WTO (Palgrave Macmillan, Houndmills, 2001)
Mosler, H., The International Society as a Legal Community (Sijthoff &Noordhoff, The Netherlands, 1980)
ORAÁ, J., Human Rights in States of Emergency in International Law (Clarendon Prss, Oxford, 1992)
Ragazzi, M., The Concept of International Obligations Erga Omnes (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1997)
Rauschning, D(ed.), The Vienna convention on the law of treaties :travaux preparatoires (Alfred Metzner Verlag GambH, Frankfurt am Main, 1978)
Rosenne, S., The Law of Treaties:A Guide to the Legislative History of the Vienna Convention (A.W. Sijthoff, Leyden, 1970).
Rosenne, S(ed.), The International Law Commission’s Draft Articles on State Responsibility:Part 1, Articles 1-35 (Kluwer Academic, Boston, 1991)
Rozakis, C.L., Thhe Concept of Jus Cogens in the Law of Treaties (North-Holland Publishing Company, Oxford, 1976)
Schachter, O., International Law in Theory and Practice (Martinus Nijhoff Publichers, Dorfrecht, 1991)
Schwarzenberger, G., International Law and Order (Stevens & Sons, London, 1971)
Shaw, M.N., International Law (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 5th ed., 2003)
Shearer, I.T.(ed.), Starke’s International Law (Butterworths, London, 11th ed, 1994)
Simma, B.(ed.), Charter of the United Nations: A Commentary (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1994)
Sinclair, I., The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (Manchester University Press, Manchester, 2nd ed., 1984)
Sunga, L, S., Individual Responsibility in International Law for Serious Human Rights Violations (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers Dordrecht, 1992)
Sunga, L. S., The Emerging System of International Criminal Law Development in Codification and Implementation (Kluwer Law International, The Hague, 1997)
Sztucki, J., Jus Cogens and the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (Springer-Verlag Wein, New York, 1974)
Thirlway, H.W.A., International Customary Law and Codification (Leiden, Sijthoff, 1972)
Tsagourias, N.K., Jurisprudence of international law: The humanitarian dimension (Manchester University Press, Manchester, 2000)
Villiger, M.E., Customary International Law and Treaties (Kluwer Law International, Hague, 2nd th , 1997)
Watts, A., The International Law Commission 1949-1998 Volume Two: The Law of Treaties PartII (Oxford University Press, New York, 1999)
Welier, J.H.H., Cassese, A. and Spinedi, M. (eds.), International Crimes of State:A Critical Analysis of the ILC’s Draft Article 19 on State Responsibility (Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York, 1989)

二、期刊文章
Abi-Saab, G., Whither the International Community?, 9 European Journal of International Law(1998)
Aceves, W.J., Actio Popularis ? The Class Action in International Law, 2003 The University of Chicago Legal Forum 353 (2003)
Ago, Positive Law and International Law, 51 American Jiurnal of International Law(1957)
Akehurst, The Hierarchy of the Sources of International Law,47 British Yearbook of International Law 273(1974/75)
Akehuurst, Custom as a Source of International Law, 47British Yearbook of International Law 1(1974/75)
Bassiouni, M. C., Accountability for International Crime and Serious Violiations of Fundamental Huamn Rights:International Crimes:Jus Cogens and Obligation Erga Omnes, 59 Law and Contemporary Problems Law and Contemporary Problems 63(1996)
Bekker, P.H.F., Reflections on the ICJ’s Oil Platform Decision: Protecting International Shipping Channels Hostilities and the oil Platforms Case: Actio Popularis Revisited?, 29 Yale Journal of International Law 323 (2004)
Bianchi, A., Italian Court of Cassation ruling on immunity from suit for damages for deportation and forced labor during World War II, 99 American Journal International Law 242 (2005)
Brown Weiss, E., What Obligation Does Our Generation Owe to The Next? An Approach to Global Environmental Responsibility:Our Right and Obligations to Future Generations for the Environment, 84 American Journal International Law 198 (1990)
Byer, M., Conceptualising the Relationship between Jus Cogens and Erga Omnes Rules, 66 Nordic Journal of International Law 211(1997)
Byer, M., Abuse of Rights: An Old Principle, A New Age, 47 McGill Law Journal 389 (2002)
Caplan, L.M., State Immunity, Human Rights, and Jus Cogens:A Critique of the Normative Hierarchy Theory, 97 American Journal of International Law741 (2003)
Cassese, A., On the Current Trend towards Criminal Prosecution and Punishment of Breaches of International Humanitarian Law, 9 European Journal of International Law(1998)
Charney, J.I., The Persistent Objector Rule and the Development of Customary International Law , 56 British Yearbook of International Law 1 (1985)
Charney, J.I., Universal International Law, 87Americal Journal of International Law 529 (1993)
Christenson, G.A., Jus Cogens:Guarding Interests Fundamental to International Society, 28 Virginia Journal of International Law 585 (1988)
Christenson, G., The World Court and Jus Cogens,81 American Journal of International Law 93 (1987)
Colson, ‘How Persistent Must the Persistent Objector Be?’, 61 Washington Law Review 957 (1986)
Czaplinski, W., Concepts of Jus Cogens and Obligations Erga Omnes in International Law in the Light of Recent Developments, 23 Polish Yearbook of International Law 87(1999)
D’Amato, A., What Obligation Does Our Generation Owe to The Next? An Approach to Global Environmental Responsibility:Do we Owe a Duty to Future Generations to Preserve the Global Environment?, 84 American Journal International Law 190 (1990)
de Hoogh, A.J.J., The Relationship between Jus Cogens, Obligations Erga Omnes and International Crimes:Peremptory Norms in Perspective,42 Austrian Journal of Public and International Law(1991)
Dupuy, P.M., International Law:Torn Between Coexistence, Cooperation and Globalization, 9 European Journal of International Law (1998)
Ford, C.A., Adjudicating Jus Cogens, 13 Wisconsin International Law Journal 145 (1994)
Gaja,G A “New” Vienna Convention on Treaties between States and International Organizations or between International Organizations: A Critical Commentary, 58 British Yearbook of International Law 253(1987)
Hannum, H., “The Status of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in National and International Law” 25 Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law 287 (1995/96)
Haopei, L., Jus Cogens and International Law, in Selected Articles form Chinese Yearbook of International Law (1983)
Higgins, R., Derogations Under Human Rights Treaties, 48 British Yearbook of International Law 281 (1976-1977)
Hoverda, F., “The Universal Declaration and Fifty Years of Human Rights” 8 Transnational Law and Contemporary Problems 429(1998)
Jennings, The International Judicial Practice of the International Court of Justice, 59 British Yearbook of International Law (1988)
Kahgan, C., Jus Cogens and the Inherent Right to Self-defense, 3 ILSA Journal of International &Comparative Law 767 (1997)
Kornicker Uhlmann, E. M., State Community Interests, Jus Cogens and Protection of the Global Enviornment: Developing Criteria for Peremptory Norms, 11 Georgetown International Enviromental Law Review 101 (1998)
Koskenniemi, M., Hierarchy in International Law:A Sketch, 8 European Journal of International Law(1997)
Koskenniemi, M., International Law:The Pull of the Mainstream, 88 Michigan Law Review 1946 (1990)
Lauterpacht, H., Codification and Development of International Law,49 American Journal of International Law 16(1955)
Levy, J.A., As Between Princz and King:Reassessing the Law of Foreign Sovereign Immunity as Applied to Jus Cogens Violators, 86 Georgetown Law Journal 2703 (1998)
Lillich, R. B., Current Development: The Paris Minimum Standards of Human Rights norms in a state of Emergency, 79 American Journal International Law 1072 (1985)
Lillich, R.B., The Growing Importance of Customary International Human Rights Law, 25 Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law 1 (1996)
Loschin, L., The Persister Objector and Customary Human Rights Law: A Proposed Analytical Framework, 2 University of California Davis Journal of International Law&Policy 147 (1996)
Mark Weisburd, A., The Emptiness of the Concept of Jus Cogens, as illustrated by The War in Bosnia-Herzegovina, 17 Michigan Journal of International Law 1 (1995)
Martin, F.F., Human Rights and the Hierarchy of International Law Sources and Norms:Delineating a Hierarchy Outline of International Law Sources and Norms, 65 Saskatchewan Law Review 333(2002)
May, L., Jus Cogens Norms and International Criminal Law, 6 yearbook of Legal Hermenutics 215(2001)
McClane, How Late in the Emergence of a Norm of Customary Law May a Persistent Objector Object?, 13 ILSA Journal of International Law (1989)
Meron, T., On a Hierarchy of International Human Rights, 80 American Journal International Law1(1986)
Meron, T., Is International Law Moving towards Criminalization?, 9 European Journal of International Law(1998)
Minagawa, T., Jus Cogens in Public International Law, 6 Hitotsubashi Journal of Law &Pplitics (1968)
Oxman, B.H., The Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea:The Eighth session (1979), 74 American Journal International Law 1(1980)
Riesenfeld, S.A., Jus Cogens and Jus Dispositivum in International Law in the Light of a Recent Decision of the German Supreme Constitutional Court, 60 American Journal of International Law 511(1966)
Rubin, A.P., Actio Popularis, Jus Cogens and Offenses Erga Omnes?, 35 New England Law Review 265(2000)
Ruda, Some of the Contributions of the International Court of Justice to the Development of International Law, 24 New York University Journal of International Law and Politics(1991)
Salcedo, J.A.C., Reflections on the Existence of a Hierarchy of Norms in International Law, 8 European Journal of International Law(1997)
Sawyer, G., The Death Penalty is Dead wrong: Jus Cogens norms and the Evolving Standard of Decency, 22 Penn State International Law Review 459 (2004)
Schwarzenberger, International Jus Cogens?, 45 Texas Law Review (1965)
Schwelb, E., Some Aspects of International Jus Cogens as Formulated by the International Law Commission, 61 American Journal of International Law 946(1967)
Shelton, D., Human Rights and the Hierarchy of International Law Sources and Norms:Hierarchy of Norms and Human Rights:of Trunps and Winners, 65 Saskatchewan Law Review 299(2002)
Shen, J., National Sovereignuty and Human Rights in a Positive Law Context, 26 Brooklyn Journal of International Law 417 (2000)
Shon, L.B., The New International Law:Protection of the Rights of Individuals rather than States, 32 American University Law Review 1 (1982)
Simma, B. and Paulus, A.L., The International Community:Facing the Challenge of Globalization, 9 European Journal of International Law(1998)
Simonen, K., Internal Conflicts and Protection of Fundamental Human Rights as an Obligations Erga Omnes, 10 Finnish Yearbook of International Law 191(1999)
Sloan , B., General Assembly Resolutions Revisited:Forty Years Latter, 58British Yearbook of International Law 39(1987)
Stein, T., The Approach of a Different Drummer: The Principle of the Persistent Objector in International Law. 26 Harvard International Law Journal 457(1985)
Steinfeld, A., Nuclear Objections:The Persistent Objector and the Legality of the Use of Nuclear Weapons, 62 Brooklyn Law Review 1635 (1996)
Stephens, P. J., A categorical approach to Human Rights claims: Jus Cogens as a limitation on enforcement?, 22 Wisconsin International Law Journal 245 (2004)
Stewart D.P., The UN Convention on Jurisdictional Immunities of States and Their Property, 99 American Journal International Law 194 (2005)
Thirlway, H. W. A., The Law and Procedure of the International Court of Justice 1960-1989, 60 British Yearbook of International Law 1(1989)
Van der Vyver, J. D., Book Review:International Justice and The International Criminal Court:Between Sovereignty and the Rule of Law, 18 Emory International Law Review 133 (2004)
Verdross, A. Forbidden Treaties in International Law, 31American Journal of International Law 571 (1937)
Verdross, A. Jus Dispositivum and Jus Cogens in International Law, 60 American Journal of International Law 55(1966)
Weil, P., Towards Relative Normativity in International Law?, 77 American Journal of International Law 413 (1983)
Weiler J.H.H. and Paulus, A.L., The Structure of Change in International Law or Is There a Hierarchy of Norms in International Law?, 8 European Journal of International Law(1997)
Weisburd, The Effect of Treaties and Other Formal International Acts On the Customary Law of Human Rights, 25 Georiga Journal of International and Comparative Law(1995/6)
Wolfke, Jus Cogens in International Law(Regulations and Prospects), 6 Polish Yearbook of International Law (1974)


三、海牙國際法學院演講稿
Alexidze, L., “Legal Nature of Jus Cogens in Contemporary International Law”, 172 Recueil des Cours, 219(1981-III)
Anand, R. P., “Sovereign Equality of States in International Law”, 197 Recueil des Cours, 9(1986-II).
Brownlie, I., “International Law at the Fiftieth Anniversary of The United Nations”, 255 Recueil des Cours 21 (1995-I)
CanÇado Trindade, A.A., “Co-existence and Co-ordination of Mechanisms of Interantional Protection of Human Rights” (at Global and Regional Levels), 202 Recueil des Cours 9-435(1987-II)
de ArÉchaga, E. J., “International Law in the Past Third of a Century”, 159 Recueil des Cours, 1(1978-I)
Fitzmaurice, G., “The General Principles of International Law:considered from the standpoint of the Rule of Law”, 2 Recueil des Cours, 1 (1957II)
Frowein, J.A., “Reactions by Not Directly Affected States to Breaches of Public International Law”, 248 Recueil des Cours, 345(1994IV)
Gaja, G., “Jus Cogens Beyond the Vienna Convention”, 172 Recueil des Cours, 271(1981III)
Graefrath, B., “Responsibility and Damages Caused:Relationship between Responsibility and Damages”, 185 Recueil des Cours, 9(1984II)
Henkin, L., “International Law:Politics, Values and Functions”, 216 Recueil des Cours, 9(1989-IV)
Lachs, M., “The Development and General Trends of International Law in Our Time”, 169 Recueil des Cours, 9(198o-IV)
Lillich, R.B., “Duties of States Regarding The Civil Rights of Allens”, 161 Recueil des Cours, 329(1978-III)
Mendelson, M.H., “The Formation of Customary International Law”, 272 Recueil des Cours, 155(1998)
Nwogugu, E.I., “Legal Problems of Foreign Investments”, 153 Recueil des Cours, 167(1976-V)
Schachter, O., “International Law in Theory and Practice”, 178 Recueil des Cours, 9(1982-V)
Simma, B., “Form Bilateralism to Community Interest in International Law”, 250 Recueil des Cours, 217(1994-VI)
Tomuschat, C., “Obligations Arising for States without or again Their Will”, 241 Recueil des Cours, 195(1993-IV)
Tunkin, G., “International Law in the International System”, 147 Recueil des Cours, 1(1975IV)
Tunkin, G., “Politics, Law and Force in the Interstate System” 219 Recueil des Cours, 227(1989-VII)
Waldock, C.H.M., “General Course on Public International Law”, 106 Recueil des Cours ,1(1962-II)
Zemanek, K., “The Legal Foundations of The International Sysyem:General Course on Public International Law”, 266 Recueil des Cours, 9(1997)

四、國際法委員會報告書

1976 Yearbook of International Law Commission
2004 Yearbook of International Law Commission
International Law Commission, Commentaries to the draft articles on Responsibility of States for internationally wrongful acts adopted by the ILC at its fifty-thirdsession(2001)
The Secretary-General’s High-level Panel. Report of the Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and change:A more secure world:Our shared responsibility, United Nations, 2004.
五、國際司法實務裁判(依年份順序)

(一)、國際常設法院(The Permanent Court of International Justice, PCIJ )
Wimbledon Case , PCIJ Reports(1923), Series A, No.1
Lotus Case, PCIJ Reports (1927), Series A, No.10
Case concerning the Payment of Various Serbian Loans Issued in France, PCIJ Reports(1929), Series A, No. 20/21
Austro-German Customs Regime Case, PCIJ Reports (1931), Series A/B, NO. 41.
Free Zones of Upperr Savoy and Distrist of Gex Case, PCIJ Reports (1932), Series A/B, No. 46.
Eastern Greenland Case, PCIJ Reports (1933), Series A/B, No.53
Oscar Chinn Case, PCIJ Report (1934), Series A/B, No. 63.
(二)、國際法院(International Court of Justice, ICJ)
Reparations for Injuries Suffered in the Service of the United Nations, ICJ Reports (1949)
Asylum Case, ICJ Reports (1950)
Advisory Opinion on Reservations to the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, ICJ Reports (1951)
Fisheries Case, ICJ Reports (1951)
Case Concerning the Application of the Convention of 1902 Governing the Guardianship of Infants, ICJ Reports (1958)
Case Concerning Right of Passage over Indian Territory, ICJ Reports (1960)
South West Africa Case, ICJ Reports (1962)
South West Africa Case (second phase), ICJ Reports (1966)
North Sea Continental Shelf Cases, ICJ Reports (1969)
Barcelona Traction Case, ICJ Reports (1970)
Legal Consequences for States of the Continued Presence of South Africa in Namibia (South west Africa) notwithstanding Security Council Resolution 276, ICJ Reports (1971)
Fisheries Jurisdiction Case, ICJ Reports (1974)
Nuclear Test Case, ICJ Reports (1974)
Western Shara Case, ICJ Reports (1975)
United States Diplomatic and Consular Staff in Tehran Case, ICJ Reporst (1980)
Advisory Opinion on Interpretation of the Agreement of 25 March 1951 between the WHO, ICJ Reports (1980)
Malta-Libya Continental Shelf Case, ICJ Reports (1985)
Nicaragua Case (merits), ICJ Reports(1986)
Eastern Timor Case, ICJ Reports(1995)
Advisory Opinion On the Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, ICJ Reports (1996)
Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide Case, Preliminary Objections, ICJ Reports (1996)
Advisory Opinion on Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, ICJ Reports (2004)
(三)、前南斯拉夫問題國際刑事法庭(International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia ,ICTY)

ICTY, Prosecutor v. Delalic et al, Case No. IT-96-21, Judgment of November 16, 1998

ICTY, Prosecutor v. Anto Furund@ija, Case No. IT-95-17/1-T, Judgment of December 10, 1998

ICTY, Prosecutor v. Kupre〔kl〕et al., Case No. IT-95-16-T, Judgmental of January 14, 2000

ICTY, Prosecutor v. Kunarac, Kǒac and Vukovic, Case No. IT-96-23-T and IT-96/23/1-T, Judgment of February 22, 2001

ICTY, Prosecutor v. Radislav Krstic, case No. IT-98-33-T, Judgment of August 02, 2001

ICTY, Prosecutor v. Milan Simić, Case No. IT-95-9/2-s, October 17, 2002

ICTY, Prosector v. Radoslaw Brdauin, Case No. IT-99-36-T, Judgment of September 1, 2004

(四)國際仲裁案例(Arbitral Tribunals)
Tinoco Concessions Case (1923)

Texaco Case , 53 International Law Reports 389(1979)

Aminoil Case , 66 International Law Reports 519(1984)

Case concerning the Determination of the Maritime Boundary between Guinea-Bissau and Senegal Guinea-Bissau (1989), 83 International Law Report

Asian Agricultrual Products Ltd (AAPL) v. The Republic of Sri Lanka, 17 Yearbook of Commercial Arbitration 106 (1992).
(五)、美洲人權法院(Inter-American Court of Human Rights, IAHR)
International-American Court of Human Rights, Aloeboetoe Et Al. Case, Reparations (Art. 63(1) American Convention on Human Rights). Judgment of September 10, 1993, Series C No. 15.
International-American Court of Human Rights, Ivcher Bronstein Case, Judgment of February 6, 2001, Series C No. 74.
International-American Court of Human Rights, The case of the Mayagna (Sumo) Awas Tingni Community, Judgment of August 31, 2001, Series C No. 79
International-American Court of Human Rights, Five Pensioners Case, Judgment of February 28, 2003, Series C No. 98
International-American Court of Human Rights, Juridical Condition and Rights of the Undocumented Migrants, Advisory Opinion OC-18/03 of September 17, 2003.
Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Myrna Mack Chang v. Guatemala Case, Judgment of November 25, 2003.
International-American Court of Human Rights, Maritza Urrutia v. Guatemala, Judgment of November 27, 2003.
International-American Court of Human Rights, Case of Caesar v. Trinidad and Tobago, Judgment of March 11, 2005.
(六)、美洲人權委員會(Inter-American Commission on Human Rights)
Resolution No. 3/87 (Case No. 9647, United States)
Michael Domingues v. United Nations, Case 12.285, Report 62/02, Annual Report of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights 2002
Shaka Sankofa Case v. United Nations, Case 11.193, Report 97/03, Annual Report of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights 2003
Douglas Christopher Thomas v. United States, Case 12.240, Report 100/03, Annual Report of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights 2003
(七)、歐洲人權法院(European Court of Human Rights, ECHR)
Golder Case (1975)
Case of Al-Adsani v. The United Kingdom (2001)

(八)歐洲共同體法院(European Court of Justice)
Case of Casta v. ENEL (1964)
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